Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART II

Basics of Urologic Surgery

5

Core Principles of Perioperative Care

Manish A. Vira; Louis R. Kavoussi

Questions

  1. A 64-year-old male is found to have an 8-cm left renal mass and presents to the office for evaluation regarding laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. He has a history of hypertension, non–insulin-dependent diabetes, and 30-pack-year tobacco use, which he quit 10 years ago. He has a strong family history of heart disease in that his father died at the age of 55 years from a myocardial infarction. Further questioning reveals that he does not regularly exercise but is able to walk up three flights of stairs without shortness of breath. Before surgery, to minimize the risk of complications, the patient should:
  2. undergo routine preoperative testing with complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, electrocardiogram, and chest radiograph.
  3. be referred to cardiology consultation to determine if further testing is necessary.
  4. undergo noninvasive cardiac stress testing.
  5. undergo pulmonary function testing to determine the need for preoperative bronchodilators.
  6. be started on a perioperative β blocker to reduce the risk of perioperative myocardial ischemia.
  7. With regard to unique patient populations, which of the following statements is TRUE?
  8. Although elderly patients have an increased perioperative risk, recent larger trials have not found age to be an independent risk factor for perioperative morbidity and mortality.
  9. Morbidly obese patients should undergo open rather than laparoscopic surgery because of increased risk of pulmonary complications.
  10. In a pregnant patient presenting with urolithiasis operative intervention should be delayed, if possible, until the second trimester.
  11. A patient who presents with a 30-pound weight loss over the previous 3 months should be started on parenteral feedings immediately postoperatively after elective surgery.
  12. In patients with liver disease, the primary determinant of postoperative risk is degree of liver function enzyme abnormality.
  13. A 74-year-old male with muscle-invasive bladder cancer is scheduled for radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion. Preoperative urine culture shows no growth at 72 hours. The most important factor in the prevention of surgical site infection in this patient is:
  14. preoperative bowel preparation with oral antibiotics (Nichols prep) and sodium phosphate solution (Fleet).
  15. administration of 2 g cefoxitin 1 hour before incision.
  16. continuation of perioperative antibiotics for 48 hours following surgery.
  17. preoperative hair removal with mechanical clippers and proper sterile preparation of the operative field.
  18. optimization of comorbid illness and nutritional status.
  19. According to current guidelines in the prevention of thromboembolic complications, a 78-year-old male with a recent history of colon cancer, medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease (postoperative angioplasty with two coronary stents), and chronic renal insufficiency (creatinine, 2.9 mg/dL) undergoing laparoscopic transabdominal surgery should have pneumatic compression stockings and:
  20. early ambulation.
  21. aspirin and early ambulation.
  22. low-molecular-weight heparin.
  23. low-molecular-weight heparin and aspirin.
  24. unfractionated heparin and aspirin.
  25. A 72-year-old female with a history of asthma, mild congestive heart failure, and breast cancer is to undergo cystoscopy and placement of a midurethral sling. Of the following agents, the best choice for anesthesia induction would be:
  26. inhaled halothane.
  27. intravenous thiopental.
  28. inhaled desflurane.
  29. inhaled sevoflurane.
  30. intravenous succinylcholine.
  31. The most appropriate indication for blood product transfusion is:
  32. packed red blood cells for an 82-year-old male with coronary artery disease and hematocrit of 31%.
  33. fresh frozen plasma for a 69-year-old patient with an international normalized ratio (INR) of 1.6 scheduled to undergo laparotomy for a small bowel obstruction.
  34. platelet transfusion for a 78-year-old male with chronic renal insufficiency who was scheduled to undergo partial nephrectomy and found to have a platelet count of 55,000 on preoperative testing.
  35. packed red blood cells for a healthy 22-year-old male with a stable large retroperitoneal hematoma after motor vehicle accident and hematocrit of 21%.
  36. Fresh frozen plasma for a 64-year-old female during resection of a large renal mass with inferior vena cava thrombus who experiences significant blood loss requiring 4 U of packed red blood cell transfusion.
  37. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury to a patient in the operating room, the patient should:
  38. be maintained with core body temperature between 36° C and 38° C throughout the perioperative period.
  39. be instructed to bathe with an antiseptic solution the night before surgery.
  40. be secured to the operating room table with fixed shoulder braces for procedures in steep Trendelenburg.
  41. be positioned in the lithotomy position one leg at a time to ensure safe flexion of the hips.
  42. be positioned and draped by the operating room staff before arrival of the surgeon.
  43. In a patient undergoing an exploratory laparotomy for pelvic abscess following radical cystectomy, the best method of abdominal fascial closure is with:
  44. polyglycolic acid (Dexon) suture with continuous closure.
  45. silk suture with continuous closure.
  46. polypropylene (Prolene) suture with interrupted closure.
  47. polyglactin (Vicryl) suture with interrupted closure.
  48. polydioxanone suture (PDS) with continuous closure.

Answers

  1. e. Be started on preoperative β blocker to reduce the risk of myocardial ischemia during the perioperative period.This choice is best given the patient's multiple risk factors. Although cardiac stress testing may be considered, the patient's ability to climb three flights of stairs indicates a capacity of greater than 4 METS and therefore a low risk of significant coronary artery disease. Although routine preoperative testing is performed widely, there is no evidence that routine testing reduces the risk of perioperative complications.
  2. c. In a pregnant patient presenting with urolithiasis operative intervention should be delayed, if possible, until the second trimester. The second trimester represents the least anesthetic risk to the mother and fetus with regard to spontaneous abortion and teratogenicity.Although controversy exists as to the exact etiology, several recent trials have found age to be an independent predictor of morbidity on multivariate analyses. Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred approach in morbidly obese patients secondary to the reduced risk of pulmonary and wound complications. Literature suggests that severely malnourished patients (> 20 pounds weight loss in 3 months) significantly benefit from 7 to 10 days of enteral (not parenteral) feedings before elective surgery. The primary determinants of the degree of severity in patients with cirrhosis are hepatic function and severity of clinical manifestations.
  3. b. Administration of 2 g cefoxitin 1 hour before incision.Administration of appropriate antibiotics within 60 minutes of incision has been shown to significantly decrease the incidence of surgical site infections. Recent meta-analyses from the colorectal literature indicate that mechanical bowel preparation does not decrease the risk of postoperative infections. Unless in the presence of active infection, perioperative antibiotics should be stopped 24 hours after incision to decrease the risk of Clostridium difficile colitis. Although preoperative hair removal and optimization of nutritional status and comorbid illness improve surgical outcomes, there is no specific evidence that this reduces surgical site infections.
  4. e. Unfractionated heparin and aspirin.The clinical scenario describes a patient with high to highest risk of venous thromboembolism. Such a patient would require both mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis. In a patient with renal insufficiency, unfractionated heparin is a better choice than low-molecular-weight heparin. There is no evidence that aspirin is effective in the prevention of venous thromboembolism, but in a patient with coronary stents, aspirin is important in the prevention of stent thrombosis in the perioperative period.
  5. d. Inhaled sevoflurane.This is an excellent choice for rapid induction in this patient secondary to its odorless and bronchodilation properties. Halothane can adversely affect left ventricular function and should be used with caution in patients with congestive heart failure. Desflurane has a pungent odor and is more suitable for maintenance of anesthesia during prolonged procedures. Intravenous thiopental can increase airway reactivity and is not appropriate in patients with asthma. Succinylcholine is appropriate for neuromuscular blockade and not commonly used for induction.
  6. c. Platelet transfusion for a 78-year-old male with chronic renal insufficiency who was scheduled to undergo partial nephrectomy and found to have a platelet count of 55,000 on preoperative testing.This patient has moderate thrombocytopenia with likely platelet dysfunction secondary to uremia undergoing a high-bleeding-risk procedure; therefore platelet transfusion is indicated. Current indications for packed red blood cell transfusion are maintenance of hematocrit of greater than 30% in patients with high risk of myocardial ischemia or in patients with hematocrit 21% to 30% with signs of inadequate oxygen carrying capacity. Fresh frozen plasma transfusion is indicated only in the presence of active bleeding rather than isolated INR elevation or large-volume transfusion.
  7. a. Be maintained with core body temperature between 36° C and 38° C throughout the perioperative period. Hypothermia by as little as 1° C has been shown to increase surgical site infection and postoperative complications.There is no evidence that showering with an antiseptic solution the night before surgery decreases the incidence of wound infection. Fixed shoulder braces have been associated with an increased risk of brachial plexus injury and should not be used in the operating room. Both legs should be positioned simultaneously when placing patients in the dorsal lithotomy position. Everyone in the operating room is responsible for patient safety, and therefore the surgeon should always be present for patient positioning.
  8. e. Polydioxanone suture with continuous closure.Continuous closure with PDS (slowly absorbable) suture has been shown to have the lowest wound failure rates. In the presence of infection, braided sutures (silk and Vicryl) should be avoided to prevent secondary wound infection and failure. Although nonabsorbable sutures may be used, these have been associated with increased postoperative patient discomfort. Fast-absorbing sutures (such as Dexon) should not be used in continuous fascial closure because of increased wound failure risks.

Chapter review

  1. One must always determine whether a woman in the childbearing years is pregnant before a surgical procedure. A urine pregnancy test is a simple method to do this.
  2. The American Society of Anesthesiologists' classification is a significant predictor of operative mortality.
  3. Preoperative cardiac evaluation is meant to identify serious coronary artery disease, heart failure, symptomatic arrhythmias, and the presence of a pacemaker or defibrillator. Major clinical predictors of cardiovascular risk are a recent myocardial infarction (within 1 month), unstable angina, evidence of an ischemic burden, decompensated heart failure, significant arrhythmias, and severe valvular disease.
  4. A patient's ability to climb two flights of stairs is a good assessment of adequate functional capacity.
  5. Patients with an FEV1 of less than 30% predicted are at high risk for complications.
  6. Smoking must be discontinued at least 8 weeks before surgery to be effective in reducing risk.
  7. Perioperative β blockade is associated with a reduced risk of death among high-risk patients undergoing major noncardiac surgical procedures. However, more recent data bring this into question.
  8. Patients who have a depressed hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis due to exogenous steroids should receive 50 to 100 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone before the induction of anesthesia and 25 to 50 mg every 8 hours thereafter until the patient's medication is resumed.
  9. In the elderly, delirium can be the first clinical sign of hypoxia or of metabolic or infectious complications.
  10. In the pregnant patient, postoperative pain is best managed with narcotic analgesics.
  11. A preoperative electrocardiogram should be obtained in all patients older than 40 years and in those with a significant cardiac history.
  12. It is important to remember that for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease and the use of antibiotic and mechanical bowel preps before intestinal surgery, the studies are often based on data obtained from nonurologic patients. The urologist must consider this when the procedure being performed is significantly different from the standard general surgical operation on which the data are based. This is particularly true for bowel preparation, as urologic reconstructive procedures often require opening the isolated intestinal segment to be used in the procedure, exposing the entire contents to the operative field.
  13. Parenteral antibiotics should be given before intestinal surgery.
  14. Nitrous oxide inhalation anesthesia results in bowel distention.
  15. The half-life of warfarin is 36 to 42 hours, and it is recommended that warfarin be stopped 5 days before the surgical event. Immediate reversal may be accomplished by giving fresh frozen plasma.
  16. Aspirin and clopidogrel are irreversible inhibitors of platelet function and should be discontinued 7 to 10 days before surgery if bleeding risk is to be minimized.
  17. For moderate- to high-risk groups on anticoagulation therapy, a therapeutic bridge is performed using low-molecular-weight heparin. This may be stopped 12 hours before the procedure and instituted shortly after its completion.
  18. The indications for fresh frozen plasma are immediate reversal of warfarin and replacement of specific clotting factors.
  19. The most common cause of transfusion-related fatality is transfusion-related acute lung injury.
  20. Hypothermia results in increased blood loss and an increased incidence of wound infection.
  21. If hair is to be removed, it should preferably be removed immediately before the surgical event with clippers.
  22. The surgical scar regains 3% of strength at 1 week, 20% at 3 weeks, and 80% at 3 months.
  23. Rapidly absorbable sutures used for continuous fascia closure are associated with an increased incidence of incisional hernias.
  24. Fascia dehiscence generally occurs 7 to 10 days postoperatively. The use of retention sutures does not prevent dehiscence; it prevents evisceration.
  25. The need for postoperative parenteral nutrition should be anticipated in patients undergoing major urologic procedures involving the use of bowel. If it is likely the patient will not be able to take an adequate caloric intake orally by 7 to 10 days, postoperative parenteral nutrition should be instituted.
  26. The second trimester represents the least anesthetic risk to the mother and fetus with regard to spontaneous abortion and teratogenicity.
  27. Severely malnourished patients (> 20 pounds weight loss in 3 months) significantly benefit from 7 to 10 days of enteral (not parenteral) feedings beforeelective surgery.
  28. In a patient with renal insufficiency, unfractionated heparin is a better choice than low-molecular-weight heparin.
  29. Current indications for packed red blood cell transfusion are maintenance of hematocrit of greater than 30% in patients with high risk of myocardial ischemia, or in patients with hematocrit 21% to 30% with signs of inadequate oxygen carrying capacity.
  30. In the presence of infection, braided sutures (silk and Vicryl) should be avoided.