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Basic and Clinical Endocrinology 7th International student edition Edition

Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Chapter 1 Introduction to Endocrinology

1,25 OHD3

1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol

25, OHD3

25-hydroxycholecalciferol

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone; corticotrophin

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

AP1

Activating protein 1

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CAR

Constitutive androstane receptor

CBG

Corticosteroid-binding globulin; transcortin

CCK

Cholecystokinin

CG

Chorionic gonadotropin

cGMP

Guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate

CGRH

Calcitonin gene-related hormone

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CS

Chorionic somatomammotropin, placental lactogen

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ER

Estrogen receptor

ERE

Estrogen response element

ERK

Extracellular signal-repeated kinase

ERR

Estrogen-related receptor

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GH

Growth hormone

GHRH

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GPR

G protein-coupled receptor

HRE

Hormone response element

IGF-I

Insulin-like growth factor-1

IGF-II

Insulin-like growth factor-2

JAK

Janus kinase

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LXR

Liver X receptor

MAO

Monoamine oxidase

MAP

Mitogen-activated protein (kinase)

MCR

Melanocortin receptor

MEN

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

MODY

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA

Messenger RNA

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

NF-κB

nuclear factor kappa B

PAS

Period gene, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, and Single-minded

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PPAR

Peroxisomal-proliferator activated receptor

PRL

Prolactin

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

RTH

Resistance to thyroid hormone

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

SHP

Short heterodimer partner

SP

Specificity protein

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

TBG

Thyroid hormone-binding globulin

T4

L-thyroxine

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TR

Thyroid hormone receptor

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyrotropin

T3

L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal pepetide

VMA

Vanillylmandelic acid

Abbreviations - Chapter 2 Hormone Synthesis & Release

ACAT

Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyl-transferase

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BIP

Immunoglobulin-binding protein

CBG

Corticosteroid-binding globulin

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

COP

Coat-associated protein

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GDP

Guanosine diphosphate

GTP

Guanosine triphosphate

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HETE

Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

HPETE

Hydroxyperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LH

Luteinizing hormone

MAO

Monoamine oxidase

M6P

Mannose-6-phosphate

NAC

Nascent chain-associated complex

NADPH

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NMDA

N-Methyl-D-aspartate

NSF

N-Ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor

POMC

Proopiomelanocortin

SCP-2

Sterol carrier protein-2

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

SNAP

Soluble NSF-attachment protein

SRP

Signal recognition particle

StAR

Steroidogenic acute regulator

TBG

Thyroid hormone-binding globulin

TGN

Trans Golgi network

TRAM

Translocating chain-associated membrane protein

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

t-SNARE

Target membrane SNAP receptor

VMA

Vanillylmandelic acid

v-SNARE

Vesicle membrane SNAP receptor

Abbreviations - Chapter 3 Mechanisms of Hormone Action

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropin

AF-1

Activator function-1

AF-2

Activator function-2

AP-1

Activator protein-1

βARK

β-Adrenergic receptor kinase

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine-3′,5′-monophosphate

CARM

Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase

CBP

CREB-binding protein

cGMP

Cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate

CNP

C-type natriuretic peptide

CREB

cAMP response element binding protein

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DBD

DNA-binding domain

DRIP

Vitamin D receptor-interacting protein

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

ER

Estrogen receptor

ERE

Estrogen response element

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FMN

Flavin mononucleotide

GAP

GTPase-activating protein

GDP

Guanosine diphosphate

GH

Growth hormone

GLUT 4

Glucose transporter type 4

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

GRB2

Growth factor receptor-bound protein-2

GRH

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

GRIP

Glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein

GSK3

Glycogen synthase kinase-3

GTF

General transcription factor

GTP

Guanosine triphosphate

HRE

Hormone response element

HSP

Heat shock protein

ID

Receptor-repressor interaction domain

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IP3

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IP4

Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakis-phosphate

JAK

Janus kinase

LBD

Ligand-binding domain

LH

Luteinizing hormone

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

MR

Mineralocorticoid receptor

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

N-Cor

Nuclear receptor corepressor

NPR

Natriuretic peptide receptor

NR

Nuclear receptor

NRTPK

Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase

P/CAF

p300/CBP-associated factor

P/CIP

p300/CBP cointegrator-associated protein

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PDK

Phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent kinase

6-PFK

6-Phosphofructokinase

PI-3K

Phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase

PIP2

Phosphoinositol bisphosphate

PIP3

Phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate

PI(3,4)P2

Phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-bisphosphate

PKA

cAMP-dependent protein kinase

PKB

Protein kinase B

PKC

Protein kinase C

PKG

cGMP-dependent protein kinase

PLCβ

Phospholipase C beta

PLCγ

Phospholipase C gamma

PLCPC

Phosphatidylcholine-selective phospholipase

POF II

RNA polymerase

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PR

Progesterone receptor

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

RAR

Retinoic acid receptor

RE

Response element

RSK

Ribosomal S6 kinase

RXR

Retinoid X receptor

SH2

Src homology domain type 2

SIE

sis-inducible element

SMRT

Silencing mediator for RXR and TR

SOS

Son-of-sevenless

SR

Steroid receptor

SRC

Steroid receptor coactivator

SRE

Serum response element

SRF

Serum response factor

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

SWI/SNF

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex

TBP

TATA-binding protein

TPA

12-O-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate

TR

Thyroid hormone receptor

TRAP

Thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein

TRE

TPA response element

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

V2

Type 2 vasopressin receptor

VDR

Vitamin D receptor

Abbreviations - Chapter 4 Endocrine Autoimmunity

AADC

Aromatic L-amino decarboxylase

ACA

Antibodies recognizing the adrenal cortex

ADCC

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity

AICD

Activation-induced cell death

AIRE

Autoimmune regulator gene

APECED

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy

APS

Autommune polyglandular syndrome

BB

Bio breeding

BCR

B cell receptor

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Ca-SR

Calcium-sensing receptor

CD

Cluster of differentiation

CTLA

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen

DPT

Diabetes Prevention Trial

FRTL

Fisher rat thyroid cell line

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GAD

Glutamic acid decarboxylase

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

IA-2

Islet cell antigen-2 (tyrosine phosphatase)

IL

Interleukin

INF

Interferon

LFA

Lymphocyte function-associated antigen

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

NK

Natural killer (cells)

NOD

Nonobese diabetic (mice)

SCA

Steroid-producing cell antibodies

SCID

Spontaneous combined immunodeficiency

TAP

Transporter associated with antigen processing

TBI

Thyrotropin binding inhibition

TCR

T cell receptor

TD

Thymus-dependent

Tg

Thyroglobulin

TI

Thymus-independent

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TPO

Thyroperoxidase

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSH-R

Thyrotropin receptor

TSI

Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin

VNTR

Variable number if tandem repeats

Abbreviations - Chapter 5 Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

bFGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CLIP

Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRHBP

CRH-binding protein

DI

Diabetes insipidus

DIDMOAD

Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness (Wolfram's syndrome)

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GAP

GnRH-associated peptide

GH

Growth hormone (somatotropin)

GHBH

Growth hormone-binding protein

GHRH

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hMG

Human menopausal gonadotropin

ICSH

Intersititial (Leydig) cell-stimulating hormone

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

LH

Luteinizing hormone

β-LPH

β-Lipotropin

MEN

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

PAS

Periodic acid-Schiff (histochemical staging reaction)

PIH

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone

POMC

Pro-opiomelanocortin

PRL

Prolactin

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

SIADH

Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Abbreviations - Chapter 6 Growth

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

BMI

Body mass index

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CRF

Corticotropin-releasing factor

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGF-R

Epidermal growth factor receptor

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FGF-R

Fibroblast growth factor receptor

GH

Growth hormone

GHBP

Growth hormone-binding protein

GHRH

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

GHRP

Growth hormone-releasing peptide

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hCS

Human chorionic somatomammotropin

hGH

Human growth hormone

IGF

Human insulin-like growth factor (somatomedin)

IGF-I

Human insulin-like growth factor 1

IGF-II

Human insulin-like growth factor 2

IGFBP

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein

IUGR

Intrauterine growth retardation or restriction

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LS

Lower segment

NCHS

National Center for Health Statistics

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

RTA

Renal tubular acidosis

RWT

Roche, Wainer, and Thissen method of height prediction

SGA

Small for gestational age

TBG

Thyroid hormone-binding globulin

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

US

Upper segment

Abbreviations - Chapter 7 The Thyroid Gland

CGRP

Calcitonin gene-related peptide

5′-DI

5′-Deiodinase

DIT

Diiodotyrosine

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

FMTC

Familial medullary thyroid cancer

FNAB

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy

FT4

Free thyroxine

FT4D

Free thyroxine by dialysis

FT4I

Free thyroxine index

GRTH

Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

hTG

Human thyroglobulin

hTR

Human thyroid hormone receptor

IP3

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

LATS

Long-acting thyroid stimulator (TSH-R Ab [stim])

MIT

Monoiodotyrosine

PBI

Protein-bound iodine

perRTH

Peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones

PIP2

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

PRTH

Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone

RAIU

Radioactive iodine uptake

RER

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

rhTSH

Recombinant human TSH

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

rT3

Reverse T3;3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine

RT4U

Resin T4 uptake

RXR-DBD

Retinoid X receptor DNA-binding domain

RXR-LBD

Retinoid X receptor ligand-binding domain

T2

Diiodothyronine

T3

3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine, liothyro-nine

T4

Tetraiodothyronine, levothyroxine

TBG

Thyroxine-binding globulin

TBII

Thyrotropin binding inhibiting immune globulin

TBP

Thyroxine-binding protein

TBPA

Thyroxine-binding prealbumin; transthyretin

Tg

Thyroglobulin

THBR

Thyroid hormone binding ratio

TPO

Thyroperoxidase

TR-DBD

T3 receptor DNA-binding domain

TRE

Thyroid hormone response element

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TRH-R

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor

TRIAC

Triiodothyroacetic acid

TR-LBD

T3 receptor ligand-binding domain

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone; thyrotropin

TSH-R

TSH receptor

TSH-RAb [block]

TSH receptor-blocking antibody

TSH-R Ab [stim]

TSH receptor-stimulating antibody

Abbreviations - Chapter 8 Metabolic Bone Disease

ADHR

Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets

AIRE

Autoimmune regulator

BMD

Bone mineral density

BMU

Basic multicellular unit

CGRP

Calcitonin gene-related peptide

DBP

Vitamin D-binding protein

DXA

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

FBHH

Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

ICMA

Immunochemiluminescent assay

IP3

Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate

IRMA

Immunoradiometric assay

MEN

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

ODF

Osteoclast differentiation factor

OPG

Osteoprotegerin

PHP

Pseudohypoparathyroidism

PIP2

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate

PPHP

Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

PTHrP

Parathyroid hormone-related protein

RANKL

Receptor activator of NF-kβ ligand

SERMS

Selective estrogen response modulators

VDR

Vitamin D receptor

VDRE

Vitamin D response element

Abbreviations - Chapter 9 Glucocorticoids & Adrenal Androgens

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

APCED

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1)

AVP

Arginine vasopressin

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CBG

Corticosteroid-binding globulin

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone acetate

DOC

Deoxycorticosterone

GH

Growth hormone

GIP

Gastrointestinal inhibitory polypeptide

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IPSS

Inferior petrosal sinus sampling

IRMA

Immunoradiometric assay

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LPH

Lipotropin

PEPCK

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PLA

Phospholipase A

PMN

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil

PNMT

Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltrans ferase

PRA

Plasma rennin activity

PRL

Prolactin

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

REM

Rapid eye movement

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

StAR

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein

TBG

Thyroxine-binding globulin

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

VLCFA

Very long chain fatty acid

Abbreviations - Chapter 10 Endocrine Hypertension

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

ARB

Angiotensin receptor blocker

BNP

Brain natriuretic peptide

CBG

Corticosteroid-binding globulin

CNP

C-type natriuretic peptide

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

DOC

Deoxycorticosterone

EDRF

Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

MRA

Magnetic resonance angiography

SGK

Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase

THE

Tetrahydrocortisone

THF

Tetrahydrocortisol

WNK

With no K (K lysine)

Abbreviations - Chapter 11 Adrenal Medulla

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CgA

Chromogramin A

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

CRH

Corticosteroid-releasing hormone

DBH

Dopamine β-hydroxylase

DHMA

Dihydroxymandelic acid

DHPG

Dihydroxphenylglycol

HPLC

High-pressure liquid chromatography

IP3

Inositol trisphosphate

MAO

Monoamine oxidase

MEN

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

MIBG

Metaiodobenzylguanidine

PGE

Prostaglandin E

PNMT

Phenylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

VMA

Vanillylmandelic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid)

Abbreviations - Chapter 12 Testes

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone acetate

DHT

Dihydrotestosterone

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

ICSI

Intracyloplasmic sperm injection

IVF

In vitro fertilization

LH

Luteinizing hormone

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

PRL

Prolactin

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

Abbreviations - Chapter 13 Female Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

AIS

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

AMH

Anti-müllerian hormone

ART

Assisted reproductive therapy

BBT

Basal body temperature

BMD

Bone mineral density

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrostenedione

DHEAS

Dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GH

Growth hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HPO

Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (axis)

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

HSD

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IGFBP

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein

IUD

Intrauterine device

IUI

Intrauterine insemination

IVF

In vitro fertilization

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LH

Luteinizing hormone

MBH

Medial basal hypothalamus

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MPA

Medroxyprogesterone acetate

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

OMI

Oocyte maturation inhibitor

PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

PG

Prostaglandin

PID

Pelvic inflammatory disease

PIT-1

Transcription factor for pituitary hormone

POF

Premature ovarian failure

PRL

Prolactin

PROP-1

Transcription factor for pituitary hormone

REM

Rapid eye movement

SERMs

Selective estrogen receptor modulators

SHBG

Sex hormone binding globulin

SRY

Sex-determining region of the Y gene

StAR

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Abbreviations - Chapter 14 Abnormalities of Sexual Determination & Differentiation

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

AHC

Adrenal hypoplasia congenita

AMH

Anti-müllerian hormone

CAH

Congential adrenal hyperplasia

CMPD1

Campomelic dysplasia

DAX1

DSS-AHC-critical region on the X chromosome gene 1

DAZ

Deleted in azoospermia

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHT

Dihydrotestosterone

DMD

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

DMRT1

Double sex Mab3-related transcription factor gene 1

DSS

Dosage-sensitive sex reversal

FISH

Fluorescent in situ hybridization

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GH

Growth hormone

GK

Glycerol kinase

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

HMG

High mobility group

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

LH

Luteinizing hormone

PAR

Pseudoautosomal region

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

SF-1

Steroidogenic factor-1

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

SOX-9

SRY-like HMG box-9

SRY

Sex-determining region Y

StAR

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein

TGF

Transforming growth factor

WAGR

Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-mental retardation syndrome

WNT4

Human homolog of drosophila wingless gene

WT-1

Wilms tumor repressor gene

XIC

X inactivation center

XIST

X-inactive specific transcripts

ZFY

Zinc finger Y

Abbreviations - Chapter 15 Puberty

ACAT

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GH

Growth hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hGH

Human growth hormone

ICMA

Immunochemiluminometric assay

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor-1

IRMA

Immunoradiometric assay

LH

Luteinizing hormone

PRL

Prolactin

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

TGF-2

Transforming growth factor-2

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

Abbreviations - Chapter 16 The Endocrinology of Pregnancy

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CBG

Corticosteroid-binding globulin

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CT

Computed tomography

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone acetate

DOC

Deoxycorticosterone

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GH

Growth hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hPL

Human placental lactogen

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

LH

Luteotropic hormone

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PRL

Prolactin

SHBG

Sex hormone-binding globulin

TBG

Thyroid hormone-binding globulin

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

TSI

Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin

Abbreviations - Chapter 17 Pancreatic Hormones Diabetes Mellitus

ADA

American Diabetes Association

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CBMW

Capillary basement membrane width

CCK

Cholecystokinin

DID-

Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus,

MOAD

optic atrophy, and neural deafness (Wolfram's syndrome)

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GAD

Glutamic acid decarboxylase

GH

Growth hormone

GI

Glycemic index

GIP

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide

GLP-1

Glucagon-like peptide 1

GLP-2

Glucagon-like peptide 2

HDL

High-density lipoprotein(s)

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

IRS-1

Insulin receptor substrate-1

MODY

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

NPH

Neutral protamine Hagedorn

PP

Pancreatic polypeptide

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

SSTR

Somatostatin receptor

UGDP

University Group Diabetes Program

UKPDS

United Kingdom Prospective Diabetic Study

VLDL

Very low density lipoprotein(s)

VNTR

Variable number of tandem repeats

Abbreviations - Chapter 19 Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism

ABCA-1

ATP binding cassette transporter A1

ACAT

Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase

Apo-

Apolipoprotein

CETP

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

FFA

Free fatty acids

HDL

High-density lipoprotein(s)

HMG-CoA

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA

IDL

Intermediate-density lipoprotein(s)

LCAT

Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein(s)

Lp(a)

Lipoprotein(a)

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

LPR

LDL receptor-related protein

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

NASH

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PLTP

Phospholipid transfer protein

PPARα

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha

SR-BI

Scavenger receptor, class B, type 1

VLDL

Very low density lipoprotein(s)

Abbreviations - Chapter 20 Obesity & Overweight

BMI

Body mass index

DRI

Dietary reference intakes

FFM

Fat-free mass

LBM

Lean body mass

REE

Resting energy expenditure

RQ

Respiratory quotient

SNS

Sympathetic nervous system

TEE

Total energy expenditure

Abbreviations - Chapter 21 Humoral Manifestations of Malignancy

APUD

Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (cell)

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GHRH

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

HTLV-1

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

POMC

Proopiomelanocortin

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

PTHrP

Parathyroid hormone-related protein

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Abbreviations - Chapter 22 Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

CT

Computed tomography

GDNF

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

GDNFR

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor

MCT

Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

MEN

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PI-3′K

Phosphatidyl inositol 3′-kinase

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

SMAD

Vertebrate homologs to C elegans Sma and drosophila Mad proteins

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor beta

ZES

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Abbreviations - Chapter 23 Geriatric Endocrinology

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

AVP

Arginine vasopressin

BMD

Bone mineral density

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

HPA

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LHRH

Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

NPH

Neutral protamine Hagedorn

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

SERMS

Selective estrogen receptor modulators

SIADH

Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

Abbreviations - Chapter 24 Endocrine Emergencies

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

ARDS

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

DIDMOAD

Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, opticatrophy deafness

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

PTHrP

Parathyroid hormone-related protein

SIADH

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Abbreviations - Chapter 25 AIDS Endocrinopathies

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

GH

Growth hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

HDL

High-density lipoproteins

HIV

Human-immunodeficiency virus

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IL

Interleukin

LDL

Low-density lipoproteins

LH

Luteinizing hormone

PRA

Plasma renin activity

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

T3

Triiodothyronine

T4

Thyroxine

TBG

Thyroxine-binding globulin

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

VLDL

Very low density lipoproteins


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