Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART I

Clinical Decision Making

1

Evaluation of the Urologic Patient

History, Physical Examination, and Urinalysis

Glenn S. Gerber; Charles B. Brendler

Questions

  1. Pain associated with a stone in the ureter is the result of:
  2. obstruction of urine flow with distention of the renal capsule.
  3. irritation of the ureteral mucosa by the stone.
  4. excessive ureteral peristalsis in response to the obstructing stone.
  5. irritation of the intramural ureter.
  6. urinary extravasation from a ruptured calyceal fornix.
  7. The most common cause of gross hematuria in a patient older than 50 years is:
  8. renal calculi.
  9. infection.
  10. bladder cancer.
  11. benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  12. trauma.
  13. The most common cause of pain associated with gross hematuria is:
  14. simultaneous passage of a kidney stone.
  15. ureteral obstruction due to blood clots.
  16. urinary tract malignancy.
  17. prostatic inflammation.
  18. prostatic enlargement.
  19. All of the following are typical lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia EXCEPT:
  20. urgency.
  21. frequency.
  22. nocturia.
  23. dysuria.
  24. weak urinary stream.
  25. The most likely cause of continuous incontinence (loss of urine at all times and in all positions) is:
  26. enterovesical fistula.
  27. noncompliant bladder.
  28. detrusor hyperreflexia.
  29. vesicovaginal fistula.
  30. sphincteric incompetence.
  31. All of the following are potential causes of anejaculation EXCEPT:
  32. sympathetic denervation.
  33. pharmacologic agents.
  34. bladder neck and prostatic surgery.
  35. androgen deficiency.
  36. cerebrovascular accidents.
  37. What percentage of patients with multiple sclerosis will present with urinary symptoms as the first manifestation of the disease?
  38. 1%
  39. 5%
  40. 10%
  41. 15%
  42. 20%
  43. What important information is gained from pelvic bimanual examination that cannot be obtained from radiologic evaluation?
  44. Presence of bladder mass
  45. Invasion of bladder cancer into perivesical fat
  46. Presence of bladder calculi
  47. Presence of associated pathologic lesion in female adnexal structures
  48. Mobility/fixation of pelvic organs
  49. With which of the following diseases is priapism most commonly associated?
  50. Peyronie disease
  51. Sickle cell anemia
  52. Parkinson disease
  53. Organic depression
  54. Leukemia
  55. What is the most common cause of cloudy urine?
  56. Bacterial cystitis
  57. Urine overgrowth with yeast
  58. Phosphaturia
  59. Alkaline urine
  60. Significant proteinuria
  61. Conditions that decrease urine specific gravity include all of the following EXCEPT:
  62. increased fluid intake.
  63. use of diuretics.
  64. decreased renal concentrating ability.
  65. dehydration.
  66. diabetes insipidus.
  67. Urine osmolality usually varies between:
  68. 10 and 200 mOsm/L.
  69. 50 and 500 mOsm/L.
  70. 50 and 1200 mOsm/L.
  71. 100 and 1000 mOsm/L.
  72. 100 and 1500 mOsm/L.
  73. Elevated ascorbic acid levels in the urine may lead to false-negative results on a urine dipstick test for:
  74. glucose.
  75. hemoglobin.
  76. myoglobin.
  77. red blood cells.
  78. leukocytes.
  79. Hematuria is distinguished from hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria by:
  80. dipstick testing.
  81. the simultaneous presence of significant leukocytes.
  82. microscopic presence of erythrocytes.
  83. examination of serum.
  84. evaluation of hematocrit.
  85. The presence of one positive dipstick reading for hematuria is associated with significant urologic pathologic findings on subsequent testing in what percentage of patients?
  86. 2%
  87. 10%
  88. 25%
  89. 50%
  90. 75%
  91. The most common cause of glomerular hematuria is:
  92. transitional cell carcinoma.
  93. nephritic syndrome.
  94. Berger disease (immunoglobulin A nephropathy).
  95. poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
  96. Goodpasture syndrome.
  97. The most common cause of proteinuria is:
  98. Fanconi syndrome.
  99. excessive glomerular permeability due to primary glomerular disease.
  100. failure of adequate tubular reabsorption.
  101. overflow proteinuria due to increased plasma concentration of immunoglobulins.
  102. diabetes.
  103. Transient proteinuria may be due to all of the following EXCEPT:
  104. exercise.
  105. fever.
  106. emotional stress.
  107. congestive heart failure.
  108. ureteroscopy.
  109. Glucose will be detected in the urine when the serum level is above:
  110. 75 mg/dL.
  111. 100 mg/dL.
  112. 150 mg/dL.
  113. 180 mg/dL.
  114. 225 mg/dL.
  115. The specificity of dipstick nitrite testing for bacteriuria is:
  116. 20%.
  117. 40%.
  118. 60%.
  119. 80%.
  120. > 90%.
  121. All of the following are microscopic features of squamous epithelial cells EXCEPT:
  122. large size.
  123. small central nucleus.
  124. irregular cytoplasm.
  125. presence in clumps.
  126. fine granularity in the cytoplasm.
  127. The number of bacteria per high-power microscopic field that corresponds to colony counts of 100,000/mL is:
  128. 1.
  129. 3.
  130. 5.
  131. 10.
  132. 20.
  133. Pain in the flaccid penis is usually due to:
  134. Peyronie disease.
  135. bladder or urethral inflammation.
  136. priapism.
  137. calculi impacted in the distal ureter.
  138. hydrocele.
  139. Chronic scrotal pain is most often due to:
  140. testicular torsion.
  141. trauma.
  142. cryptorchidism.
  143. hydrocele.
  144. orchitis.
  145. Terminal hematuria (at the end of the urinary stream) is usually due to:
  146. bladder neck or prostatic inflammation.
  147. bladder cancer.
  148. kidney stones.
  149. bladder calculi.
  150. urethral stricture disease.
  151. Enuresis is present in what percentage of children at age 5 years?
  152. 5%
  153. 15%
  154. 25%
  155. 50%
  156. 75%
  157. All of the following in the medical history suggest that erectile dysfunction is more likely due to organic rather than psychogenic causes EXCEPT:
  158. sudden onset.
  159. peripheral vascular disease.
  160. absence of nocturnal erections.
  161. diabetes mellitus.
  162. inability to achieve adequate erections in a variety of circumstances.
  163. All of the following should be routinely performed in men with hematospermia EXCEPT:
  164. cystoscopy.
  165. digital rectal examination.
  166. serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.
  167. genital examination.
  168. urinalysis.
  169. Pneumaturia may be due to all of the following EXCEPT:
  170. diverticulitis.
  171. colon cancer.
  172. recent urinary tract instrumentation.
  173. inflammatory bowel disease.
  174. ectopic ureter.
  175. Which of the following disorders may commonly lead to irritative voiding symptoms?
  176. Parkinson disease
  177. Renal cell carcinoma
  178. Bladder diverticula
  179. Prostate cancer
  180. Testicular torsion

Answers

  1. a. Obstruction of urine flow with distention of the renal capsule.Pain is usually caused by acute distention of the renal capsule, usually from inflammation or obstruction.
  2. c. Bladder cancer.The most common cause of gross hematuria in a patient older than age 50 is bladder cancer.
  3. b. Ureteral obstruction due to blood clots.Pain in association with hematuria usually results from upper urinary tract hematuria with obstruction of the ureters with clots.
  4. d. Dysuria.Dysuria is painful urination that is usually caused by inflammation.
  5. d. Vesicovaginal fistula. Continuous incontinence is most commonly due to a urinary tract fistula that bypasses the urethral sphincter or an ectopic ureter.
  6. e. Cerebrovascular accidents.Anejaculation may result from several causes: (1) androgen deficiency, (2) sympathetic denervation, (3) pharmacologic agents, and (4) bladder neck and prostatic surgery.
  7. b. 5%.In fact, 5% of patients with previously undiagnosed multiple sclerosis present with urinary symptoms as the first manifestation of the disease.
  8. e. Mobility/fixation of pelvic organs.In addition to defining areas of induration, the bimanual examination allows the examiner to assess the mobility of the bladder; such information cannot be obtained by radiologic techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which convey static images.
  9. b. Sickle cell anemia. Priapism occurs most commonly in patients with sickle cell disease but can also occur in those with advanced malignancy, coagulation disorders, and pulmonary disease, as well as in many patients without an obvious cause.
  10. c. Phosphaturia.Cloudy urine is most commonly caused by phosphates in the urine.
  11. d. Dehydration.Conditions that decrease specific gravity include (1) increased fluid intake, (2) diuretics, (3) decreased renal concentrating ability, and (4) diabetes insipidus.
  12. c. 50 and 1200 mOsm/L.Osmolality is a measure of the amount of solutes dissolved in the urine and usually varies between 50 and 1200 mOsm/L.
  13. a. GlucoseFalse-negative results for glucose and bilirubin may be seen in the presence of elevated ascorbic acid concentrations in the urine.
  14. c. Microscopic presence of erythrocytes.Hematuria can be distinguished from hemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria by microscopic examination of the centrifuged urine; the presence of a large number of erythrocytes establishes the diagnosis of hematuria.
  15. c. 25%.Investigators at the University of Wisconsin found that 26% of adults who had at least one positive dipstick reading for hematuria were subsequently found to have significant urologic pathologic findings.
  16. c. Berger disease (immunoglobulin A [IgA] nephropathy).IgA nephropathy, or Berger disease, is the most common cause of glomerular hematuria, accounting for about 30% of cases.
  17. b. Excessive glomerular permeability due to primary glomerular disease. Glomerular proteinuria is the most common type of proteinuria and results from increased glomerular capillary permeability to protein, especially albumin. Glomerular proteinuria occurs in any of the primary glomerular diseases such as IgA nephropathy or in glomerulopathy associated with systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus.
  18. e. Ureteroscopy.Transient proteinuria occurs commonly, especially in the pediatric population, and usually resolves spontaneously within a few days. It may result from fever, exercise, or emotional stress. In older patients, transient proteinuria may be due to congestive heart failure.
  19. d. 180 mg/dL.This so-called renal threshold corresponds to a serum glucose level of about 180 mg/dL; above this level, glucose will be detected in the urine.
  20. e. > 90%.The specificity of the nitrite dipstick test for detecting bacteriuria is greater than 90%.
  21. d. Presence in clumps.Squamous epithelial cells are large, have a central small nucleus about the size of an erythrocyte, and have an irregular cytoplasm with fine granularity.
  22. c. 5. Therefore 5 bacteria per high-power field in a spun specimen reflect colony counts of about 100,000/mL.
  23. b. Bladder or urethral inflammation.Pain in the flaccid penis is usually secondary to inflammation in the bladder or urethra, with referred pain that is experienced maximally at the urethral meatus.
  24. d. Hydrocele.Chronic scrotal pain is usually related to noninflammatory conditions such as a hydrocele or varicocele, and the pain is usually characterized as a dull, heavy sensation that does not radiate.
  25. a. Bladder neck or prostatic inflammation.Terminal hematuria occurs at the end of micturition and is usually secondary to inflammation in the area of the bladder neck or prostatic urethra.
  26. b. 15%.Enuresis refers to urinary incontinence that occurs during sleep. It occurs normally in children as old as 3 years but persists in about 15% of children at age 5 and about 1% of children at age 15.
  27. a. Sudden onset.A careful history will often determine whether the problem is primarily psychogenic or organic. In men with psychogenic impotence, the condition frequently develops rather quickly, secondary to a precipitating event such as marital stress or change or loss of a sexual partner.
  28. a. Cystoscopy.A genital and rectal examination should be done to exclude the presence of tuberculosis, a PSA assessment and digital rectal examination should be done to exclude prostatic carcinoma, and a urinary cytologic assessment should be done to exclude the possibility of transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate.
  29. e. Ectopic ureter.Pneumaturia is the passage of gas in the urine. In patients who have not recently had urinary tract instrumentation or a urethral catheter placed, this is almost always due to a fistula between the intestine and bladder. Common causes include diverticulitis, carcinoma of the sigmoid colon, and regional enteritis (Crohn disease).
  30. a. Parkinson disease. The second important example of nonspecific lower urinary tract symptoms that may occur secondary to a variety of neurologic conditions is irritative symptoms resulting from neurologic disease such as cerebrovascular accident, diabetes mellitus, or Parkinson disease.

Chapter review

  1. See Table 1-1 in Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th editionfor the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).
  2. IPSS score: 0 to 7 mild symptoms, 8 to 19 moderate symptoms, 20 to 35 severe symptoms.
  3. Renal pain radiates from the flank anteriorly to the respective lower quadrant and may be referred to the testis, labium, or medial aspect of the thigh. The pain is colicky (fluctuates). It may be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms due to reflex stimulation of the celiac ganglion.
  4. Patients with slowly progressive urinary obstruction with bladder distention often have no pain, despite residual volumes in excess of a liter.
  5. Pain of prostatic origin is poorly localized.
  6. Scrotal pain may be primary or referred. Pain referred to the testicle originates in the retroperitoneum, ureter, or kidney.
  7. Hematuria, particularly in adults, should be regarded as a symptom of malignancy until proven otherwise.
  8. Adults normally arise no more than twice a night to void. Urine production increases at night (recumbent position) in older patients and those with cardiac disease, particularly congestive heart failure (CHF).
  9. Postvoid dribbling: Urine escapes into the bulbar urethra and then leaks at the end of micturition. This may be alleviated by perineal pressure following voiding.
  10. Those who present with microscopic hematuria and irritative voiding symptoms should be suspected of having carcinoma in situ of the bladder until proven otherwise.
  11. Continuous incontinence is most commonly due to ectopic ureter, urinary tract fistula, or totally incompetent sphincter.
  12. Hematospermia almost always resolves spontaneously and is rarely associated with any significant urologic pathology.
  13. When urinary obstruction is associated with fever and chills, it should be regarded as a urologic emergency.
  14. It is always worthwhile to obtain the previous operative report in patients who are to be operated on.
  15. If the patient is uncircumcised, the foreskin must be retracted for inspection of the glans.
  16. The testes are normally 6 cm in length and 4 cm in width.
  17. If one obtains a stool guaiac test (hemoccult) as a screen for colon cancer, two subsequent stool specimens must be obtained for an adequate test. If the hemoccult is positive, the patient should be on a red meat–free diet for 3 days before collection of three specimens.
  18. A male urologist should always perform a female pelvic examination with a female nurse in attendance.
  19. The bulbocavernosus reflex tests the integrity of this spinal cord reflex involving S2 to S4.
  20. A positive dipstick for blood in the urine indicates hematuria, hemoglobinuria, or myoglobinuria. Hematuria is distinguished from hemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria by microscopic examination of the centrifuged urine and identification of red blood cells (more than three red blood cells per high-power field is abnormal).
  21. Hematuria of nephrologic origin is frequently associated with proteinuria and dysmorphic erythrocytes.
  22. Anticoagulation at normal therapeutic levels does not predispose patients to hematuria.
  23. The most accurate method to diagnosis urinary tract infection is by microscopic examination of the urine and identifying pyuria and bacteria. This is confirmed by urine culture.
  24. The chief complaint is the focus of the visit and is the reason the patient seeks consultation. It should be the lead sentence in the History and Physical (H&P).
  25. A family history should always include questions about renal and prostate cancer, renal cysts, and stone disease.
  26. Priapism occurs most commonly in patients with sickle cell disease but can also occur in those with advanced malignancy, coagulation disorders, or pulmonary disease, as well as in many patients without an obvious cause.
  27. On urine dipstick, false-negative results for glucose and bilirubin may be seen in the presence of elevated ascorbic acid concentrations in the urine.
  28. Glomerular proteinuria is the most common type of proteinuria and results from increased glomerular capillary permeability to protein, especially albumin. Glomerular proteinuria occurs in any of the primary glomerular diseases such as IgA nephropathy or in glomerulopathy associated with systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus.
  29. Five bacteria per high-power field in a spun specimen reflect colony counts of about 100,000/mL.
  30. An important example of nonspecific lower urinary tract symptoms that may occur secondary to a variety of neurologic conditions is irritative symptoms resulting from neurologic disease such as cerebrovascular accident, diabetes mellitus, and Parkinson disease.
  31. The renal threshold for glucose corresponds to a serum glucose level of about 180 mg/dL; above this level, glucose will be detected in the urine.