Pediatric Cardiology Board Review


ABG    arterial blood gas

ACE    angiotensin-converting enzyme

ADH    antidiuretic hormone

AH    atrium - His

AICD    automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator

ALCAPA    anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery

ALTE    apparent life-threatening event

AP    aortopulmonary

APV    absent pulmonary valve

ARB    angiotensin receptor blocker

ARF    acute rheumatic fever

ARVC    arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

ASD    atrial septal defect

AV    atrioventricular

AVM    arteriovenous malformation

AVSD    atrioventricular septal defect

BAS    balloon atrial septostomy

BMI    body mass index

BP    blood pressure

bpm    beats per minute

BT    Blalock–-Taussig

CBC    complete blood count

CHD    congenital heart disease

CHF    congestive heart failure

CMR    cardiac magnetic resonance

CNS    central nervous system

CP    constrictive pericarditis

CPAP    continuous positive airway pressure

CPVT    catecholamine sensitive polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

CRP    C-reactive protein

CS    coronary sinus

CT    computed tomography

CVP    central venous pressure

CW    continuous wave

CXR    chest X-ray

DBP    diastolic blood pressure

DCM    dilated cardiomyopathy

DCRV    double-chambered RV

df    degree of freedom

DKS    Damus–Kaye–-Stansel

DORV    double-outlet right ventricle

ECG    electrocardiogram

ECMO    extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

EF    ejection fraction

EFE    endomyocardial fibroelastosis

EKG    electrocardiogram

ERP    effective refractory period

ESR     erythrocyte sedimentation rate

FEV    forced expiratory volume

FiO2   fraction of inspired oxygen

FISH    fluorescence in situ hybridization

FRC    functional residual capacity

HCM    hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

HDL    high-density lipoprotein

HLHS    hypoplastic left heart syndrome

HR    heart rate

HV    His-ventricle

IAA    interrupted aortic arch

ICD    implantable cardioverter defibrillator

ICU    intensive care unit

IE    infectious endocarditis

INR    international normalized ratio

IPAH    idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

IRT    isovolumic relaxation time

IVC    inferior vena cava

IV    intravenous

IVS    interventricular septum

JET    junctional ectopic tachycardia

LA    left atrium

LAD    left anterior descending

LAO    left anterior oblique

LBBB    left bundle branch block

LCA    left coronary artery

LDL    low-density lipoprotein

LIV    left innominate vein

LLSB    left lower sternal border

LMCA    left main coronary artery

LMWH    low molecular weight heparin

LPA    left pulmonary artery

LQTS    long QT syndrome

LSVC    left superior vena cava

LUSB    left upper sternal border

LV    left ventricular

LVEDP    left ventricular end diastolic pressure

LVEDV    left ventricular end diastolic volume

LVEF    left ventricular ejection fraction

LVH    left ventricular hypertrophy

LVOT    left ventricular outflow tract

LVOTO    left ventricular outflow tract obstruction

MAPCA    major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

MDE    myocardial delayed enhancement

MPA    main pulmonary artery

MRI    magnetic resonance imaging

MVP    mitral valve prolapse

MVV    maximum voluntary ventilation

NICU    neonatal intensive care unit

NPV    negative predictive value

PA    pulmonary valve atresia or pulmonary artery

PAC    premature atrial contraction

PAH    pulmonary arterial hypertension

PAPVC    partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection

pCO2    partial pressure of CO2

PCWP     pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PEP    positive expiratory pressure

PDA    patent ductus arteriosus

PFO    patent foramen ovale

PGE    prostaglandin E

PICU    pediatric intensive care unit

PIG    peak instantaneous gradient

PJRT    permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia

PO    per os (by mouth)

PPS    peripheral pulmonary stenosis

PPV    positive predictive value

PR    pulmonary regurgitation

PRF    pulse repetition frequency

PVC    premature ventricular contraction

PVR    pulmonary vascular resistance

PW    pulsed-wave

PWP    pulmonary wedge pressure

RA    right atrium

RAP    right atrial pressure

RBBB    right bundle branch block

RBC    red blood cell

RCA    right coronary artery

RCM    restrictive cardiomyopathy

RF    rheumatic fever

RHD    rheumatic heart disease

RLSB    right lower sternal border

ROC    receiver operating characteristic

RPA    right pulmonary artery

RPCW    right pulmonary capillary wedge

RUPV    right upper pulmonary vein

RV    right ventricle

RVED    right ventricle end diastolic

RVEDP    right ventricular end diastolic pressure

RVH    right ventricular hypertrophy

RVOT    right ventricular outflow tract

RVSP    right ventricular systolic pressure

SA    sinoatrial

SBP    systolic blood pressure

SCD    sudden cardiac death

SD    standard deviation

SEM    standard error of the mean

SLE    systemic lupus erythematosus

SPAMM    spatial modulation of magnetization

SVASD    sinus venosus atrial septal defect

SVC    superior vena cava

SVR    systemic vascular resistance

SVT    supraventricular tachycardia

TAPVC    total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

TDI    tissue Doppler imaging

TEE    transesophageal echocardiography

TOF    tetralogy of Fallot

tPA    tissue plasminogen activator

TSH    thyroid-stimulating hormone

TTE    transthoracic echocardiography

TVI    time velocity integral

UVC    umbilical venous catheter

VAT    ventilatory anaerobic threshold

VEC    velocity-encoded cine

VF    ventricular fibrillation

VQ    ventilatory:perfusion

VSD    ventricular septal defect

VT    ventricular tachycardia

WPW    Wolff–Parkinson–White