Motoyama & Davis: Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 7th ed.

Abbreviations, Respiratory Terms, Mnemonics, Studies, Drugs, and Agencies

AAAAPSF:

American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Plastic Surgery Facilities

AAASF:

Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgical Facilities

AAAHC:

American Association for Ambulatory Health Care

AABB:

American Association of Blood Banks

AAP:

American Academy of Pediatrics

ABCs:

airway, breathing, and circulation

ABL:

allowable blood loss

ABMS:

American Board of Medical Specialties

ABS:

amniotic band syndrome

ACD:

active compression—decompression

ACh:

acetylcholine

ACE:

alcohol, chloroform, and ether

ACE:

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACLS:

advanced cardiac life support

ACT:

activated coagulation (clotting) time

ADARPEF:

French-Language Society of Pediatric Anesthesiologists

ADH:

antidiuretic hormone

ADHR:

autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets

ADP:

adenosine diphosphate

AED:

automated external defibrillator

AGA:

appropriate-for-gestational age

AHA:

American Heart Association

AHCPR:

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research

AIMS:

Australian Incident Monitoring Study

ALG:

antilymphocyte globulin

ALTE:

apparent life-threatening event(s)

AMA:

American Medical Association

AMC:

arthrogryposis multiplex congenita

AMP:

adenosine monophosphate

ANA:

antinuclear antibody

ANH:

acute isovolemic or normovolemic hemodilution

ANP:

atrial natriuretic peptide

AP:

action potential

APC:

activated protein C

APSF:

Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation

aPTT:

activated partial thromboplastin time

AQ:

acoustic quantification

αAR:

α-adrenergic receptor

ARDS:

adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome

ARF:

acute renal failure

ASA:

American Society of Anesthesiologists

ASC:

ambulatory surgery center

ASD:

atrial septal defect

ASPRS:

American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

ASTM:

American Society for Testing and Materials

ATG:

antithymocyte globulin

ATLS:

advanced trauma life support (Advanced Trauma Life Support as course name)

ATN:

acute tubular necrosis

ATP:

adenosine triphosphate

AV:

atrioventricular

AVM:

arteriovenous malformation

AVP:

L-arginine vasopressin

AVPU:

Alert, responds to Voice, responds only to Pain, Unresponsive to stimuli

AVSD:

atrioventricular septal defect

AVV:

atrioventricular valve

BAEP:

brainstem auditory evoked potential

Bi-PAP:

bilevel positive airway pressure

BIS:

bispectral index

BLS:

basic life support

BMI:

body mass index

BMP:

bone morphogenetic protein

BP:

blood pressure

BPD:

bronchopulmonary dysplasia

BSA:

body surface area

BSEP:

brainstem somatosensory evoked potential

cAMP:

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cao2:

arterial oxygen content

CaSR:

Ca2+-sensing receptor

CBF:

cerebral blood flow

CBC:

complete blood cell count

CCAM:

congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation

CCD:

cortical collecting duct

CCD:

central core disease

CCL:

cardiac cycle length

CCP:

cerebral perfusion pressure

CDC:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDH:

congenital diaphragmatic hernia

CE:

chloroform and ether

CEPOD:

Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths

cGMP:

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CHAOS:

congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

CHCT:

caffeine-halothane contracture test

CHD:

congenital heart disease

CHEOPS:

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale

CI:

cardiac index

CK:

creatinine kinase

CL:

compliance of lungs

CMAP:

compound muscle action potential

CMRo2:

cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen

CMS:

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

CMV:

cytomegalovirus

CNAP:

compound nerve action potential

CNS:

central nervous system

CO:

cardiac output

COPD:

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPA:

cuffed oropharyngeal airway

COPRA:

Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986

COX:

cyclooxygenase

CP:

cerebral palsy

CPAP:

continuous positive airway pressure

CPB:

cardiopulmonary bypass

CPD:

citrate-phosphate-dextrose

CPP:

cerebral perfusion pressure

CPR:

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPss50:

steady-state plasma concentration associated with 50% neuromuscular blockade

CrCl:

creatinine clearance

Cr-EDTA:

51Cr-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid

CRIES:

Crying Requires oxygen Increased vital signs Expression Sleep (scale)

CRNA:

certified registered nurse anesthetist

CRNP:

certified registered nurse practitioner

CRPS:

complex regional pain syndrome

CRS:

compliance of respiratory system

CSC:

caffeine-specific concentration

CSF:

cerebrospinal fluid

CT:

computed tomography

CVA:

cerebrovascular accident

CVL:

central venous catheter (line)

CVo2:

mixed venous oxygen content

CVP:

central venous pressure

CVR:

cerebrovascular resistance

CW:

compliance of chest wall

CYPs:

cytochrome P450 enzymes

DAG:

diacylglycerol

DBS:

double burst stimulation

DCA:

dichloroacetate

DCD:

donation after cardiac death

DDAVP:

desmopressin (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin)

DDH:

developmental dysplasia of the hip

DHCA:

deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

DI:

diabetes insipidus

DIC:

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DLT:

double-lumen tube

DMD:

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

DNR:

do not resuscitate

2,3-DPG:

2,3-diphosphoglycerate

DPL:

diagnostic peritoneal lavage

DRG:

dorsal respiratory group of neurons

DTPA:

gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid

EACA:

ε-aminocaproic acid

EAST:

enzyme allergosorbent test

EBV:

estimated blood volume

ECF:

extracellular fluid

ECG:

electrocardiogram, electrocardiography, electrocardiographic

ECMO:

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ED50m:

median effective dose

EDP:

end-diastolic pressure

EDRF:

endothelium-derived relaxing factor

EDV:

end-diastolic volume

EEG:

electroencephalogram, electroencephalograph, electroencephalographic

EF:

ejection fraction

EGD:

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

EGF:

epidermal growth factor

ELBW:

extremely low birth weight

EMD:

electromechanical dissociation

EMG:

electromyogram, electromyography, electromyographic

EMLA (cream):

eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, 2.5% lidocaine, and 2.5% prilocaine

EMTALA:

Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act

ENaC:

epithelial sodium specific channel

ENT:

ear, nose, and throat

ERV:

expiratory reserve volume

ESRD:

end-stage renal disease

ESS:

endoscopic sinus surgery

ESV:

end-systolic volume

ESWS:

end-systolic wall stress

ET:

endotracheal

ETC:

electron transport chain

ETT:

endotracheal tube

EXIT:

ex utero intrapartum therapy

f:

respiratory frequency

FAST:

focused abdominal sonogram for trauma

FDA:

Food and Drug Administration

FEO2:

fraction of mixed expired oxygen

FES:

fat embolism syndrome

FEV1:

forced expiratory volume at 1 second

FFA:

free fatty acids

FFP:

fresh frozen plasma

FGF:

fibroblast growth factor

FHH:

familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

FIO2:

fraction of inspired oxygen

FISH:

fluorescent in situ hybridization

FOB:

fiberoptic bronchoscope

FRC:

functional residual capacity

FS-EMG:

frequency sweep electromyogram

FSMB:

Federation of State Medical Boards

FVC:

forced vital capacity

Gaw:

airway conductance (reciprocal of Raw)

GCS:

Glasgow Coma Scale

GER:

gastroesophageal reflux

GERD:

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GFR:

glomerular filtration rate

GH:

growth hormone

GMP:

guanosine monophosphate

GP:

glycoprotein

GVHS:

graft-versus-host disease

four Hs:

Hypovolemia, Hypoxemia, Hypothermia, and Hyperkalemia

Hb:

hemoglobin

HbA:

hemoglobin A

HbA2:

hemoglobin A2

HbF:

fetal hemoglobin

HbS:

hemoglobin S

HbSA:

sickle cell trait

HbSC:

sickle cell C disease

HbA1C:

glycosylated hemoglobin

Hct:

hematocrit

HCV:

hepatitis C virus

HES:

hydroxyethyl starch

HFJV:

high-frequency jet ventilation

HFO:

high-frequency oscillatory ventilation

HFV:

high-frequency ventilation

HHPR:

hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets

HIPAA:

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

HLHS:

hypoplastic left heart syndrome

HMD:

hyaline membrane disease (IRDS)

HME:

heat and moisture exchanger

HMWK:

high-molecular-weight kininogen

HPA:

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (axis)

HPV:

hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

HR:

heart rate

HR:

hormonal resuscitation

HSR:

heat storage rate

5-HT:

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)

IAA:

interrupted aortic arch

IASP:

International Association for the Study of Pain

IC:

inspiratory capacity

ICF:

intracellular fluid

ICP:

intracranial pressure

ICROP:

International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity

ICU:

intensive care unit

ID:

internal (or inner) diameter

IFNγ:

interferon γ

IL:

interleukin

ILIH:

ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric

INM:

intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring

INR:

international normalized ratio

IOP:

intraocular pressure

IP3:

inositol triphosphate

IPPV:

intermittent positive-pressure ventilation

IRB:

institutional review board

IRDS:

idiopathic (infantile) respiratory distress syndrome

IRV:

inspiratory reserve volume

ISCs:

irreversibly sickled cells

ITP:

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

ITV:

inspiratory impedance threshold valve

IVC:

inferior vena cava

IVRA:

intravenous regional anesthesia

JCAHO:

Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

JET:

junctional ectopic tachycardia

JRA:

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

KIU:

kallikrein inactivator unit

KTP laser:

potassium (kalium) titanyl phosphate laser

LA:

left atrium, left atrial

LAGB:

laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

LBW:

low birth weight

LD50:

median lethal dose

LEAN:

lidocaine, epinephrine, atropine, and naloxone

LES:

lower esophageal sphincter

LET:

lidocaine/epinephrine/tetracaine

LFC:

lateral femoral cutaneous (nerve)

LGA:

large-for-gestational age

LHR:

lung-to-head ratio

LIM:

line-isolation monitor

LIP:

lipoid interstitial pneumonia

LMA:

laryngeal mask airway

LRI:

lower respiratory tract infection

LTA4:

leukotriene A4

LTB4:

leukotriene B4

LTC4:

leukotriene C4

LTD4:

leukotriene D4

LV:

left ventricle, left ventricular

LVAD:

left ventricular assist device

LVOT:

left ventricular outflow tract

MABL:

maximum allowable blood loss

MAC:

minimum alveolar concentration

MAP:

mean arterial blood pressure

MAST:

military antishock trousers

MBT:

mean body temperature

MCHC:

mean corpuscular hemoglobin content

MCV:

mean corpuscular volume

MDI:

metered-dose inhaler

MDMA:

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”)

MEFV:

maximum expiratory flow-volume (curve)

MEN:

multiple endocrine neoplasia (syndrome)

MEP:

motor evoked potential

MFS:

Marfan syndrome

MH:

malignant hyperthermia

MHC:

major histocompatibility

MHCPB:

moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

MHS:

malignant hyperthermia susceptible

MIBG:

meta-iodobenzylguanidine

MMC:

myelomeningocele

MMEFR:

maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (same as FEF25-75)

MMEP:

myogenic motor evoked potential

MMF:

mycophenolate mofetil

MMS:

masseter muscle spasm

MMWT:

Modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test

MODS:

multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

MPD:

maximum permissible dose

MPP:

myocardial perfusion pressure

MPS:

mucopolysaccharidosis

MRA:

magnetic resonance angiography

MRI:

magnetic resonance imaging

MST:

mean skin temperature

MSK:

median nerve evoked potential

MUF:

modified ultrafiltration

NAPA:

N-acetyl procainamide

NCHS:

National Center for Health Statistics

N-CPAP:

nasal continuous positive airway pressure

NCQA:

National Committee for Quality Assurance

Nd:YAG laser:

neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser

NEC:

necrotizing enterocolitis

NFκB:

nuclear factor-κB

NICO:

noninvasive cardiac output

NIH:

National Institutes of Health

NIPS:

Neonatal Infant Pain Scale

NIRS:

near infrared spectroscopy

NMDA:

N-methyl-D-aspartate

NMEP:

neurogenic motor evoked potential

NMJ:

neuromuscular junction

NMS:

neurolept malignant syndrome

NO:

nitric oxide

NPSF:

National Patient Safety Foundation

NPT2a:

type IIa Na+/P- electrogenic cotransporter

NPTR:

National Pediatric Trauma Registry

NSAID:

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

OCR:

oculocardiac reflex

OD:

outer diameter

OER:

oculoemetic reflex

OHRP:

Office for Human Research Protections

OI:

osteogenesis imperfecta

OIG:

Office of the Inspector General

OLT:

orthotopic liver transplantation

OPTN:

Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

ORR:

oculorespiratory reflex

OSA:

obstructive sleep apnea

OSAS:

obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

OSHA:

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OTFC:

oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate

P50:

arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) at 50% hemoglobin saturation

PA:

pulmonary artery

PA:

alveolar pressure

Pa:

arterial partial pressure of dissolved gas

PABD:

preoperative autologous blood donation

PACAD:

phased chest and abdominal compression-decompression

PACU:

postanesthesia care unit

PAE:

paradoxical air embolism

PAF:

platelet-activating factor

PAH:

para-aminohippuric acid

PAI:

plasminogen activator inhibitor

Palv:

alveolar pressure

PALS:

pediatric advanced life support

PaCO2:

arterial carbon dioxide tension

Pao:

airway opening pressure

PaO2:

arterial oxygen tension (or partial pressure)

PAPVC:

partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection

PB:

atmospheric pressure

PBF:

pulmonary blood flow

PC:

phosphatidylcholine

PCA:

postconceptional age

PCA:

patient-controlled analgesia

PCEA:

patient-controlled epidural anesthesia

PCO2:

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PCP:

phencyclidine

PCWP:

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PDA:

patent ductus arteriosus

PDPH:

postdural puncture headache

PE:

phosphatidylethanolamine

PEA:

pulseless electrical activity

PEEP:

positive end-expiratory pressure

PEFR:

peak expiratory flow rate

PEG:

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

PEmax:

maximum expiratory pressure

PET:

positron emission tomography

PETCO2:

end-tidal carbon dioxide tension

PFC:

persistent fetal circulation

PFO:

patent foramen ovale

PG:

phosphatidylglycerol

PGE1:

prostaglandin E1

PGE2:

prostaglandin E2

PGF2a:

prostaglandin F2a

PHBQ:

Posthospitalization Behavior Questionnaire

pHi:

intracellular pH

PICU:

pediatric intensive care unit

PImax:

maximum inspiratory pressure

PIP:

peak inspiratory pressure

PIVKA:

proteins induced in vitamin K's absence

PLA:

perilaryngeal airway

PMCA:

plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase

PNB:

peripheral nerve block

PO2:

partial pressure of oxygen

POCA:

Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrests (Registry)

POG:

Pediatric Oncology Group

PONV:

postoperative nausea and vomiting

POPE:

postobstructive pulmonary edema

PPHN:

persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (or newborn)

PPIA:

parental presence during induction of anesthesia

Ppl:

pleural pressure

PRA:

plasma rennin activity

PRBCs:

packed red blood cells

PRG:

pontine respiratory group of neurons

PRIMACORP:

Prophylactic Intravenous Use of Milrinone After Cardiac Operation in Pediatrics

PS:

phosphatidylserine

PS:

physical status (with ASA levels)

Pstl:

static recoil pressure of the lungs

PT:

prothrombin time

PTH:

parathyroid hormone

PTHrP:

parathyroid hormone—related peptide

PTLD:

posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease

PTT:

partial thromboplastin time

PV:

pulmonary venous pressure

PVC:

polyvinylchloride

PVC:

premature ventricular contraction

PVO2:

venous oxygen tension

PVR:

pulmonary vascular resistance

   :

pulmonary blood flow

   L R:

left-to-right shunt

   P/   S:

pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio

QA:

quality assurance

QI:

quality improvement

R:

resistance

ΔR:

viscoelastic component of Rrs

RA:

right atrium, right atrial

RAD:

reactive airways disease

RAE tube:

Ring-Adair-Elwyn endotracheal tube

RAR:

rapidly adapting (irritant) receptor

RAST:

radioallergosorbent test

Raw:

airway resistance

RBC:

red blood cell

RBF:

renal blood flow

RCM:

radiocontrast media

REM:

rapid eye movement

RF:

radiofrequency

rFVIIa:

recombinant factor VIIa

RIA:

radioimmunoassay

Rint:

resistive component of Rrs

ROP:

retinopathy of prematurity

ROSC:

return of spontaneous circulation

RPF:

renal plasma flow

Rrs:

total resistance of the respiratory system

RSD:

reflex sympathetic dystrophy

RSP:

radial nerve evoked potential

RSV:

respiratory syncytial virus

Rus:

airway resistance of upstream segment

RV:

residual volume

RV:

right ventricle, right ventricular

RVOT:

right ventricular outflow tract

RYR:

ryanodine receptor

RYR1:

type I ryanodine receptor

SaO2:

arterial SO2

SAMBA:

Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

SAR:

specific absorption rate

SAR:

slowly adapting (pulmonary stretch) receptor

SBE:

subacute bacterial endocarditis

SCD:

sickle cell disease

SCFE:

slipped capital femoral epiphysis

SCT:

sacrococcygeal teratoma

SCV:

simultaneous ventilation with compression

SEP:

somatosensory evoked potential

SET:

signal extraction technology

SFLP:

selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation

SGA:

small-for-gestational-age

SIADH:

syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

SIC:

systemic intravascular coagulation

SIDS:

sudden infant death syndrome

SIRS:

systemic inflammatory response syndrome

SLE:

systemic lupus erythematosus

SLV:

single-lung ventilation

SNGFR:

single-nephron glomerular filtration rate

SO2:

oxygen saturation of hemoglobin

SOBA:

Society for Office-Based Anesthesia

SPA:

Society for Pediatric Anesthesia

SP-A (B, C, D):

surfactant protein A (B, C, D)

SPECT:

single-photon emission computed tomography

SpO2:

SO2 measured with pulse oximetry

SR:

sarcoplasmic reticulum

SSEP:

somatosensory evoked potential

SSRI:

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSRU:

short-stay recovery unit

SV:

stroke volume

SVC:

superior vena cava

S   O2:

mixed venous oxygen saturation

SVR:

systemic vascular resistance

SVT:

supraventricular tachycardia

T3:

triiodothyronine

T4:

thyroxine

four Ts:

Tension pneumothorax, pericardial Tamponade, Thromboembolism to the lungs, and Toxins

TAC:

tetracaine/Adrenalin (epinephrine)/cocaine

TAFI:

thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor

TA-GVHD:

transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease

TAPVC:

total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

TAR syndrome:

thrombocytopenia—absent radius syndrome

TBG:

thyroid-binding globulin

TBI:

total body irradiation

TBI:

traumatic brain injury

TBSA:

total body surface area

TBW:

total body weight

TCA:

tricyclic antidepressant

TCD:

transcranial Doppler

99Tc:

technetium-99m

Tc-DTPA:

99mTc-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid

TE:

expiratory time

TEE:

transesophageal echocardiography

TEF:

tracheoesophageal fistula

TEG:

thromboelastography

TENS:

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

TF:

tissue factor

TFPI:

tissue factor pathway inhibitor

TGA:

transposition of the great arteries

TGFβ:

transforming growth factor-β

THAM:

tromethamine, or tris-[hydroxymethyl]aminomethane

THC:

tetrahydrocannabinol

TI:

inspiratory time

TI/TTOT:

respiratory duty cycle

TIVA:

total intravenous anesthesia

TLC:

total lung capacity

TmG:

maximal tubular glucose

TMJ:

temporomandibular joint

TMP:

transmembrane pressure

TNFα:

tumor necrosis factor-α

TOF:

train-of-four

TPA:

tissue plasminogen activator

TPG:

transpulmonary gradient

TPN:

total parenteral nutrition

TRALI:

transfusion-related acute lung injury

TRAP:

twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence

TSP:

tibial somatosensory evoked potential

TT:

tracheal tube

TTF-1:

thyroid-transcription factor-1

TTKG:

transtubular potassium gradient

TTOT:

total respiratory time (T1 + TE)

TTTS:

twin-twin transfusion syndrome

T-tubule:

transverse tubule

TXA2:

thromboxane A2

UCP:

uncoupling protein

UGT:

uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase

UMSS:

University of Michigan Sedation Scale

UNOS:

United Network of Organ Sharing

URI:

upper respiratory tract infection

USP:

ulnar nerve evoked potential

UW solution:

University of Wisconsin solution

   A/   :

ventilation/pulmonary perfusion ratio

   E:

minute volume (   = VT × f = VT/TI × TI/TTOT)

   max25:

maximum expiratory flow at 25% FVC (FEF75 or MEF25)

   O2:

oxygen consumption

VACTERL:

vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, and limb

VAD:

ventricular assist device

VAE:

venous air embolus

VATER:

vertebral defects, imperforate anus, tracheoesophageal fistula, radial and renal dysplasia)

VAVD:

vacuum-assist venous drainage

VC:

vital capacity

Vcf:

velocity of circumferential fiber shortening

VDR:

vitamin D (calcitriol) receptor

VE:

volume of expired gas (air)

VEP:

visual evoked potential

VF:

ventricular fibrillation

VI:

volume of inspired air (mL/min)

VIP:

vasoactive intestinal peptide

Viso   :

volume of isoflow

VLBW:

very low birth weight

VMA:

3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-vanillyl-mandelic acid

VPB:

ventricular premature beat

VRG:

ventral respiratory group of neurons

VSD:

ventricular septal defect

VSN:

vagal nerve stimulation

VT/TI:

mean inspiratory flow (neural drive)

VT:

ventricular tachycardia

VT:

tidal volume

vWF:

von Willebrand factor

WHO:

World Health Organization

XLH:

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets