Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition
Reproductive and Sexual Function
Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation
Chris G. McMahon
- The most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central neurochemical control of ejaculation is:
- γ-aminobutyric acid.
- Which of the following is INCORRECT?
- The ejaculatory process comprises three phases: emission, ejection and orgasm.
- Emission is mediated by sympathetic nerves (T10 to L2).
- Ejection is mediated by somatic nerves (S2 to S4).
- Ejection also involves a parasympathetic spinal cord reflex on which there is limited voluntary control.
- Closure of bladder neck, rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, and other pelvic floor muscles, and relaxation of the external urinary sphincter during emission prevents retrograde ejaculation.
- The prevalence of intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELT) of 1 minute or less in the general population is approximately:
- < 1%.
- Which of the following is INCORRECT?
- The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV definition of premature ejaculation (PE) is an operationalized multivariate definition that captures the key dimensions of latency, control, and bother.
- Approximately 80% of heterosexual men seeking treatment for lifelong PE ejaculate within 1 minute after penetration.
- The consistent early ejaculations of lifelong PE suggest an underlying neurobiologic functional disturbance.
- Acquired PE is most often due to psychological factors or comorbid erectile dysfunction.
- Men with subjective PE complain of PE, often due to psychological and/or cultural factors, but have a normal or even extended IELT.
- Which of the following is INCORRECT?
- The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) developed the first contemporary, evidence-based definition of lifelong and acquired PE.
- The main constructs in the ISSM definition of PE are time from penetration to ejaculation, inability to delay ejaculation, and the presence of negative personal consequences.
- Lifelong PE is, in part, defined by an IELT less than about 1 minute.
- Acquired PE is, in part, defined by a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less.
- This definition is applicable to all men regardless of their sexual orientation or type of sexual contact.
- The rationale for the ISSM definition of lifelong and acquired PE includes which of the following?
- Men with acquired PE tend to have lower IELT than men with lifelong PE.
- Patient self-estimated IELT correlates poorly with stopwatch IELT.
- Most men do not use cognitive or behavioral techniques to prolong intercourse and delay ejaculation.
- Men with lifelong or acquired PE invariably experience a variety of negative psychological consequences such as bother, frustration, or the avoidance of sexual contact.
- Men with PE had similar overall health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and confidence compared with non-PE groups.
- Which of the following is FALSE?
- There is a substantial disparity between the incidence of PE in epidemiologic studies that rely on patient self-reports of PE and/or inconsistent and poorly validated definitions of PE.
- Community-based stopwatch IELT studies demonstrate that the distribution of the IELT is positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes).
- Community-based stopwatch IELT studies demonstrate that IELT decreases with age and varies among countries.
- Some men may have a neurobiologic and genetic predisposition toward early ejaculation.
- Hypothyroidism is a common cause of PE.
- In men with acquired PE and comorbid erectile dysfunction (ED), which of the following is FALSE?
- Intentionally "rushing" intercourse to prevent early detumescence of a partial erection is common.
- PE is rarely compounded by the presence of high levels of performance anxiety related to their ED.
- Limitation of arousal during foreplay to prevent early ejaculation may result in an incomplete erection.
- The presence of vascular risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension is common.
- c and d
- In the evaluation of men with acquired PE, which of the following is FALSE?
- A physical examination is mandatory in an effort to identify the etiology of the PE.
- The presence of comorbid ED can be evaluated using a validated instrument such as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) or the IIEF-5 (SHIM).
- The Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) was developed specifically for use as a screening questionnaire.
- Laboratory or imaging investigations are occasionally required based on the patient's medical history
- A digital prostate examination, routine in an andrologic setting for all men older than 40 years, is useful in identifying possible evidence of prostatic inflammation or infection.
- In the management of PE, which of the following is FALSE?
- All men seeking treatment for PE should receive basic psychosexual education or coaching.
- Present-day psychotherapy for PE is an integration of behavioral (e.g., the well known start-stop and pause-squeeze methods) and cognitive approaches within a short-term psychotherapy model.
- Psychological-behavioral strategies for treating PE are moderately successful in the long term.
- Drawbacks to the psychological-behavioral approach are that it is it is time-consuming, requires substantial resources of both time and money, lacks immediacy, and requires the partner's cooperation.
- Combining PE pharmacotherapy and psychological approaches may be especially useful and potentially prevent symptom relapses.
- In the pharmacotherapy management of PE, which of the following is FALSE?
- Dapoxetine is a rapid acting and short half-life selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) taken 1 to 3 hours before sexual contact.
- Daily dosing of SSRIs such as paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, and citalopram are effective treatments for PE.
- SSRIs inhibit the postsynaptic 5-HT transporter system in the serotonergic neuron synapse.
- Dapoxetine can be combined with sildenafil as a treatment for PE in men with comorbid ED.
- The use of on-demand clomipramine taken 4 to 6 hours before sexual contact is limited by the occurrence of nausea and dizziness.
- Which of the following is/are TRUE?
- The DSM-IV-TR definition of delayed ejaculation is evidence based on a small number of community-based IELT studies.
- Men with IELT more than two standard deviations above the mean who report distress and/or cease sexual intercourse due to fatigue or irritation are regarded as suffering from delayed ejaculation.
- An IELT of 40 to 45 minutes represents an IELT in excess of two standard deviations above the mean.
- Many men with acquired DE can often masturbate to orgasm and may use idiosyncratic masturbation techniques that cannot be easily replicated during intercourse.
- Both b and d
- The causes of delayed ejaculation include which of the following?
- Multiple sclerosis
- Antidepressants drugs such as SSRIs
- All of the above
- In men with a spinal cord injury (SCI), which of the following is FALSE?
- The ability to ejaculate increases with descending levels of spinal injury.
- Fewer than 5% of patients with complete upper motor neuron lesions retain the ability to ejaculate.
- The ability to achieve an erection increases with descending levels of spinal injury.
- Semen harvesting with electroejaculation or vibratory stimulation is associated with a significant risk of autonomic dysreflexia.
- Both a and b
- Which of the following is TRUE in men with retrograde ejaculation?
- Retrograde ejaculation can be confirmed by the presence of spermatozoa in postmasturbation first-void urine.
- Retrograde ejaculation is more common following a bladder neck incision than transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
- Retrograde ejaculation may occur in men with diabetic autonomic neuropathy.
- Retrograde ejaculation in men with diabetic autonomic neuropathy is usually associated with hypogonadism.
- Both a and c
- b. Serotonin.Many neurotransmitters are involved in the control of ejaculation, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, oxytocin, GABA, and nitric oxide (NO). Of the many studies conducted to investigate the role of the brain in the development and mediation of sexual functioning, dopamine and serotonin have emerged as essential neurochemical factors. Whereas dopamine promotes seminal emission/ejaculation via D2 receptors, serotonin is inhibitory.
- d. Ejection also involves a parasympathetic spinal cord reflex on which there is limited voluntary control. Based on functional, central, and peripheral mediation, the ejaculatory process is typically subdivided into three phases: emission, ejection (or penile expulsion), and orgasm. Emission consists of contractions of seminal vesicles (SVs) and the prostate, with expulsion of sperm and seminal fluid into the posterior urethra, and is mediated by sympathetic nerves (T10 to L2). Ejection is mediated by somatic nerves (S2 to S4) and involves pulsatile contractions of the bulbocavernosus and pelvic floor muscles together with relaxation of the external urinary sphincter. Ejection also involves a sympathetic spinal cord reflex on which there is limited voluntary control.The bladder neck closes to prevent retrograde flow; the bulbocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, and other pelvic floor muscles contract rhythmically; and the external urinary sphincter relaxes. Intermittent contraction of the urethral sphincter prevents retrograde flow into the proximal urethra.
- b. 2.5%.Community-based normative IELT research and observational studies of men with PE demonstrate that IELTs of less than 1 minute have a low prevalence of about 2.5% in the general population, although a substantially higher percentage of men with normal IELT complain of PE.
- a. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV definition of PE is an operationalized multivariate definition that captures the key dimensions of latency, control, and bother.The medical literature contains several univariate and multivariate operational definitions of PE. Each of these definitions characterize men with PE by using all or most of the accepted dimensions of this condition: ejaculatory latency, perceived ability to control ejaculation, reduced sexual satisfaction, personal distress, partner distress, and interpersonal or relationship distress. The first official definition of PE was established in 1980 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in the DSM-III. The American Psychiatrist Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III/IV) definitions of PE were largely accepted with little discussion, despite having no evidence-based medical support.
Several observational studies in cohorts of heterosexual men with lifelong PE with prospective stopwatch IELT measurement showed that about 90% of men seeking treatment for lifelong PE ejaculated within 1 minute after penetration, and about 10% ejaculated between 1 and 2 minutes. These data support the proposal that lifelong PE is characterized by an IELT of less than or about 1 minute after vaginal penetration.
Recent studies have suggested that in some men neurobiologic and genetic variations could contribute to the pathophysiology of lifelong PE, as defined by the ISSM criteria, and that the condition may be maintained and heightened by psychological/environmental factors. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, ED, and occasionally prostatitis, hyperthyroidism, or during withdrawal/detoxification from prescribed or recreational drugs.
Four PE subtypes are distinguished on the basis of the duration of the IELT, frequency of complaints, and course in life. In addition to lifelong PE and acquired PE, this classification includes natural variable PE (or variable PE) and premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction (or subjective PE). Men with subjective PE complain of PE, while actually having a normal or even extended ejaculation time. The complaint of PE in these men is probably related to psychological and/or cultural factors.
- e. This definition is applicable to all men regardless of their sexual orientation or type of sexual contact.In October 2007, the ISSM convened an initial meeting of the first Ad Hoc ISSM Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation to develop the first contemporary, evidence-based definition of lifelong PE. Evidence-based definitions seek to limit errors of classification and thereby increase the likelihood that existing and newly developed therapeutic strategies are truly effective in carefully selected dysfunctional populations.
The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define lifelong PE are time from penetration to ejaculation, inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences from PE, and they recommended the following definition. “Lifelong PE is a male sexual dysfunction characterized by the presence of all of these criteria: (1) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration; (2) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (3) negative personal consequences such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy.”
In April 2013, a second Ad Hoc ISSM Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation agreed that although lifelong and acquired PE are distinct and different demographic and etiologic populations, they can be jointly defined, in part, by the constructs of time from penetration to ejaculation, inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee determined that the presence of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less, was an additional key defining dimension of acquired PE. This definition is limited to men engaging in vaginal intercourse, as there are few studies available on PE research in homosexual men or during other forms of sexual expression.
- d. Men with lifelong or acquired PE invariably experience a variety of negative psychological consequences such as bother, frustration, or the avoidance of sexual contact.Waldinger et al. (1998)* reported IELTs < 30 sec in 77% and < 60 sec in 90% of 110 men with lifelong PE, with only 10% ejaculating between 1 and 2 minutes. These data are consistent with normative community IELT data, support the notion that IELTs of less than 1 minute are statistically abnormal, and confirm that an IELT cutoff of 1 minute will capture 80% to 90% of treatment-seeking men with lifelong PE. A post hoc analysis of the dapoxetine Phase III COUPLE trial data confirms a statistically significant higher IELT in men with acquired PE and comorbid ED compared with men with lifelong PE with comorbid ED. Additional recent studies support this report and confirm that self-estimated IELT was lower in men with lifelong PE compared with acquired PE and highest in men with subjective PE. These data suggest 3 minutes as a valid cutoff for either self-estimated or stopwatch IELT for the diagnosis of acquired PE.
Several authors report that estimated and stopwatch IELT correlate reasonably well or are interchangeable in assigning PE status when estimated IELT is combined with PRO Inventory. Because patient self-report is the determining factor in treatment-seeking and satisfaction, it is recommended that self-estimation by the patient and partner of ejaculatory latency be accepted as the method for determining IELT in clinical practice.
The ability to prolong sexual intercourse by delaying ejaculation and the subjective feelings of ejaculatory control comprise the complex construct of ejaculatory control. Virtually all men report using at least one cognitive or behavioral technique to prolong intercourse and delay ejaculation, with varying degrees of success, and many young men reported using multiple different techniques (Grenier, 1997). Voluntary delay of ejaculation is most likely exerted either before or in the early stages of the emission phase of the reflex but progressively decreases until the point of ejaculatory inevitability.
Several authors have reported an association between lifelong or acquired PE and negative psychological outcomes in men with lifelong or acquired PE and their female partners. This personal distress has discriminative validity in diagnosing men with and without PE. The personal and/or interpersonal distress, bother, frustration and annoyance that results from PE may affect men's quality of life and partner relationships, their self-esteem, and their self-confidence and can act as an obstacle to single men forming new partner relationships.
- e. Hypothyroidism is a common cause of PE.Reliable information on the prevalence of lifelong and acquired PE in the general male population is lacking. Premature ejaculation (PE) has been estimated to occur in 4% to 39% of men in the general community. Prevalence data derived from patient self-report are appreciably higher than prevalence estimates based on clinician diagnosis using the more conservative ISSM definition of PE. As a result, there is a substantial disparity between the incidence of PE in epidemiologic studies that rely on patient self-report of PE and/or inconsistent and poorly validated definitions of PE.
Community-based stopwatch studies of the IELT, the time interval between penetration and ejaculation, demonstrate that the distribution of the IELT is positively skewed with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes), decreases with age, and varies between countries, and supports the notion that IELTs of less than 1 minute are statistically abnormal compared to men in the general Western population.
Early ejaculation in humans has been explained by either hyposensitivity of the 5-HT2C and/or hypersensitivity of the 5-HT1A receptor. Recent studies have suggested that in some men neurobiologic and genetic variations could contribute to the pathophysiology of lifelong PE, as defined by the ISSM criteria, and that the condition may be maintained and heightened by psychological/environmental factors.
The majority of patients with thyroid hormone disorders experience sexual dysfunction. Studies suggest a significant correlation between PE and suppressed TSH values in a selected population of andrologic and sexologic patients. One author reports that the 50% prevalence of PE in men with hyperthyroidism fell to 15% after treatment with thyroid hormone normalization. Although occult thyroid disease has been reported in the elderly hospitalized population, it is uncommon in the population who present for treatment of PE, and routine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) screening is not indicated unless clinically indicated.
- b. PE is rarely compounded by the presence of high levels of performance anxiety related to their ED. Recent data demonstrate that as many as half of subjects with ED also experience PE.Men with ED may either require higher levels of stimulation to achieve an erection or intentionally "rush" intercourse to prevent early detumescence of a partial erection, resulting in ejaculation with a brief latency. This may be compounded by the presence of high levels of performance anxiety related to their ED, which serve only to worsen their prematurity.
ED is often associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis of the internal pudendal and cavernous arteries due to the presence of vascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.
Off-label on-demand or daily dosing of PDE5 inhibitors is not recommended for the treatment of lifelong PE in men with normal erectile function. However, ED pharmacotherapy alone or in combination with PE pharmacotherapy is recommended for the treatment of lifelong or acquired PE in men with comorbid ED. PDE5 inhibitors, sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil, are effective treatments for ED. Several authors have reported experience with PDE5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs as a treatment for PE.
- c. The Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) was developed specifically for use as a screening questionnaire.Men presenting with self-reported PE should be evaluated with a full medical/sexual history, a focused physical examination, inventory assessment of erectile function, and any investigations suggested by these findings. Current literature suggests that the diagnosis of lifelong PE is based purely on the medical history because there are no predictive physical findings or confirmatory investigations. However, in men with acquired PE, a physical examination is mandatory in an effort to identify the etiology of the PE and to alleviate its possible cause. Laboratory or imaging investigations are occasionally required based on the patient's medical history. A digital prostate examination, routine in an andrologic setting for all men older than 40 years, is useful in identifying possible evidence of prostatic inflammation or infection.
The presence of comorbid ED should be evaluated using a validated instrument such as the IIEF or the IIEF-5 (SHIM). The IIEF is not specifically validated in men with PE. Caution should be exercised in the IIEF diagnosis of comorbid ED in men with PE, because 33.3% of potent men with PE confuse the ability to maintain erections before ejaculation and after ejaculation; record contradictory responses to some or all questions of the SHIM, especially Q3 and Q4; and receive a false-positive IIEF/SHIM diagnosis of ED.
- c. Psychological-behavioral strategies for treating PE are moderately successful in the long term.There are multiple psychosexual and pharmacologic treatments for PE. Graded levels of patient and couple counseling, guidance, and/or relationship therapy, either alone or ideally in combination with PE pharmacotherapy, should be offered as a treatment option for most men with PE. All men seeking treatment for PE should receive basic psychosexual education or coaching.
Although the new and often more expedient pharmacologic therapies are overshadowing traditional psychological-behavioral methods in the treatment of PE, the psychological-behavioral approach remains an attractive option but is time-consuming, requires substantial resources of both time and money, lacks immediacy, requires the partner's cooperation, and has mixed efficacy.
Psychological interventions are designed to achieve more than simply increasing the IELT. Targeted factors focus on the man, his partner, and their relationship. Psychotherapy and behavioral interventions improve ejaculatory control by helping men/couples to: (1) learn techniques to control and/or delay ejaculation, (2) gain confidence in their sexual performance, (3) lessen performance anxiety, (4) modify rigid sexual repertoires, (5) surmount barriers to intimacy, (6) resolve interpersonal issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction, and (7) increase communication.
Psychological-behavioral strategies for treating PE have been at least moderately successful in alleviating the dysfunction in the short term, but long-term outcome data are limited and suggest a significant relapse rate.
- c. SSRIs inhibit the postsynaptic 5-HT transporter system in the serotonergic neuron synapse.Dapoxetine has received approval for the treatment of PE in more than 50 countries worldwide. Dapoxetine has not received marketing approval for the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is a rapid acting and short half-life SSRI with a pharmacokinetic profile supporting a role as an on-demand treatment for PE.
Several forms of pharmacotherapy have been used in the treatment of PE. These include the use of topical local anesthetics, SSRIs, tramadol, PDE5 inhibitors, and α-adrenergic blockers. The use of topical local anesthetics such as lidocaine, prilocaine, or benzocaine, alone or in association, to diminish the sensitivity of the glans penis is the oldest known pharmacologic treatment for PE. The introduction of the SSRIs paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, and citalopram and the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine has revolutionized the treatment of PE. These drugs block presynaptic axonal reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft of central serotonergic neurons by 5-HT transporters, resulting in enhanced 5-HT neurotransmission and stimulation of postsynaptic membrane 5-HT receptors.
On-demand administration of clomipramine, paroxetine, sertraline, or fluoxetine 3-6 hours before intercourse is modestly efficacious and well tolerated but is associated with substantially less ejaculatory delay than daily treatment in most studies.
- e. Both b and d.The DSM-IV-TR definition of delayed ejaculation contains no clear criteria as to when a man actually meets the conditions for DE, because operationalized criteria do not exist. Most sexually functional men ejaculate within about 4 to 10 minutes following intromission, so a clinician might assume that men with latencies beyond 25 or 30 minutes (21-23 minutes represents about two standard deviations above the mean) who report distress or men who simply cease sexual activity due to exhaustion or irritation qualify for this diagnosis. Such symptoms, together with the fact that a man and/or his partner decide to seek help for the problem, are usually sufficient for a DE diagnosis.
Psychogenic DE, often described as inhibited ejaculation, is usually related to sexual performance anxiety that may draw the man's attention away from erotic cues that normally serve to enhance arousal. It is occasionally characterized by the use of idiosyncratic and vigorous masturbation styles that cannot be replicated during intercourse with a partner, or an "autosexual" orientation where men derive greater arousal and enjoyment from masturbation than from intercourse. These men precondition themselves to possible difficulty attaining orgasm with a partner and, as a result, experience acquired DE. These men appear able to achieve erections sufficient for intercourse despite a relative absence of subjective arousal, and their erections are taken as erroneous evidence by both the man and his partner that he was ready for sex and capable of achieving orgasm.
- e. All of the above.Delayed ejaculation/anejaculation is associated with several differing pathophysiologies, including congenital disorders as well as ones caused by psychological factors, treatment of male pelvic cancers with surgery or radiotherapy, neurologic disease, endocrinopathy, infection, and treatment for other disorders. When a medical history or symptomatology so indicates, investigation of such possible etiologies may be necessary. The most common causes of DE seen in clinical practice are psychogenic inhibited ejaculation, degeneration of penile afferent nerves and pacinian corpuscles in the aging male, hypogonadism, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, treatment with SSRI antidepressants and major tranquilizers, radical prostatectomy, or other major pelvic surgery or radiotherapy.
- c. The ability to achieve an erection increases with descending levels of spinal injury.The ability to ejaculate is severely impaired by spinal cord injury (SCI). The level and completeness of SCI determine the post-SCI erectile and ejaculatory capacity. Unlike erectile capacity, the ability to ejaculate increases with descending levels of spinal injury. Fewer than 5% of patients with complete upper motor neuron lesions retain the ability to ejaculate. Ejaculation rates are higher (15%) in patients with both lower motor neuron lesions and an intact thoracolumbar sympathetic outflow. Approximately 22% of patients with an incomplete upper motor neuron lesion and almost all men with incomplete lower motor neuron lesions retain the ability to ejaculate. In those patients capable of successful ejaculation, the sensation of orgasm may be absent and retrograde ejaculation often occurs.
Several techniques for obtaining semen from spinal cord injured men with ejaculatory dysfunction have been reported. Vibratory stimulation is successful in obtaining semen in up to 70% of men with spinal cord injury. The use of electroejaculation to obtain semen by electrical stimulation of efferent sympathetic fibers of the hypogastric plexus is an effective and safe method of obtaining semen. Both vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are associated with a significantly high risk of autonomic dysreflexia. Pretreatment with a fast-acting vasodilator such as nifedipine minimizes the risk of severe hypertension, should autonomic dysreflexia occur with either form of treatment (Steinberger, 1990).
- e. Both a and c.Antegrade (normal) ejaculation requires a closed bladder neck (and proximal urethra). Surgical procedures that compromise the bladder neck closure mechanism may result in retrograde ejaculation. The occurrence of orgasm in the absence of prograde ejaculation suggests retrograde ejaculation and can be confirmed by the presence of spermatozoa in postmasturbation first-void urine.
Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP) results in retrograde ejaculation in 5% to 45% of patients and is probably related to whether one or two incisions are made and whether or not the incision includes primarily the bladder neck or extends to the level of the verumontanum. The importance of contraction of the urethral smooth muscle at the level of the verumontanum has been hypothesized to be important in preventing retrograde ejaculation. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) carries a higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation than does TUIP. The reported incidence of retrograde ejaculation following TURP ranges from 42% to 100%.
Retrograde ejaculation is more common in men with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in age-matched controls (p < 0.01), has been reported in 30% of men with DM, and is not statistically associated with duration of DM, body mass index, waist circumference, or HgbA1c or total testosterone levels.
Several sympathomimetic amine agents have been described as useful with mixed results. These drugs include pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, midodrine, and phenylpropanolamine. These agents work by stimulating the release of noradrenaline from the nerve axon terminals but may also directly stimulate both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, which blocks the reuptake of noradrenaline by the axon from the synaptic cleft, is also occasionally useful. The usual dose is 25 mg twice daily. The current feeling is that long-term treatment with imipramine is likely to be more effective. Although medical treatment may not always produce normal ejaculation, it may result in some improvement.
- The ejaculatory process is divided into: (1) emission, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, T10-L2; (2) ejection, a somatic S2-S4 response; and (3) orgasm, which involves a spinal cord reflex.
- Premature ejaculation (PE) may be divided into lifelong and acquired.
- PE is defined as ejaculation within approximately 1 minute following vaginal penetration and before the individual wishes it.
- Acquired PE is situational and may be due to prostatitis, hyperthyroidism, or detoxification.
- Erectile dysfunction is commonly associated with PE.
- The majority of patients with thyroid hormone disorders experience sexual dysfunction.
- Treatment of PE includes topical anesthetics, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tramadol, PDE5 inhibitors, and α-adrenergic blockers.
- The postorgasmic illness syndrome includes severe myalgias and fatigue associated with a flulike state that occurs within 30 minutes of orgasm.
- Dopamine promotes seminal emission/ejaculation via D2 receptors; serotonin is inhibitory.
- PE has been estimated to occur in 4% to 39% of men in the general community.
- Most sexually functional men ejaculate within about 4 to 10 minutes following intromission.
- In spinal cord injury patients, approximately 22% of patients with an incomplete upper motor neuron lesion and almost all men with incomplete lower motor neuron lesions retain the ability to ejaculate.
- Retrograde ejaculation is more common in men with DM than in age-matched controls.
* Sources referenced can be found in Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition, on the Expert Consult website.