Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART XII

Urine Transport, Storage, and Emptying

67

Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

Larissa V. Rodriguez; Leah Yukie Nakamura

Questions

  1. Relative to the ureter, the uterine vessels are found:
  2. laterally.
  3. posteriorly.
  4. anteriorly.
  5. medially.
  6. running together in a common sheath.
  7. In contrast to that of the male, the female bladder neck:
  8. has extensive adrenergic innervation.
  9. has a thickened middle smooth muscle layer.
  10. is largely responsible for urinary continence.
  11. is surrounded by type I (slow-twitch) fibers.
  12. has longitudinal smooth muscle fibers that extend to the external meatus.
  13. To avoid denervation of the striated urethral sphincter, incisions through the vaginal wall to enter the retropubic space should be made:
  14. perpendicular to the urethra.
  15. over the urethra.
  16. close to the lateral margins of the urethra.
  17. cephalad to the bladder neck.
  18. far lateral in the vaginal wall, parallel to the urethra.
  19. A Martius (labial fat pad) rotational flap used in the repair of a vesicovaginal fistula receives blood supply from the:
  20. terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery and vein.
  21. superficial inferior epigastric vessels.
  22. inferior epigastric vessels.
  23. accessory pudendal vessels.
  24. external pudendal vessels.
  25. The round ligament:
  26. terminates in the uterus.
  27. is the main source of blood supply to the ovaries.
  28. is the male homologue of the spermatic cord.
  29. terminates in the labia.
  30. is NOT part of the broad ligament.
  31. The transversalis fascia is:
  32. part of the inner stratum.
  33. part of the outer stratum.
  34. continuous with the endopelvic fascia.
  35. part of the intermediate stratum.
  36. b and c.
  37. After a sacrospinous ligament fixation, the patient wakes up with pain in the posterior and lower leg. The nerve that was likely compromised is the:
  38. femoral nerve.
  39. pudendal nerve.
  40. sacral plexus.
  41. obturator nerve.
  42. a and b.
  43. The arcus tendineus fascia pelvis:
  44. is present only in females.
  45. attaches from the ischial spine to the sacrum.
  46. is also known as the tendinous arc.
  47. is present only in males.
  48. all of the above.
  49. Squamous metaplasia of the bladder:
  50. is a premalignant lesion.
  51. is a sign of an underlying serious infection.
  52. should always be treated with surgical resection.
  53. is a normal finding in premenopausal females.
  54. is none of the above.
  55. The ureter can be injured during a hysterectomy:
  56. at the time of division of the ovarian artery.
  57. at the time of division of the uterine artery.
  58. at the time of division of the cardinal ligament.
  59. while dissecting out the cervix.
  60. all of the above.
  61. During a sacrospinous ligament vault suspension, significant bleeding is encountered. The bleeding vessels most likely originates from the:
  62. anterior division of internal iliac.
  63. posterior division of internal iliac.
  64. perineal artery.
  65. mesenteric artery.
  66. The cavernous nerve, responsible for clitoral engorgement during sexual activity, is derived from:
  67. the pudendal nerve.
  68. the dorsal nerve of the clitoris.
  69. the superior hypogastric plexus.
  70. the inferior hypogastric plexus.

Answers

  1. c. Anteriorly.In women, the ureter first runs posterior to the ovary, then turns medially to run deep to the base of the broad ligament before entering a loose connective tissue tunnel through the substance of the cardinal ligament.
  2. e. Has longitudinal smooth muscle fibers that extend to the external meatus. At the female bladder neck, the inner longitudinal fibers converge radially to pass downward as the inner longitudinal layer of the urethra. The middle circular layer does not appear to be as robust as that of the male. The female bladder neck differs strikingly from the male in possessing little adrenergic innervation.
  3. e. Far lateral in the vaginal wall, parallel to the urethra. Somatic and autonomic nerves to the urethra travel on the lateral walls of the vagina near the urethra.During transvaginal incontinence surgery, the anterior vaginal wall should be incised laterally to avoid these nerves and prevent type III urinary incontinence.
  4. e. External pudendal vessels.The labial fat pads receive blood supply from the external pudendal branches of the femoral vessels.
  5. d. Terminates in the labia. The round ligament lies in the base of the broad ligament and arises from the uterus, then travels through the femoral canal to terminate in the labia. It is not a vital support structure to the uterus and does not carry blood supply to the ovaries.
  6. e. b and c. The transversalis fascia is part of the outer stratum and is continuous with the endopelvic and lateral pelvic fascia. Both the transversalis and endopelvic fascia play important roles at the exit points of the pelvic organs. The endopelvic fascia extends from the uterine artery down to where the vagina and levator ani fuse.
  7. c. Sacral plexus. During a sacrospinous ligament fixation, the sacral plexus is at jeopardy of being injured because it lies immediately posterior to the sacrospinous ligament as it leaves through the greater sciatic foramen. The pudendal nerve may also be injured during this repair.
  8. c. Is also known as the tendinous arc. The arcus tendineus fascia pelvis or tendinous arc is a thickened band of the pelvic fascia that runs from the ischial spine to the pubic bone. It originates from the pubic bone laterally and is connected to the pubovesical ligament medially and the tendinous arch of the levator ani.
  9. d. Is a normal finding in premenopausal females. Premenopausal women can have normal signs of squamous metaplasia at the trigone and base of the bladder. This is a nonkeratanizing metaplasia or vaginal metaplasia that is hormonally responsive and is a normal variant.
  10. e. All of the above. The ureter is vulnerable to injury because it comes in close proximity to many of the structures that are dissected and divided during a radical hysterectomy. It crosses the infundibulopelvic ligament under the ovarian artery and is just medial to the uterine artery. It also passes through the cardinal ligament and lies in close proximity to the cervix.
  11. b. Posterior division of the internal iliac artery.
  12. d. The inferior hypogastric plexus.

Chapter review

  1. The pubovesical (pubourethral or puboprostatic in the male) ligaments that attach to the bladder neck and pubis hold the bladder neck in place and provide a hammock-like support to the midurethra.
  2. The uterosacral ligaments originate from the sciatic foramen and insert into the lateral aspect of the fascia that encircles the cervix.
  3. The lymphatic drainage of the vulva, clitoris, and labia minora is to the inguinal nodes.
  4. The anterior vagina provides support to the urethra.
  5. At the female bladder neck, the inner longitudinal fibers converge radially to pass downward as the inner longitudinal layer of the urethra. The middle circular layer does not appear to be as robust as that of the male. The female bladder neck differs strikingly from the male in possessing little adrenergic innervation.
  6. Somatic and autonomic nerves to the urethra travel on the lateral walls of the vagina near the urethra.
  7. During a sacrospinous ligament fixation, the sacral plexus is in jeopardy of being injured as it lays immediately posterior to the sacrospinous ligament as it leaves through the greater sciatic foramen. The pudental nerve may also be injured during this repair.
  8. Squamous metaplasia at the trigone and base of the bladder is a nonkeratanising metaplasia that is hormonally responsive and is a normal variant.
  9. The ureter crosses the infundibulopelvic ligament under the ovarian artery and is just medial to the uterine artery. It also passes through the cardinal ligament and lies in close proximity to the cervix.