Immunology (Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Series) 2nd Edition

Abbreviations

A

Ab

Antibody

ABO

Major blood group system in humans

ADCC

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

Ag

Antigen

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

ALL

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

AML

Acute myelocytic leukemia

APC

Antigen-presenting cell

ARF

Acute rheumatic fever

ART

Antiretroviral therapy

B

B

A component of the alternative complement pathway

BA

Brucella abortus

BALT

Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

B cell

Bone marrow–derived lymphocytem

BCG

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

BCGF

B-cell growth factor, also called IL-4

BCR

Antigen-specific B-cell receptor

β2m

Beta (β)2 microglobulin

BM

Bone marrow

BTK

Bruton tyrosine kinase

B-1 cell

Self-renewing B cell population

B-2 cell

Conventional B cell

C

C

Complement

CAM

Cell adhesion molecule

CD

Cluster of differentiation, also contact dermatitis

CDR

Complementarity-determining (hypervariable) region

CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen

CFM

Chemotactic factor for macrophages

CFU

Colony-forming unit

CGD

Chronic granulomatous disease

CH

Heavy chain constant region(s) of immunoglobulin

CIITA

Major histocompatibility class II transactivator

CL

Constant region of immunoglobulin light chain

CLIP

Class II-associated invariant chain peptide

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CLP

Common lymphoid precursor

CMI

Cell-mediated immunity

CML

Cell-mediated lysis, also chronic myelocytic leukemia

COOH

Carboxyl terminus of an amino acid or protein

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CR

Complement receptor

C region

Constant region of a molecule or gene

CRP

C-reactive protein

CS

Contact sensitivity, also contact dermatitis

CSF

Colony-stimulating factor; cerebrospinal fluid

CTL

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte, also called Tc

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen-4, also known as CD 152

CVID

Common variable immune deficiency

C2, C3, C4, etc.

Component of classical or lectin-binding pathways of complement

C3R

Receptor for the third component of complement

D

D

Component of the alternative complement pathway

DAF

Decay accelerating factor

DC

Dendritic cell

DH

Delayed (-type) hypersensitivity, see also DTH

DMARD

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug

DN

Double negative, for CD4 and CD8 markers, on thymocytes

DP

Double positive, for CD4 and CD8 markers, on thymocytes and sometimes T cells

DTH

Delayed-type hypersensitivity

DTP

Diptheria-tetanus-pertussis

E

E

Effector cell in MLR or CTL assay, also Symbol for erythrocyte

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

ECF-A

Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis

EIA

Enzyme immunoassay, also called ELISA

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, also called EIA

F

Fab

Univalent antigen-binding fragment of immunoglobulin

F(ab′)2

Divalent antigen-binding fragment of immunoglobulin

FACS

Fluorescence-activated cell sorter, also called a flow cytometer

Fc

Constant or crystallizable fragment of immunoglobulin

FcR

Receptor for Fc region of immunoglobulin

Fd

Heavy chain portion of Fab fragment of immunoglobulin

FDC

Follicular dendritic cell

FIA

Fluorescent immunosorbent assay

FITC

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

FR

Framework region of antibody molecule

G

GALT

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

GEF

Guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor

GVH

Graft-versus-host

GVHD

Graft-versus-host disease

H

HA

Hemagglutinin

HAART

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

H chain

Heavy chain of antibody molecule

HDN

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

HEV

High endothelium venule

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen, human MHC

HRF

Homologous restriction factor

HSP

Heat shock protein

HTLV

Human T cell leukemia virus

HVG

Host-versus-graft

H2 or H-2

Major histocompatibility complex of the mouse

I

ICAM

Immune cell adhesion molecule

Id

Idiotype

IDDM

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

IEP

Immunoelectrophoresis

IFN

Interferon, often followed by α, β, or γ

Ig

Immunoglobulin

Ii

Invariant chain associated with MHC class II

IL

Interleukin

ITAM

Immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif

ITIM

Immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibition motif

J

JAK

Janus kinase, and sometimes, just another kinase

J chain

Joining chain of some antibody molecules

J region

Joining region of Ig and TCR genes

K

kappa (κ)

Kappa (κ) light chain of immunoglobulin

KAR

Killer activation receptor

KIR

Killer inhibition receptor

L

LAD

Leukocyte adhesion defect

LAD

Lymphocyte activating determinant

LAF

Lymphocyte activation factor

LAK

Lymphokine-activated killer

Lambda (λ)

Lambda (λ) light chain of immunoglobulin

L chain

Light chain of immunoglobulin molecule, designated as either κ or λ

LCMV

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

LD

Lymphocyte defined determinant

LFA

Leukocyte function antigen

LGL

Large granular lymphocyte

LMP

Low molecular weight proteins

LN

Lymph node

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin)

M

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

MAC

Membrane attack complex of complement

MadCam-1

Mucosal cell adhesion molecule-1

MAF

Macrophage-activating factor

MAGE

Melanoma-associated antigen (tumor antigen)

MALT

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MAP

Mitogen-activated protein

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK, also known as ERK)

MAPKK

MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK, also known as MAP2K or MEK)

MAPKKK

MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK, also known as MAP3K or MEKK)

MBL

Mannan-binding lectin, also Mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation

MCF

Macrophage chemotactic factor

MCP

Macrophage chemotactic protein

MEK

MAP kinase kinase, also known as MAP2K

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MIF

Migration inhibition factor

MIP

Macrophage inhibitory protein

MLC

Mixed lymphocyte culture

MLR

Mixed lymphocyte reaction

Mls

Minor lymphocyte-stimulating locus

N

NFAT

Nuclear factor of activated T cells

NK

Natural killer cell

NKT

T cell with NK properties

NSAID

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

P

P

Properidin

PAF

Platelet-activating factor

PALS

Periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

PAMP

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PBL

Peripheral blood leukocyte (or lymphocyte)

pCTL

Pre-cytotoxic T lymphocyte

P-K

Prausnitz-Kustner reaction

PK

Protein kinase

pMHC

Peptide bound by major histocompatibility complex (I or II) molecule

PMN

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte or neutrophil

PPD

Purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

PRR

Pattern recognition receptor

R

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

RAG

Recombination-activating gene

RAST

Radioallergosorbent test, IgE-specific ELISA

RBC

Red blood cell

RES

Reticuloendothelial system

RF

Rheumatoid factor

Rh

Rhesus, a human blood group antigen system

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

RID

Radial immunodiffusion, also called Mancini technique

S

S

Stimulator cell in the MLR or CTL assay

SC

Secretory component of IgA

SCID

Severe combined immune deficiency

SD

Serologically defined determinant

SH

Src homology domain

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SP

Single positive for CD4 or CD8 markers on thymocytes or T cells

SRS

Slow reacting substance

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

T

Tat

Transactivator of transcription, an HIV protein

TAP-1, TAP-2

Transporter associated with antigen processing

TATA

Tumor-associated transplantation antigen

Tc

Cytotoxic T cell, also called CTL

T

cell Thymus-derived lymphocyte

TCGF

T lymphocyte growth factor, also called IL-2

TCR

Antigen-specific T-cell receptor

TdT

Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

TGF

Tumor growth factor

Th

Helper T cell, designated Th1, Th2, Th17, etc.

TIL

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

TK

Tyrosine kinase

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

Treg

Regulator T cell

TRF

T cell-replacing factor

Ts

Suppressor T cell

TSA

Tumor-specific antigen(s)

TSS

Toxic shock syndrome

TSTA

Tumor-specific transplantation antigen(s)

U

UNA

Use no abbreviations, especially useful when colleagues’ speech includes an alphabet soup of jargon

V

VH

Variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain

VL

Variable region of immunoglobulin light chain

VLA

Very late antigen

V region

Variable region of a molecule or gene

W

WAS

Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome

WBC

White blood cell, leukocyte

X

X-SCID

X-linked severe combined immune deficiency

XLA

X-linked agammaglobulinemia