Medical Biochemistry

Abbreviations

Aadenine

ABCATP-bindimg cassette

ACEangiotensin-converting enzyme

acetyl-CoAacetyl coenzyme A

AChacetylcholine

ACPacyl carrier protein

ACTaseaspartate carbamoyl transferase

ACTHadrenocorticotropic hormone

ADCAIDS-dementia complex

ADHalcohol dehydrogenase

ADHantidiuretic hormone (also known as AVP)

ADPadenosine diphosphate

AEanion exchanger

AFP α-fetoprotein

AGEadvanced glycoxidation (glycation) endproduct

AHFantihemophilic factor

AICAR5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide

AIDSacquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AIR5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide

ALDHaldehyde dehydrogenase

ALPalkaline phosphatase

ALTalanine aminotransferase

AMLacute myeloblastic leukemia

AMPadenosine monophosphate

ANPatrial natriuretic peptide

APCadenomatous polyposis coli (gene)

apoA, B, etc.apolipoprotein A, B, etc.

APRTadenosine phosphoribosyl transferase

APTTactivated partial thromboplastin time

AQPaquaporin

ARDSacute respiratory distress syndrome

AREantioxidant response element

ASTaspartate aminotransferase

ATFactivation transcription factor

ATMataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene

ATPadenosine triphosphate

AVParginine-vasopressin (same as antidiuretic hormone)

AZTazido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine

Bcl-2B cell lymphoma protein 2

BMIbody mass index

BMRbasal metabolic rate

BNPbrain natriuretic peptide

bpbase pair

2,3-BPG2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

BUNblood urea nitrogen equivalent of (but not the same as) serum urea

bwbody weight

Ccytosine

CAcarbonic anhydrase

CADcaspase-dependent endonuclease

CAIRcarboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide

cAMPcyclic AMP

CATcatalase

CDcluster designation: classification system for cell surface molecules

CDGcongenital disorders of glycosylation

CDGScarbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes

CDKcyclin-dependent kinase

CDKIcyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor

CDPcytidine diphosphate

CFTRcystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

cGMPcyclic GMP

CGRPcalcitonin gene-related peptide

CMLchronic myeloid leukemia

CMPcytidine monophosphate

CNScentral nervous system

COADchronic obstructive airways disease (synonym: COPD)

COMTcatecholamine-O-methyl transferase

COPDchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (synonym: COAD)

CoQ10coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone)

COX-1cyclooxygenase-1

CKcreatine phosphokinase (also CPK)

CPKcreatine phosphokinase (also CK)

CPS I, IIcarbamoyl phosphate synthetase I, II

CPT I, IIcarnitine palmitoyl transferase I, II

CREBcAMP-response element-binding protein

CRGPcalcitonin-related gene peptide

CRHcorticotropin-releasing hormone

CRPC-reactive protein

CSFcerebrospinal fluid

CTcalcitonin

CTPcytidine triphosphate

CVSchorionic villous sampling

DAGdiacylglycerol

DCC'delete in colon carcinoma' gene

dNPsdeoxynucleotides

ddNPsdideoxynucleotides

DEAEdiethylaminoethyl

DGGEdenaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis

DHAPdihydroxyacetone phosphate

DICdisseminated intravascular coagulation

DIPF, DFPdiisopropylphosphofluoride

DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid

DNP2,4-dinitrophenol

dNTPsdeoxynucleotides triphosphates

Dol-Pdolichol phosphate

Dol-PP-GlcNAcdolichol pyrophosphate-N- acetylglucosamine

DOPAdihydroxyphenylalanine

DPPCdipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline

DVTdeep vein thrombosis

EBVEpstein–Barr virus

ECFextracellular fluid

ECMextracellular matrix

EDRFendothelium-derived relaxing factor (nitric oxide)

EDTAethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EF-1, 2elongation factor-1,2

EFAsessential fatty acids

EGFepidermal growth factor

eIF-3eukaryotic initiation factor 3

EMSAelectrophoretic mobility shift assay

ENaCepithelial sodium channel

ERendoplasmic reticulum

ERKextracellular signal-regulated kinase

ESRerythrocyte sedimentation rate

FACITfibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helices

FADflavin adenine dinucleotide

FADDa ‘death domain’ accessory protein

FADH2reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide

FAICAR5-formylaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide

FAPfamilial adenomatous polyposis

Fasapoptosis signaling molecule: a ‘death domain’ accessory protein (CD95)

FBPasefructose bisphosphatase

FDPfibrin degradation product

FGARformylglycinamide ribonucleotide

FGFfibroblast growth factor

FHHfamilial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

FMNflavin mononucleotide

FMNH2reduced flavin mononucleotide

FRAXAfragile X syndrome

Fru-1,6-BPfructose-1,6 bisphosphate

Fru-2,6-BPfructose-2,6 bisphosphate

Fru-2,6-BPasefructose-2,6 bisphosphatase

Fru-6-Pfructose-6-phosphate

FSFfibrin-stabilizing factor

FSHfollicle-stimulating hormone

Gguanine

G3PDHglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GABA γ-amino butyric acid

GAGglycosaminoglycan

Galgalactose

Gal-1-Pgalactose-1-phosphate

GalNAcN-acetylgalactosamine

GalNH2galactosamine

GAPguanosine–triphosphatase activating protein

GAPDHglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GARglycinamide ribonucleotide

GDHglutamate dehydrogenase

GDPguanosine diphosphate

GDP-Fucguanosine diphosphate-L-fucose

GDP-Manguanosine diphosphate-mannose

GFAPglial fibrillary acidic protein

γGT γ-glutamyl transferase

GHgrowth hormone

GHRHgrowth hormone-releasing hormone

GIPglucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide

GITgastrointestinal tract

GKglucokinase

Glcglucose

Glc-1-Pglucose-1-phosphate

Glc-6-Pglucose-6-phosphate

Glc-6-Paseglucose-6-phosphatase

GlcN-6-Pglucosamine-6-phosphate

GlcNAcN-acetylglucosamine

GlcNAc-1PN-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate

GlcNAc-6-PN-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate

GlcNH2glucosamine

GlcUAD-glucuronic acid

GLP-1glucagon-like peptide-1

GLUTglucose transporter (GLUT-1 to GLUT-5)

GM1monosialoganglioside 1

GMPguanosine monophosphate

GnRHgonadotropin-releasing hormone

GP1b−IXa (etc.)glycoprotein receptor 1b−IXa (etc.)

GPxglutathione peroxidase

GREglucocorticoid response element

GSHreduced glutathione

GSSGoxidized glutathione

GTPguanosine triphosphate

GTPaseguanosine triphosphatase

5-HIAA5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-HT5-hydroxytryptamine

Hbhemoglobin

HBOCHb-based oxygen carrier

HCMhypercalcemia associated with malignancy

Hcthematocrit

HDLhigh-density lipoprotein

HGF-Rhepatocyte growth factor receptor

HGPHuman Genome Project

HGPRThypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase

HIVhuman immunodeficiency virus

HLAhuman leukocyte antigen (system)

HLHhelix-loop-helix (motif)

HMGhydroxymethylglutaryl

HMWKhigh-molecular-weight kininogen

HNPCChereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

hnRNAheteronuclear ribonucleic acid

HPLChigh-performance liquid chromatography

HPThyperparathyroidism

HRThormone replacement therapy

HTGLhepatic triglyceride lipase

HTHhelix-turn-helix (motif)

ICAM-1intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1

ICFintracellular fluid

IDDMinsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (term now substituted by Type 1 diabetes mellitus)

IDLintermediate-density lipoprotein

IdUAL-iduronic acid

IEFisoelectric focusing

IFN-γ interferon-γ

Igimmunoglobulin

IGFinsulin growth factor

IGF-1insulin-like growth factor 1

ILinterleukin (IL-1 to IL-29)

IMPinosine monophosphate

Inrinitiator (nucleotide sequence of a gene)

IP1 I-1-P1, I-4-P1 (etc.)inositol monophosphates

IP2, I-1,3-P2, I-1,4-P2inositol bisphosphates

IP3, I-1,4,5-P3inositol trisphosphate

IREiron response element

IRE-BPIRE-binding protein

IRMAimmunoradiometric assay

ITAMimmunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif

ITIMimmunoreceptor tyrosine inhibition motif

JAKJanus kinase

JNKJun N-terminal kinase

Kequilibrium constant

kbkilobase

kbpkilobase pair(s)

KCCTkaolin-cephalin clotting time

KIP2cell cycle regulatory molecule

KmMichaelis constant

LACIlipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor

LCATlecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

LDHlactate dehydrogenase

LDLlow-density lipoprotein

LHluteinizing hormone

LPLlipoprotein lipase

LPSlipopolysaccharide

LRPLDL-receptor-related protein

M-CSF-Rmacrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor

malonyl-CoAmalonyl coenzyme A

Manmannose

Man-1-Pmannose-1-phosphate

Man-6-Pmannose-6-phosphate

MAOmonoamine oxidase

MAPKmitogen-activated protein kinase (a superfamily of signal-transducing kinases)

Mbmyoglobin

MCHCmean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

MCP-1monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MCVmean corpuscular volume

MDRmultidrug resistance

MEKKmitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

MEN IIAmultiple endocrine neoplasia type IIA

met-tRNAmethionyl-tRNA

MGUSmonoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance

MHCmajor histocompatibility complex

miRNAsmicro RNAs

MMPsmatrix metalloproteinases

MPOmyeloperoxidase

mRNAmessenger ribonucleic acid

MRPmultidrug resistance-associated protein

MSmass spectrometry

MSHmelanocyte-stimulating hormone

MSUDmaple syrup urine disease

MyoDmuscle cell-specific transcription factor

Na+/K+-ATPasesodium-potassium ATPase

NABQIN-acetyl benzoquinoneimine

NACN-acetylcysteine

NAD+nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized)

NADHnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)

NADP+nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (oxidized)

NADPHnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced)

NANAN-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid)

ncRNAsnoncoding RNAs

NFnuclear factor

NF-IItype II neurofibromatosis

NGFnerve growth factor

NHEsodium-hydrogen exchanger

NIDDMnoninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (term now substituted by Type 2 diabetes mellitus)

NKCC1Na-K-Cl co-transporter 1 (etc.)

NMDAN-methyl-D-aspartate

NPYneuropeptide Y

NSAIDnonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

ntnucleotide (as measure of size/length of a nucleic acid)

1,25(OH)2D31,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3

OGTToral glucose tolerance test

8-oxoG8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine

OxSoxidative stress

3-PG3-phosphoglycerate

p38RKp38-reactivating kinase

Papascal

PAphosphatidic acid

PAFplatelet-activating factor

PAGEpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PAI-1plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

PAPSphosphoadenosine phosphosulfate

PCphosphatidyl choline

PCpyruvate carboxylase

PCRpolymerase chain reaction

PDEphosphodiesterase

PDGFplatelet-derived growth factor

PDHpyruvate dehydrogenase

PDKphosphatidylinositol dependent kinase

PEphosphatidyl ethanolamine

PEPphosphoenolpyruvic acid

PEPCKphosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PF3platelet factor 3

PFK-1 (-2)phosphofructokinase 1 (2)

PGG2prostaglandin G2 (etc.)

PGKphosphoglycerate kinase

PGMphosphoglucomutase

PHHIpersistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy

PHPpseudohypoparathyroidism

Piinorganic phosphate

PI-3-Kphosphoinositide-3-kinase

PIP2/PIP3phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate/trisphosphate

PKpyruvate kinase

PKA/PKCprotein kinase A/C

PKUphenylketonuria

PLphospholipase A, etc.

PLA/PLCphospholipase A/C

PMAphorbol myristic acetate

PNSperipheral nervous system

PPARsperoxisome proliferator-activated receptors

PPiinorganic pyrophosphate

PRLprolactin

PrPprion protein

PRPP5-phosphoribosyl-α-pyrophosphate

PSphosphatidylserine

PTprothrombin time

PTAplasma thromboplastin antecedent

PTHparathyroid hormone

PTHrPparathyroid hormone-related protein

PTKprotein tyrosine kinase

PTPasephosphotyrosine phosphatase

Pypyrimidine base (in a nucleotide sequence)

Rreceptor (with qualifier, not alone)

RAIDDa ‘death domain’ accessory protein

Rbretinoblastoma protein

RBCred blood cell

RDSrespiratory distress syndrome

RERrough endoplasmic reticulum

RFLPrestriction fragment length polymorphism

RIPa ‘death domain’ accessory protein

RKKp38RK homologue of MEK

RNAribonucleic acid

RNAiRNA interference

RNAPol I/IIRNA polymerase I/II

RNRribonucleotide reductase

RNSreactive nitrogen species

ROSreactive oxygen species

SSvedberg unit

SACAIR5-aminoimidazole-4-(N-succinylocarboxamide) ribonucleotide

SAMS-adenosyl methionine

SAPKstress-activated protein kinase

SCIDSsevere combined immunodeficiency syndrome

scuPAsingle-chain urinary-type plasminogen activator

SDstandard deviation

SDSsodium dodecyl sulfate

SDS-PAGEsodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

SEKSAPK homologue of MEK

SERsmooth endoplasmic reticulum

ser-Pserine phosphate

SGLTNa+-coupled glucose symporter

SH(Figs only) steroid hormone

SH2Src-homology region-2

SIADHsyndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

siRNAssmall interfering RNAs

snRNAsmall nuclear RNA

SODsuperoxide dismutase

SPCAserum prothrombin conversion accelerator

Srca protein tyrosine kinase

SREsteroid response element

SREBPssterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP 1a, SREBP 1c)

SRPsignal recognition particle

SSCPsingle-strand conformational polymorphism

SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

STATsignal transducer and activator of transcription

SURsulfonylurea receptor

Tthymine

T3tri-iodothyronine

T4thyroxine

TAGtriacylglycerol (triglyceride)

TAPtransporter associated with antigen presentation

TBtuberculosis

TBGthyroid-binding globulin

TCAtricarboxylic acid cycle

TCTthrombin clotting time

TEGthromboelastography

TFtranscription factor (with qualifier)

TFPItissue factor pathway inhibitor

TGtriglyceride (triacylglycerol)

TGF(-β)transforming growth factor-β

TmaxKm for facilitated transport protein

TNFtumor necrosis factor

TNF-Rtumor necrosis factor receptor

tPAtissue-type plasminogen activator

TRADDa ‘death domain’ accessory protein

TRAFSa ‘death domain’ accessory protein

TRHthyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSHthyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin)

TTPthymidine triphosphate

TXA2thromboxane A2

Uuridine

UCPuncoupling protein

UDPuridine diphosphate

UDP-GalUDP-galactose

UDP-GalNAcUDP-N-acetylgalactosamine

UDP-GlcUDP-glucose

UDP-GlcNAcUDP-N-acetylglucosamine

UDP-GlcUAUDP glucuronic acid

UMPuridine monophosphate

uPAurinary-type plasminogen activator

UTRuntranslated region

UVultraviolet

VCAM-1vascular cell adhesion molecule 1

VDCCvoltage-dependent calcium channel

VIPvasoactive intestinal peptide

VLDLvery low-density lipoprotein

vWFvon Willebrand factor

WAF1cell cycle regulator

X-SCIDX-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

XMPxanthine monophosphate

XOxanthine oxidase

ZP3zona pellucida 3 glycoprotein