Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART XI

The Adrenals

64

Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy of the Adrenals

Ravi Munver; Jennifer K. Yates; Michael C. Degen

Questions

  1. Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
  2. The weight of each of the glands is approximately 10 g.
  3. The adrenal glands are in close proximity to the crus of the diaphragm.
  4. The right gland is crescentic in shape.
  5. The left adrenal gland lies adjacent to the splenic vessels.
  6. Both b and d.
  7. Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
  8. The right renal vein is longer than the left renal vein.
  9. The right adrenal vein is longer than the left adrenal vein.
  10. The right kidney is typically located lower in the retroperitoneum than the left kidney.
  11. The right adrenal gland is typically located higher in the retroperitoneum than the left adrenal gland.
  12. Both c and d.
  13. The adrenal arteries are branches from:
  14. the aorta.
  15. the inferior phrenic arteries.
  16. the renal arteries.
  17. the celiac arterial trunk.
  18. a, b, and c.
  19. In cases of renal ectopia, the ipsilateral adrenal gland is typically:
  20. absent.
  21. found in its normal anatomic position in the upper retroperitoneum.
  22. found in association with the contralateral adrenal gland.
  23. found closely applied to the superior pole of the ectopic kidney.
  24. found closely associated with the ipsilateral renal artery.
  25. In cases of unilateral renal agenesis, the ipsilateral adrenal gland is commonly:
  26. absent.
  27. found in its normal anatomic position in the upper retroperitoneum.
  28. found in association with the contralateral adrenal gland.
  29. found just inside the ipsilateral internal inguinal ring.
  30. found in an ectopic, intrathoracic location.
  31. As one proceeds outward from the adrenal medulla, the three separate functional layers of the adrenal cortex are, in correct order:
  32. zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, and zona glomerulosa.
  33. zona fasciculata, zona reticularis, and zona glomerulosa.
  34. zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis.
  35. zona glomerulosa, zona reticularis, and zona fasciculata.
  36. zona reticularis, zona glomerulosa, and zona fasciculata.
  37. Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?
  38. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines in response to stimulation from the sympathetic nervous system.
  39. The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone in response to angiotensin II.
  40. The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
  41. The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces androgens in response to luteinizing hormone (LH).
  42. Both b and c.
  43. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
  44. Ultrasound imaging cannot differentiate between solid and cystic masses of the adrenal gland.
  45. Contrast resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is inferior to that of computed tomography (CT) in enabling differentiation of adrenal masses.
  46. CT is the most widely used modality for imaging the adrenal glands.
  47. Normal adrenal tissue has a density of greater than 10 Hounsfield units on noncontrast CT imaging.
  48. MRI, via T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, can provide functional data about adrenal masses.

Answers

  1. e. Both b and d. Both adrenal glands are in close proximity to the crus of the diaphragm.The left adrenal gland is in contact with the medial aspect of the upper pole of the left kidney. The adjacent structures include the splenic vessels and body of the pancreas anteriorly, the aorta medially, and the psoas muscle posteriorly.
  2. e. Both c and d.The right kidney is typically located lower in the retroperitoneum than the left kidney. The right adrenal gland lies more superiorly in the retroperitoneum than the left adrenal gland.
  3. e. a, b, and c.The three main adrenal arteries each branch into cascades of 10 to 50 smaller arteries which then supply each adrenal gland. The three major arterial sources for each gland are: (1) superior branches from the inferior phrenic artery, (2) middle branches directly from the aorta, and (3) inferior branches from the ipsilateral renal artery.
  4. b. Found in its normal anatomic position in the upper retroperitoneum. In cases of renal ectopia, the adrenal gland is usually found in approximately its normal anatomic position.
  5. b. Found in its normal anatomic position in the upper retroperitoneum.In cases of renal agenesis, the adrenal gland on the involved side is typically present.
  6. a. Zona reticularis, zona fasciculata, and zona glomerulosa.The adult adrenal gland consists of an outer cortex, which makes up approximately 90% of the adrenal mass, and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex consists of three concentric zones: the outer zona glomerulosa comprising approximately 15% of the cortex, the middle zona fasciculata 80% of the cortex, and the inner zona reticularis 5% to 7% of the cortex. The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone, zona fasciculata produces glucocorticoids, and zona reticularis produces sex steroids.
  7. d. The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces androgens in response to luteinizing hormone (LH). The production of androgen by the zona reticularis is regulated by pituitary release of ACTH.
  8. c. CT is the most widely used modality for imaging the adrenal glands.Ultrasound imaging can be used to differentiate between solid and cystic adrenal masses. Normal adrenal tissue has a density of less than or equal to 10 Hounsfield units (HU) on noncontrast CT imaging. MRI, via T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, is superior to CT and enables differentiation of adrenal masses. Although CT and MRI provide excellent morphologic information, these studies cannot provide functional data.

Chapter review

  1. The adrenals are enclosed within Gerota fascia.
  2. The right adrenal vein is short and enters the vena cava posterolaterally.
  3. Adrenal rests are found in proximity to the celiac axis and along the path of gonadal descent. In patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal rests along the spermatic cord may become quite large.
  4. The right kidney is typically located lower in the retroperitoneum than the left kidney. The right adrenal gland lies more superiorly in the retroperitoneum than the left adrenal gland. Both adrenal glands are in close proximity to the crus of the diaphragm.
  5. In cases of renal ectopia, the adrenal gland is usually found in approximately its normal anatomic position.
  6. The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone, zona fasciculata produces glucocorticoids, and zona reticularis produces sex steroids.
  7. The production of androgen by the zona reticularis is regulated by pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
  8. Normal adrenal tissue has a density of less than or equal to 10 Hounsfield units (HU) on noncontrast CT imaging.