Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART IX

Urinary Lithiasis and Endourology

51

Urinary Lithiasis

Etiology, Epidemiology, and Pathogenesis

Margaret S. Pearle; Jodi A. Antonelli; Yair Lotan

Questions

  1. The ethnic/racial group with the highest prevalence of stone disease is:
  2. African-Americans.
  3. Hispanics.
  4. Whites.
  5. Asians.
  6. American Indians.
  7. The geographic area in the United States associated with the highest incidence of calcium oxalate stone disease is the:
  8. northeast.
  9. southeast.
  10. southwest.
  11. west.
  12. northwest.
  13. Which of the following occurs when the concentration product of urine is in the metastable range?
  14. Urine is supersaturated.
  15. Homogeneous nucleation occurs.
  16. Solubility product is reduced.
  17. Urinary inhibitors decrease the formation product.
  18. Nucleation never occurs.
  19. The process by which nucleation occurs in pure solutions is:
  20. homogeneous nucleation.
  21. heterogeneous nucleation.
  22. epitaxy.
  23. aggregation.
  24. agglomeration.
  25. The proteinaceous portion of stones is composed of:
  26. concentric lamination.
  27. protein-crystal complex.
  28. matrix.
  29. nephrocalcin.
  30. osteocalcin.
  31. Citrate inhibits calcium oxalate stone formation by:
  32. binding urinary inhibitors.
  33. lowering urine magnesium levels.
  34. increasing urinary saturation of sodium urate.
  35. complexing calcium.
  36. lowering urine pH.
  37. Stone-forming propensity is best described by:
  38. formation product.
  39. ionic activity.
  40. saturation index.
  41. solubility product.
  42. relative saturation ratio.
  43. The most common abnormal urinary finding in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is:
  44. hypercalciuria.
  45. low urine pH.
  46. low urine volume.
  47. hypocitraturia.
  48. hyperoxaluria.
  49. The vitamin D metabolite that stimulates intestinal calcium absorption is:
  50. 7-dehydrocholesterol.
  51. cholecalciferol.
  52. 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
  53. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
  54. calcitonin.
  55. Which of the following factors increases intestinal oxalate absorption?
  56. High dietary calcium intake
  57. Low dietary calcium intake
  58. Oxalobacter formigenescolonization in the colon
  59. Helicobacter pyloricolonization in the stomach
  60. Irritable bowel syndrome
  61. The primary determinant of urinary citrate excretion is:
  62. acid-base status.
  63. urinary sodium excretion.
  64. citric acid intake.
  65. insulin sensitivity.
  66. urinary calcium excretion.
  67. The underlying abnormality of renal hypercalciuria is:
  68. enhanced calcium filtration.
  69. enhanced calcium secretion.
  70. enhanced calcium reabsorption.
  71. primary renal wasting of calcium.
  72. primary renal storage of calcium.
  73. Hypercalciuria associated with sarcoidosis is a result of:
  74. absorptive hypercalciuria.
  75. renal hypercalciuria.
  76. resorptive hypercalciuria.
  77. acidosis.
  78. medical induction.
  79. Enteric hyperoxaluria occurs as a result of:
  80. excessive intake of oxalate.
  81. reduced excretion of oxalate.
  82. increased dietary fat.
  83. low calcium intake.
  84. fat malabsorption.
  85. The most likely mechanism accounting for low urinary pH in uric acid stone formers with type 2 diabetes mellitus is:
  86. defective ammoniagenesis.
  87. impaired urinary bicarbonate excretion.
  88. lactic acidosis.
  89. glucosuria.
  90. ketoacidosis.
  91. In idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, Randall plaques originate in the:
  92. basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle.
  93. terminal collecting ducts.
  94. medullary interstitium.
  95. vasa recta.
  96. papillary tip.
  97. In calcium oxalate stone formers, Randall plaques are composed of:
  98. calcium oxalate.
  99. brushite.
  100. calcium carbonate.
  101. calcium apatite.
  102. uric acid.
  103. Urinary saturation of calcium oxalate is most strongly dependent on:
  104. Urinary calcium concentration
  105. Urinary oxalate concentration
  106. Both urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations
  107. Urinary pH
  108. Urinary citrate concentration
  109. O. formigenesreduces urinary oxalate by:
  110. reducing intestinal calcium absorption, leading to decreased luminal free oxalate and reduced oxalate absorption.
  111. degrading urinary oxalate in infected urine.
  112. binding oxalate in the intestinal lumen and preventing its reabsorption.
  113. inhibiting the intestinal oxalate transporter.
  114. using oxalate as a substrate in the intestine, thereby reducing intestinal oxalate absorption.
  115. Which of the following organisms is most likely to produce urease?
  116. Staphylococcus aureus
  117. Escherichia coli
  118. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  119. Serratia marcescens
  120. Chlamydia
  121. The mechanism responsible for type 1 (distal) renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is:
  122. impaired bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule.
  123. defective H+-ATPase in the distal tubule that is unable to excrete excess acid.
  124. defective ammoniagenesis.
  125. impaired excretion of nontitratable acids.
  126. hypoaldosteronism.
  127. Patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome treated with high doses of allopurinol are at risk for formation of stones of which of the following compositions?
  128. Hypoxanthine
  129. Uric acid
  130. Xanthine
  131. 2,8-Dihydroxyadenine
  132. Calcium apatite
  133. The etiology of ammonium acid urate stone formation in patients abusing laxatives is:
  134. recurrent infections with urease-producing bacteria.
  135. chronic dehydration and excessive uric acid excretion.
  136. increased ammoniagenesis.
  137. urinary phosphate deficiency and intracellular acidosis.
  138. chronic dehydration, intracellular acidosis, and low urinary sodium.
  139. The primary mechanism of action of citrate in preventing stone formation is:
  140. reducing urinary calcium excretion.
  141. reducing urinary oxalate excretion.
  142. complexing calcium in urine.
  143. complexing oxalate in urine.
  144. complexing phosphate in urine.
  145. Type 1 (distal) RTA is characterized by which abnormality?
  146. Hyperkalemia
  147. Hypochloremia
  148. Alkalosis
  149. Hypercitraturia
  150. Hypokalemia
  151. The primary defect in type 2 (proximal) RTA is failure of bicarbonate reabsorption in the:
  152. glomerulus.
  153. proximal tubule.
  154. loop of Henle.
  155. distal tubule.
  156. collecting duct.
  157. The most common abnormality identified in patients with uric acid stones is:
  158. acidic urine.
  159. alkaline urine.
  160. low uric acid concentration.
  161. high uric acid concentration.
  162. distal renal tubular acidosis.
  163. The etiology of stone formation in patients with cystic fibrosis is:
  164. absorptive hypercalciuria.
  165. renal leak hypercalciuria.
  166. renal tubular acidosis.
  167. reduced or absent O. formigenes.
  168. chronic diarrheal syndrome.
  169. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are associated with formation of stones composed of:
  170. calcium oxalate.
  171. calcium phosphate.
  172. struvite.
  173. cystine.
  174. uric acid.
  175. Which of the following physiologic changes occurs in the kidney during pregnancy?
  176. Decreased uric acid excretion
  177. Decreased citrate excretion
  178. Increased calcium excretion
  179. Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  180. Increased magnesium excretion

Answers

  1. c. Whites.The highest prevalence of stone disease in both men and women occurs in whites. In men the lowest prevalence occurs in African-Americans, whereas Asian women have been found to have the lowest prevalence in one series.
  2. b. Southeast.According to hospital discharge rates among U.S. veterans, calcium oxalate stone disease is most prevalent in the southeast.
  3. a. Urine is supersaturated. The solubility product refers to the point of saturation where dissolved and crystalline components in solution are in equilibrium. Addition of more crystals to the solution will result in precipitation of crystals. In this supersaturated urine (metastable state), crystallization can occur on preexisting crystals, but spontaneous crystallization occurs only when the concentration product exceeds the formation product. In the metastable state, the presence of inhibitors prevents or delays crystallization.
  4. a. Homogeneous nucleation.The process by which nuclei form in pure solutions is called homogeneous nucleation. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs when microscopic impurities or other constituents in the urine promote nucleation by providing a surface on which the crystal components can grow.
  5. c. Matrix.Depending on their type, kidney stones contain between 2.5% and 65% of noncrystalline material or matrix. Extensive investigations have characterized matrix as a derivative of several of the mucoproteins of urine and serum.
  6. d. Complexing calcium. Citrate inhibits stone formation by complexing calcium, thereby lowering urinary saturation of calcium oxalate. In addition it inhibits spontaneous precipitation of calcium oxalate and agglomeration of calcium oxalate crystals.It also inhibits calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate crystal growth, with its effect on calcium phosphate crystal growth more pronounced than on calcium oxalate crystal growth. Last, it prevents heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate by monosodium urate.
  7. c. Saturation index.The state of saturation of the urine with respect to particular stone-forming salts indicates the stone-forming propensity of the urine. The state of saturation is determined by pH and the ionic strength of the major ions in solution. Relative saturation ratio, determined by the EQUIL 2 computer program, has been the standard for determining stone-forming propensity. However, the newer JESS computer program takes into account several soluble complexes not recognized by the EQUIL 2 program and is likely a more accurate measure of stone-forming propensity, although it has not yet gained widespread use.
  8. e. Hyperoxaluria.Hyperoxaluria has been described in both stone-forming and non-stone-forming patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, with urinary oxalate levels in some patients exceeding 100 mg/day. A mild decrease in urinary calcium compared with stone-forming control subjects has been described by some investigators but is a less consistent and severe finding.
  9. d. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3.It is generally accepted that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is the vitamin D metabolite that is the most potent stimulator of intestinal calcium absorption. The other metabolites, except for calcitonin, are precursors of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
  10. b. Low dietary calcium intake. Intestinal oxalate absorption is modulated by dietary oxalate and calcium intake and by the presence or absence of O. formigenes.In the setting of a high calcium intake, oxalate absorption decreases, and during calcium restriction, oxalate absorption increases because of reduced formation of a soluble calcium oxalate complex and increased availability of oxalate for absorption. H. pylori, which can colonize the stomach, has no effect on intestinal oxalate absorption. O. formigenes, an oxalate-degrading bacterium, uses oxalate as a substrate in the intestinal lumen, thereby reducing oxalate absorption. Irritable bowel syndrome, unless it is associated with chronic diarrhea, does not affect intestinal oxalate absorption.
  11. a. Acid-base status. Acid-base status determines urinary citrate excretion. Metabolic acidosis reduces citrate excretion by augmenting citrate reabsorption and mitochondrial oxidation, whereas alkalosis enhances citrate excretion.Citric acid intake has a limited effect on urinary citrate excretion because only a small portion of dietary citrate is excreted into the urine unmetabolized. The majority of absorbed citrate is metabolized to bicarbonate, which is neutralized by the free proton from citric acid, thereby providing no net alkali load that would increase urinary citrate excretion.
  12. d. Primary renal wasting of calcium.In this condition, the underlying abnormality is a primary renal leak of calcium due to impaired renal tubular calcium reabsorption.
  13. a. Absorptive hypercalciuria. The sarcoid granuloma produces 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, causing increased intestinal calcium absorption, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria.
  14. e. Fat malabsorption.Malabsorption from any cause, including small bowel resection, intrinsic disease, or jejunoileal bypass, increases luminal fatty acids and bile salts. Calcium, which normally complexes with oxalate to form a soluble complex that is lost in the stool, instead binds to fatty acids, thereby increasing luminal oxalate available for absorption. In addition, poorly absorbed bile salts increase colonic permeability to oxalate, further increasing oxalate absorption.
  15. a. Defective ammoniagenesis.Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus typically exhibit characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance. Although peripherally, insulin resistance leads to typical symptoms of diabetes, insulin resistance at the level of the kidney leads to impaired ammoniagenesis, by way of reduced production of ammonia from glutamine and reduced activity of the Na+/H+exchanger in the proximal tubule that is responsible for either the direct transport or trapping of ammonium in the urine. The result is reduced urinary ammonium and low urine pH.
  16. a. Basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle.In idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, Randall plaques have been found to originate in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle. From there, they extend through the medullary interstitium to a subepithelial location, where they serve as an anchoring site for calcium oxalate stone formation.
  17. d. Calcium apatite.Randall plaques are invariably composed of calcium apatite, which serve as an anchoring site onto which calcium oxalate crystals can adhere and grow.
  18. c. Both urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations.Urinary saturation of calcium oxalate is strongly, positively correlated with urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations. Both contribute equally to urinary saturation of calcium oxalate.
  19. e. Using oxalate as a substrate in the intestine, thereby reducing intestinal oxalate absorption.O. formigenes is an oxalate-degrading bacterium found in the intestinal lumen that uses oxalate as an energy source, thereby reducing luminal oxalate and intestinal oxalate absorption. Oxalobacter is not found in urine.
  20. a. Staphylococcus aureus.Although Proteus species are most commonly associated with struvite stones, more than 90% of S. aureus organisms produce urease and are therefore associated with struvite stone formation.
  21. b. Defective H+-ATPase in the distal tubule that is unable to excrete excess acid.A defective H+-ATPase in the distal tubule has been implicated in the inability to excrete excess acid in the presence of an oral acid load among patients with distal RTA. Type 2, or proximal RTA, is characterized by impaired bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule, and type 4 RTA is common in diabetics with chronic renal damage who demonstrate aldosterone resistance.
  22. c. Xanthine.Patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome suffer from an inherited deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, which leads to the accumulation of hypoxanthine, which is ultimately converted to uric acid. Allopurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase, which is responsible for converting hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. High doses of allopurinol in these patients lead to the accumulation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, but because xanthine is less soluble in urine than is hypoxanthine, xanthine stones form.
  23. e. Chronic dehydration, intracellular acidosis, and low urinary sodium.Subjects who abuse laxatives are chronically dehydrated, resulting in intracellular acidosis. In addition, urinary sodium is low from sodium loss as a result of the laxatives. In this environment, urate preferentially complexes with the abundant ammonium rather than sodium and produces ammonium acid urate stones.
  24. c. Complexing calcium in urine.The primary mechanism of action of citrate is as a complexing agent for calcium, thereby reducing ionic calcium and urinary saturation of calcium oxalate.
  25. e. Hypokalemia. Distal RTA is characterized by hypokalemic, hyperchloremic, nonanion gap metabolic acidosis and a urinary pH consistently above 6.0.
  26. b. Proximal tubule.The primary defect in type 2 or proximal RTA is a failure of bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule, leading to excessive urinary bicarbonate excretion and metabolic acidosis.
  27. a. Acidic urine.Patients with uric acid stones often have prolonged periods of acidity in the urine.
  28. d. Reduced or absent O. formigenes.Cystic fibrosis patients on chronic antibiotic therapy have been shown to have reduced or absent O. formigenes colonization, which potentially leads to increased intestinal oxalate absorption and reduced secretion.
  29. b. Calcium phosphate.Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and topiramate block reabsorption of bicarbonate in the renal proximal and distal tubules, thereby preventing urinary acidification and inducing a metabolic acidosis. Similar to RTA, carbonic anhydrase inhibition results in the formation of calcium phosphate stones because of the high urine pH, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia.
  30. c. Increased calcium excretion. During pregnancy, increased renal blood flow increases GFR, thereby increasing the filtered load of calcium, sodium, and uric acid.Placental production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption, further increasing urinary calcium.

Chapter review

  1. Renal calculi are two to three times more common in men than women, and in this country whites have the highest prevalence. They are uncommon before the age of 20 years, and the peak incidence occurs in the fourth to sixth decades of life.
  2. The prevalence and incidence of stone disease is directly correlated with body mass index; patients with high body mass index excrete increased levels of oxalate, uric acid, sodium, and phosphorus, and are more likely to have urinary supersaturation for uric acid. The incidence and prevalence of stone disease has been increasing around the world.
  3. Concentration product is the product of the concentrations of the chemical components.
  4. Solubility product is the concentration at which precipitation of the components occurs.
  5. A solution is saturated when the solubility product is exceeded.
  6. When the solubility product is exceeded and precipitation does not occur, the solution is said to be metastable. When precipitation occurs, the concentration at that point is called formation product.
  7. Magnesium and citrate inhibit crystal aggregation (the former complexes with oxalate and the latter with calcium); nephrocalcin inhibits nucleation, growth, and aggregation; Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein inhibits aggregation; and osteopontin inhibits crystal growth, nucleation, and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.
  8. Nanobacteria have been implicated in calcifying nanoparticles and serving as a nidus for stone formation.
  9. Most stone-forming salts are found in the urine in a supersaturated state. Inhibitors keep them in solution.
  10. The noncrystalline component of stones is called matrixand generally accounts for about 2.5% of the weight of the stone. It is composed of mucoproteins, carbohydrates, and urinary inhibitors.
  11. Parathormone increases renal calcium reabsorption and enhances phosphate excretion.
  12. Patients with small bowel disease or a history of intestinal resection and an intact colon have an increased oxalate absorption.
  13. Calcium absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine at a rate that is dependent on calcium intake.
  14. Calcium oxalate accounts for 60% of stones; mixed calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, 20%; brushite, 2%; uric acid, 10%; struvite, 10%; and cystine, 1%.
  15. Hypercalciuria is the most common abnormality identified in calcium stone formation. Hypercalciuria is defined as a urinary excretion greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
  16. Absorptive hypercalciuria is defined as an increased urinary calcium excretion after an oral calcium load and is due to increased intestinal absorption of calcium. Alteration of vitamin D receptors and/ or sensitivity has been suggested as the etiology. Renal hypercalciuria is due to impaired renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  17. Reabsorptive hypercalciuria is due to hyperparathyroidism. The administration of thiazides to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism exacerbates hypercalcemia. Parathormone-like hormone resulting in hypercalcemia is produced by lung, breast, renal, penile, and head and neck tumors; lymphoma; and myeloma.
  18. Hyperoxaluria is defined as greater than 40 mg/day excreted in the urine. Foods that are oxalate rich include nuts, chocolate, brewed tea, spinach, broccoli, strawberries, and rhubarb.
  19. Hyperuricosuria is defined as urinary uric acid excretion exceeding 600 mg/day.
  20. Hyperuricosuria promotes sodium urate formation, which promotes calcium oxalate stone formation through heterogenous nucleation.
  21. Citrate inhibits stone formation by complexing with calcium and thereby preventing spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate; it inhibits agglomeration and growth of the crystal, and it enhances the inhibitory effect of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein. It prevents heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate by monosodium urate.
  22. Hypocitraturia is defined as urinary citrate excretion of less than 320 mg/day.
  23. Renal tubular acidosis, type 1 (distal tubular RTA) is characterized by calcium phosphate stone formation, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and an increased urinary pH.
  24. Low magnesium levels result in reduced inhibitory activity and are often associated with decreased urinary citrate levels.
  25. Cystine stones form due to a defect in the transport of four amino acids: cystine, lysine, ornithine, and arginine. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive and accounts for up to 10% of stones in children. There are two genes involved in the inheritance of the disease. There are three types based on urine excretion amounts: types A, B, and AB.
  26. Stones of infection (struvite stones) are composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and may contain carbonate apatite; they occur in association with urea-splitting bacteria. Urease-producing pathogens include Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas,and Staphylococcus.
  27. The cause of stones associated with horseshoe kidneys and ureteropelvic junction obstructions is due to both the anatomic abnormality resulting in stasis and an underlying metabolic abnormality.
  28. Medullary sponge kidney is characterized by ectasia of the renal collecting ducts and leads to stones through renal acidifying defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia.
  29. Most stones in pregnancy pass spontaneously.
  30. The most important determinate of uric acid stone formation is low urinary pH. Low urinary pH in uric acid stone formers is likely due to impaired ammoniagenesis associated with insulin resistance.
  31. Medications which may precipitate as stones include triampterine, silica, indinavir, ephedrine, and ciprofloxacin.
  32. Heterogeneous nucleation occurs when microscopic impurities or other constituents in the urine promote nucleation by providing a surface on which the crystal components can grow.
  33. Intestinal oxalate absorption is modulated by dietary oxalate and calcium intake and by the presence or absence of O. formigenes.
  34. Acid-base status determines urinary citrate excretion. Metabolic acidosis reduces citrate excretion.
  35. The sarcoid granuloma produces 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, causing increased intestinal calcium absorption, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria.
  36. Malabsorption from any cause, including small bowel resection, intrinsic disease, or jejunoileal bypass, increases luminal fatty acids and bile salts. Calcium, which normally complexes with oxalate, forming a soluble complex that is lost in the stool, instead binds to fatty acids, thereby increasing luminal oxalate available for absorption. In addition, poorly absorbed bile salts increase colonic permeability to oxalate, further increasing oxalate absorption.
  37. Type 1 or distal tubule RTA is characterized by an impairment in hydrogen ion secretion. Type 2, or proximal RTA, is characterized by impaired bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Type 4 RTA is common in diabetics with chronic renal damage who demonstrate aldosterone resistance.