Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART V

Reproductive and Sexual Function

27

Evaluation and Management of Erectile Dysfunction

Arthur L. Burnett, II

Questions

  1. The best predictor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED) is:
  2. young age.
  3. higher education.
  4. underweight status.
  5. passive cigarette smoke exposure.
  6. prediabetes.
  7. "Goal-directed management" is justified in the modern management of ED because of:
  8. availability of etiology-specific diagnostic testing.
  9. availability of increasingly invasive therapies.
  10. availability of irreversible therapies.
  11. central role of the clinician in directing proper treatment.
  12. acceptance of treatment preferences by patient and partner.
  13. The risk association of ED with cardiovascular events:
  14. has not been established.
  15. is established unidirectionally to inform ED risk.
  16. is established unidirectionally to inform cardiovascular disease risk.
  17. is established bidirectionally to inform ED and cardiovascular disease risks.
  18. is established in conjunction with carcinogenesis risk.
  19. Recommendations for lifestyle modification for the patient with ED requires:
  20. stratification of cardiovascular risk.
  21. determination of high and moderate cardiovascular disease risk.
  22. cardiologic workup with diagnostic stress testing standardly.
  23. cardiologic medical treatment.
  24. basic medical assessment and health monitoring.
  25. The characteristic that is typically associated with "organic" ED, in contrast with "psychogenic" ED, is:
  26. sudden loss of erections.
  27. situational erectile difficulty.
  28. erection responses on awakening.
  29. gradual decline in erectile ability.
  30. existence of an interpersonal relationship factor.
  31. Self-administered ED questionnaires serve to:
  32. document responsiveness to treatment of ED.
  33. define the etiology of ED.
  34. indicate the objective severity of ED.
  35. distinguish the systemic type of ED (e.g., vascular, neurologic, endocrinologic).
  36. evaluate ED in research settings alone.
  37. The best rationale for using specialized diagnostic testing is:
  38. to assess complex ED clinical presentations.
  39. as a requirement to direct ED treatment decisions.
  40. to ascertain a specific diagnosis underlying the ED presentation.
  41. to determine ED causation.
  42. to apply Grade A level evidence-based ED diagnostic tools.
  43. Duplex ultrasonography of the penis is a reliable diagnostic test when:
  44. combining pharmacostimulation.
  45. assessing intrapenile vascular communications.
  46. combining intracavernous pressure measurements.
  47. assessing penile and suprapubic penile flow velocities.
  48. indexing results to brachial systolic blood pressures.
  49. A vascular test required for a patient under consideration for penile revascularization surgery is:
  50. combined intracavernosal injection and stimulation.
  51. duplex ultrasonography.
  52. dynamic infusion cavernosometry and cavernosography.
  53. penile angiography.
  54. radioisotopic penography.
  55. Increased sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) is associated with:
  56. elevated bioavailable testosterone.
  57. lowered bioavailable testosterone.
  58. unaltered bioavailable testosterone.
  59. elevated total testosterone.
  60. lowered total testosterone.
  61. The efficacy of testosterone therapy is best judged by:
  62. restored diurnal pattern of hormone levels.
  63. normal reference range serum testosterone level.
  64. midrange serum testosterone level.
  65. normal score using hypogonadism questionnaires.
  66. hypogonadism symptomatic improvement.
  67. At the penile tissue level, a pharmacologic mechanism to promote penile erection is via the promoting actions of:
  68. cyclic nucleotides.
  69. phosphodiesterases.
  70. α1adrenergic agonists.
  71. dopaminergic D2receptor agonists.
  72. serotonergic receptor antagonists.
  73. Intracavernosal pharmacotherapy is contraindicated for a patient with a clinical history of:
  74. neurological condition.
  75. cardiovascular disease.
  76. diabetes.
  77. priapism.
  78. anticoagulant use.
  79. An advantage of alprostadil among pharmacologic agents for intracavernosal pharmacotherapy is:
  80. lower incidence of prolonged erection.
  81. lower incidence of painful erection.
  82. lower cost.
  83. long-term half-life once reconstituted.
  84. role in combination therapy.
  85. The vacuum erection device is most advantageous for ED associated with:
  86. veno-occlusive dysfunction.
  87. glanular insufficiency.
  88. postpriapism.
  89. postexplantation of a penile prosthesis.
  90. Peyronie disease.
  91. In patients with ED, the vascular lesion addressed by arterial revascularization surgery is:
  92. internal pudendal artery stenosis.
  93. penile dorsal artery stenosis.
  94. cavernosal artery stenosis.
  95. penile deep dorsal venous incompetence.
  96. internal pudendal venous incompetence.

Answers

  1. d. Passive cigarette smoke exposure. Predictors for the development of ED include older age, lower education, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (such as hypertension and stroke), cigarette smoke exposure (active and passive), and overweight condition.
  2. e. Acceptance of treatment preferences by patient and partner.Goal-directed management serves to allow the patient or couple to make an informed selection of the preferred therapy for sexual fulfillment on understanding all treatment options after completing a thorough discussion with the treating clinician.
  3. d. Is established bidirectionally to inform ED and cardiovascular disease risks. Epidemiologic studies have documented a bidirectional risk relationship for ED and cardiovascular disease.This bidirectional paradigm carries ramifications with regard to overall male health status.
  4. e. Basic medical assessment and health monitoring.All patients presenting for ED management carry some level of cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity and improved weight control apply to all patients in accordance with a full medical assessment and regular health monitoring.
  5. d. Gradual decline in erectile ability. "Organic" ED typically is characterized by a gradual onset of the problem, along with incremental progression, global dysfunction, and poor/absent erections on awakening.
  6. a. Document responsiveness to treatment of ED.Self-administered ED questionnaires have served to document the presence, subjective severity, and responsiveness of treatment of ED in both clinical and research settings. They do not distinguish an etiologic basis for ED, differentiate among various causes of ED, or indicate an objective severity of ED.
  7. a. To assess complex ED clinical presentations.Specialized diagnostic testing offers to improve diagnostic accuracy, but it is not a standard requirement to proceed therapeutically. Its best role at this time applies to the ED specialist who may elect certain tests to be done in settings of complex clinical presentations.
  8. a. Combining pharmacostimulation.The combination of pharmacostimulation or combined intracavernosal injection and stimulation to duplex ultrasonography validates the imaging component of this test by establishing hemodynamic properties of a functionally relevant erection response. The quantification of blood flow in the penis applies to the main vascular tributaries and includes the entire penis from the crura in the perineum to the tip.
  9. d. Penile angiography.Definition of the anatomy and radiographic appearance of the iliac, internal pudendal, and penile arteries by penile angiography is necessary in order to perform penile revascularization surgery.
  10. b. Lowered bioavailable testosterone.Bioavailable testosterone can be affected to some extent by alterations in the SHBG fraction in serum associated with factors that increase SHBG, thereby accounting for a decrease in bioavailable testosterone.
  11. e. Hypogonadism symptomatic improvement.The objective of testosterone therapy for hypogonadism is symptomatic improvement. The efficacy is not judged by a precise testosterone determination, although standard practice is to provide therapy at a normative serum testosterone level.
  12. a. Cyclic nucleotides. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate act to promote proerectile molecular mechanisms resulting in corporal smooth muscle relaxation.
  13. d. Priapism. Intracavernosal pharmacotherapy is contraindicated for men with psychological instability, a history or risk for priapism, histories of severe coagulopathy or unstable cardiovascular disease, reduced manual dexterity, and use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
  14. a. Lower incidence of prolonged erection. Perceived advantages of alprostadil for intracavernosal pharmacotherapy relative to other agents are lower incidences of prolonged erection, systemic side effects, and penile fibrosis. Disadvantages include a higher incidence of painful erection, higher cost, and shortened half-life once reconstituted.
  15. bGlanular insufficiency. The effect of vacuum erection device therapy involves engorgement of the entire penis including the glans penis, such that it provides an advantage to patients experiencing glanular insufficiency. Special uses for this therapy such as preserving the elasticity of penile tissue after priapism or penile prosthesis explantation or after surgical correction of Peyronie disease have been suggested.
  16. aInternal pudendal artery stenosis. The penile arterial anatomic defect correctable by arterial revascularization commonly involves stenosis of the internal pudendal artery following perineal or pelvic trauma.

Chapter review

  1. The prevalence of ED in the adult male is 20% and is correlated with age.
  2. Men with ED are 45% more likely than men without ED to experience a cardiac event within 5 years of diagnosis.
  3. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire has five domains: erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction.
  4. Erections observed with nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring do not necessarily equate with erections sufficient for sexual performance.
  5. Cavernous arterial insufficiency is suggested when peak systolic velocity is less than 25 cm/sec. A peak systolic velocity greater than 35 cm/sec defines normal cavernous arterial inflow.
  6. Testosterone circulates as free, bound to albumin, and bound to SHBG. Free testosterone and albumin-bound testosterone comprise the bioavailable testosterone.
  7. Testosterone production is circadian, with the peak occurring in the morning. To evaluate testosterone status, blood should be drawn in the morning (between 7 amand 11 am).
  8. Penile revascularization is reserved for patients in whom it is most likely to be successful: patients with a history of perineal trauma, age younger than 55 years, nondiabetic, nonsmoker, no venous leak, and a documented stenotic lesion in the internal pudendal artery on angiography.
  9. Endocrine conditions that may be associated with erectile dysfunction include hypogonadism, hyperthyroidism, and diabetes.
  10. Induction of a penile erection requires release of nitric oxide from penile nerve endings and vascular endothelium.
  11. Nitrate use in any form is an absolute contraindication for the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors.
  12. Penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy using PDE5 inhibitors has not proved efficacious.
  13. The vasoactive drugs commonly injected to produce an erection include prostaglandin E, papaverine, and phentolamine.
  14. Predictors for the development of ED include older age, lower education, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (such as hypertension and stroke), cigarette smoke exposure (active and passive), and overweight condition.
  15. Intracavernosal pharmacotherapy is contraindicated for men with psychological instability, a history or risk for priapism, histories of severe coagulopathy or unstable cardiovascular disease, reduced manual dexterity, and use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.