Medical Physiology, 3rd Edition

Section I - Introduction

CHAPTER 1. Foundations of Physiology

Section II - Physiology of Cells and Molecules

CHAPTER 2. Functional Organization of the Cell

Structure of Biological Membranes

Function of Membrane Proteins

Cellular Organelles and the Cytoskeleton

Synthesis and Recycling of Membrane Proteins

Specialized Cell Types

References

CHAPTER 3. Signal Transduction

Mechanisms of Cellular Communication

Receptors That are Ion Channels

Receptors Coupled to G Proteins

Receptors That are Catalytic

Nuclear Receptors

References

CHAPTER 4. Regulation of Gene Expression

From Genes to Proteins

The Promoter and Regulatory Elements

Transcription Factors

Regulation of Inducible Gene Expression by Signal-Transduction Pathways

Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Post-Translational Regulation of Gene Expression

References

Glossary

CHAPTER 5. Transport of Solutes and Water

The Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids

Solute Transport Across Cell Membranes

Regulation of Intracellular Ion Concentrations

Water Transport and the Regulation of Cell Volume

Transport of Solutes and Water Across Epithelia

References

CHAPTER 6. Electrophysiology of the Cell Membrane

Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials

Electrical Model of a Cell Membrane

Molecular Physiology of Ion Channels

References

CHAPTER 7. Electrical Excitability and Action Potentials

Mechanisms of Nerve and Muscle Action Potentials

Physiology of Voltage-Gated Channels and Their Relatives

Propagation of Action Potentials

References

CHAPTER 8. Synaptic Transmission and the Neuromuscular Junction

Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission

Synaptic Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction

Toxins and Drugs Affecting Synaptic Transmission

References

CHAPTER 9. Cellular Physiology of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle

Skeletal Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Diversity among Muscles

References

Section III - The Nervous System

CHAPTER 10. Organization of the Nervous System

Cells of the Nervous System

Development of Neurons and Glial Cells

Subdivisions of the Nervous System

References

CHAPTER 11. The Neuronal Microenvironment

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Brain Extracellular Space

The Blood-Brain Barrier

Glial Cells

References

CHAPTER 12. Physiology of Neurons

Signal Conduction in Dendrites

Control of Spiking Patterns in the Soma

Axonal Conduction

References

CHAPTER 13. Synaptic Transmission in the Nervous System

Neuronal Synapses

Neurotransmitter Systems of the Brain

Fast Amino Acid–Mediated Synapses in the CNS

Plasticity of Central Synapses

References

CHAPTER 14. The Autonomic Nervous System

Organization of the Visceral Control System

Synaptic Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System

Central Nervous System Control of the Viscera

References

CHAPTER 15. Sensory Transduction

Chemoreception

Visual Transduction

Vestibular and Auditory Transduction: Hair Cells

Somatic Sensory Receptors, Proprioception, and Pain

References

Chapter 16. Circuits of the Central Nervous System

Elements of Neural Circuits

Simple, Stereotyped Responses: Spinal Reflex Circuits

Rhythmic Activity: Central Pattern Generators

Spatial Representations: Sensory and Motor Maps in the Brain

Temporal Representations: Time-Measuring Circuits

References

Section IV - The Cardiovascular System

Chapter 17. Organization of the Cardiovascular System

Elements of the Cardiovascular System

Hemodynamics

How Blood Flows

Origins of Pressure in the Circulation

How to Measure Blood Pressure, Blood Flow, and Cardiac Volumes

References

CHAPTER 18. Blood

Blood Composition

Blood Viscosity

Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis

References

Chapter 19. Arteries and Veins

Arterial Distribution and Venous Collection Systems

Elastic Properties of Blood Vessels

References

CHAPTER 20. The Microcirculation

Capillary Exchange of Solutes

Capillary Exchange of Water

Lymphatics

Regulation of the Microcirculation

References

CHAPTER 21. Cardiac Electrophysiology and the Electrocardiogram

Electrophysiology of Cardiac Cells

The Electrocardiogram

Cardiac Arrhythmias

References

Chapter 22. The Heart as a Pump

The Cardiac Cycle

Cardiac Dynamics

From Contractile Filaments to a Regulated Pump

References

CHAPTER 23. Regulation of Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output

Short-Term Regulation of Arterial Pressure

Regulation of Cardiac Output

Matching of Venous Return and Cardiac Output

Intermediate- and Long-Term Control of the Circulation

References

CHAPTER 24. Special Circulations

The Brain

The Heart

The Skeletal Muscle

The Splanchnic Organs

The Skin

References

CHAPTER 25. Integrated Control of the Cardiovascular System

Interaction among the Different Cardiovascular Control Systems

Response to Erect Posture

Responses to Acute Emotional Stress

Response to Exercise

Response to Hemorrhage

References

Section V - The Respiratory Systemp

Chapter 26. Organization of the Respiratory System

Comparative Physiology of Respiration

Organization of the Respiratory System in Humans

Lung Volumes and Capacities

References

CHAPTER 27. Mechanics of Ventilation

Static Properties of the Lung

Dynamic Properties of the Lung

References

CHAPTER 28. Acid-Base Physiology

pH and Buffers

Acid-Base Chemistry When Is the Only Buffer

Acid-Base Chemistry in the Presence of and Buffers—The Davenport Diagram

pH Regulation of Intracellular Fluid

References

Chapter 29. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood

Carriage of O2

Carriage of CO2

References

CHAPTER 30. Gas Exchange in the Lungs

Diffusion of Gases

Diffusion and Perfusion Limitations on Gas Transport

References

CHAPTER 31. Ventilation and Perfusion of the Lungs

Ventilation

Perfusion of the Lung

Matching Ventilation and Perfusion

References

Chapter 32. Control of Ventilation

Overview of the Respiratory Control System

Neurons That Control Ventilation

Generation of the Respiratory Rhythm

Chemical Control of Ventilation

Modulation of Ventilatory Control

References

Section VI - The Urinary System

CHAPTER 33. Organization of the Urinary System

Functional Anatomy of the Kidney

Main Elements of Renal Function

Measuring Renal Clearance and Transport

The Ureters and Bladder

References

Chapter 34. Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow

Glomerular Filtration

Renal Blood Flow

Control of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration

References

CHAPTER 35. Transport of Sodium and Chloride

Na+ and Cl− Transport by Different Segments of The Nephron

Na+ and Cl−, and Water Transport at the Cellular and Molecular Level

Regulation of Na+ and Cl− Transport

References

CHAPTER 36. Transport of Urea, Glucose, Phosphate, Calcium, Magnesium, and Organic Solutes

Urea

Glucose

Other Organic Solutes

Phosphate

Calcium

Magnesium

References

Chapter 37. Transport of Potassium

Potassium Balance and the Overall Renal Handling of Potassium

Potassium Transport by Different Segments of the Nephron

Potassium Transport at the Cellular and Molecular Levels

Regulation of Renal Potassium Excretion

References

Chapter 38. Urine Concentration and Dilution

Water Balance and the Overall Renal Handling of Water

Water Transport by Different Segments of the Nephron

Generation of a Hyperosmotic Medulla and Urine

Regulation by Arginine Vasopressin

References

CHAPTER 39. Transport of Acids and Bases

Acid-Base Balance and the Overall Renal Handling of Acid

Acid-Base Transport by Different Segments of the Nephron

Acid-Base Transport at the Cellular and Molecular Levels

Regulation of Renal Acid Secretion

References

CHAPTER 40. Integration of Salt and Water Balance

Control of Extracellular Fluid Volume

Control of Water Content (Extracellular Osmolality)

References

Section VII - The Gastrointestinal System

Chapter 41. Organization of the Gastrointestinal System

Overview of Digestive Processes

Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function

Gastrointestinal Motility

References

CHAPTER 42. Gastric Function

Functional Anatomy of the Stomach

Acid Secretion

Pepsinogen Secretion

Protection of the Gastric Surface Epithelium and Neutralization of Acid in the Duodenum

Filling and Emptying of the Stomach

References

Chapter 43. Pancreatic and Salivary Glands

Overview of Exocrine Gland Physiology

Pancreatic Acinar Cell

Pancreatic Duct Cell

Composition, Function, and Control of Pancreatic Secretion

Salivary Acinar Cell

Salivary Duct Cell

Composition, Function, and Control of Salivary Secretion

References

Chapter 44. Intestinal Fluid and Electrolyte Movement

Functional Anatomy

Overview of Fluid and Electrolyte Movement in the Intestines

Cellular Mechanisms of Na+ Absorption

Cellular Mechanisms of Cl− Absorption and Secretion

Cellular Mechanisms of K+ Absorption and Secretion

Regulation of Intestinal Ion Transport

References

CHAPTER 45. Nutrient Digestion and Absorption

Carbohydrate Digestion

Carbohydrate Absorption

Protein Digestion

Protein, Peptide, and Amino-Acid Absorption

Lipid Digestion

Lipid Absorption

Digestion and Absorption of Vitamins and Minerals

Nutritional Requirements

References

Chapter 46. Hepatobiliary Function

Overview of Liver Physiology

Functional Anatomy of the Liver and Biliary Tree

Uptake, Processing, and Secretion of Compounds by Hepatocytes

Bile Formation

Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids

The Liver as a Metabolic Organ

References

Section VIII - The Endocrine System

CHAPTER 47. Organization of Endocrine Control

Principles of Endocrine Function

Peptide Hormones

Amine Hormones

Steroid and Thyroid Hormones

References

CHAPTER 48. Endocrine Regulation of Growth and Body Mass

Growth Hormone

Growth-Promoting Hormones

Regulation of Body Mass

References

CHAPTER 49. The Thyroid Gland

Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones

Action of Thyroid Hormones

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

References

CHAPTER 50. The Adrenal Gland

The Adrenal Cortex: Cortisol

The Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone

The Adrenal Medulla

References

CHAPTER 51. The Endocrine Pancreas

Insulin

Glucagon

Somatostatin

References

Chapter 52. The Parathyroid Glands and Vitamin D

Calcium and Phosphate Balance

Physiology of Bone

Parathyroid Hormone

Vitamin D

Calcitonin and Other Hormones

References

CHAPTER 53. Sexual Differentiation

Genetic Aspects of Sexual Differentiation

Differentiation of the Gonads

Development of the Accessory Sex Organs

Differentiation of the External Genitalia

Endocrine and Paracrine Control of Sexual Differentiation

Puberty

References

CHAPTER 54. The Male Reproductive System

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

Testosterone

Biology of Spermatogenesis and Semen

Male Sex Act

References

CHAPTER 55. The Female Reproductive System

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Control of the Menstrual Cycle

Ovarian Steroids

The Ovarian Cycle: Folliculogenesis, Ovulation, and Formation of the Corpus Luteum

The Endometrial Cycle

Female Sex Act

Menopause

References

Chapter 56. Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Lactation

Transport of Gametes and Fertilization

Implantation of the Developing Embryo

Physiology of the Placenta

The Maternal-Placental-Fetal Unit

Response of the Mother to Pregnancy

Parturition

Lactation

References

CHAPTER 57. Fetal and Neonatal Physiology

Biology of Fetal Growth

Development and Maturation of the Cardiopulmonary System

Cardiopulmonary Adjustments at Birth

Neonatal Physiology

References

Section X - Physiology of Everyday Life

CHAPTER 58. Metabolism

Forms of Energy

Energy Balance

Energy Interconversion From Cycling between 6-Carbon and 3-Carbon Molecules

Energy Capture (Anabolism)

Energy Liberation (Catabolism)

Integrative Metabolism During Fasting

References

Chapter 59. Regulation of Body Temperature

Heat and Temperature: Advantages of Homeothermy

Modes of Heat Transfer

Active Regulation of Body Temperature by the Central Nervous System

Hypothermia, Hyperthermia, and Fever

References

CHAPTER 60. Exercise Physiology and Sports Science

Motor Units and Muscle Function

Conversion of Chemical Energy to Mechanical Work

Muscle Fatigue

Determinants of Maximal O2 Uptake and Consumption

Sweating

Endurance (Aerobic) Training

References

CHAPTER 61. Environmental Physiology

The Environment

Diving Physiology

High-Altitude Physiology

Flight and Space Physiology

References

CHAPTER 62. The Physiology of Aging

Concepts in Aging

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Aging

Aging of the Human Physiological Systems

Aging Slowly

References