Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART XII

Urine Transport, Storage, and Emptying

68

Surgical, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Anatomy of the Male Pelvis

Benjamin I. Chung; James D. Brooks

Questions

  1. The greater and lesser sciatic foramina are separated by the:
  2. sacrotuberous ligament.
  3. Cooper (pectineal) ligament.
  4. arcuate line.
  5. sacrospinous ligament.
  6. piriformis muscle.
  7. During inguinal incisions, the vessels invariably encountered in Camper fascia are the:
  8. superficial inferior epigastric artery and vein.
  9. superficial circumflex iliac artery and vein.
  10. external pudendal artery and vein.
  11. gonadal artery and veins.
  12. accessory obturator vein.
  13. Rupture of the penile urethra at the junction of the penis and scrotum can result in urinary extravasation into all of the following structures EXCEPT the:
  14. anterior abdominal wall up to the clavicles.
  15. scrotum.
  16. penis, deep to the dartos fascia.
  17. perineum in a "butterfly" pattern.
  18. buttock.
  19. Accessory obturator veins (from the external iliac artery) and accessory obturator arteries (from the inferior epigastric artery) are encountered in:
  20. 50% and 25% of patients, respectively.
  21. 5% and 50% of patients, respectively.
  22. 50% and 75% of patients, respectively.
  23. 25% and 50% of patients, respectively.
  24. 25% and 5% of patients, respectively.
  25. A retractor blade has rested on the psoas muscle during a prolonged procedure, resulting in a femoral nerve palsy. Postoperatively, the patient will experience:
  26. inability to flex the hip and numbness over the anterior thigh.
  27. inability to flex the knee and numbness over the thigh.
  28. numbness over the anterior thigh only.
  29. inability to extend the knee and numbness over the anterior thigh.
  30. inability to flex the knee only.
  31. Autonomic nerves contributing to the pelvic plexus include the:
  32. superior hypogastric nerves from the para-aortic plexuses.
  33. pelvic sympathetic trunks.
  34. pelvic parasympathetic neurons from the sacral spinal cord.
  35. a and c only.
  36. a, b, and c.
  37. To preserve the vascular supply to the ureter, incisions in the peritoneum should be made:
  38. medially in the abdomen and laterally in the pelvis.
  39. laterally in the abdomen and medially in the pelvis.
  40. always medial to the ureter.
  41. always lateral to the ureter.
  42. directly over the ureter.
  43. All of the following features of the ureterovesical junction cooperate to prevent vesicoureteral reflux EXCEPT:
  44. fixation of the ureter to the superficial trigone.
  45. sphincteric closure of the ureteral orifice.
  46. detrusor backing.
  47. telescoping of the bladder outward over the ureter.
  48. passive closure of the intramural ureter caused by bladder filling.
  49. Which of the following statements about the trigone is TRUE?
  50. Epithelium is thicker than the rest of the bladder and densely adherent.
  51. Superficial smooth muscle is a continuation of Waldeyer sheath.
  52. Smooth muscle enlarges to form thick fascicles.
  53. Smooth muscle of the ureter forms the interureteric ridge (Mercier bar).
  54. When the bladder empties, the trigone is thrown into thick folds.
  55. Arterial supply to the bladder includes:
  56. the superior vesical artery.
  57. the inferior vesical artery.
  58. the obturator artery.
  59. the inferior hemorrhoidal artery.
  60. all of the above.
  61. Which of the following statements concerning the male striated urethral sphincter is TRUE?
  62. It is composed of type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast-twitch) fibers.
  63. It is bounded above by the superior fascia.
  64. It receives motor blanches from the dorsal nerve of the penis.
  65. It is shaped like a signet ring and is 2 to 2.5 cm in length.
  66. It is densely supplied with proprioceptive muscle spindles.
  67. The first branch of the pudendal nerve in the perineum is the:
  68. dorsal nerve of the penis.
  69. inferior rectal nerve(s).
  70. perineal nerve.
  71. posterior femoral cutaneous branches.
  72. posterior scrotal branches.
  73. Lymphatic drainage from the scrotum travels:
  74. through perianal nodes to reach the pelvis.
  75. directly to the deep pelvic lymph nodes.
  76. through the superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes.
  77. to prepubic nodes.
  78. to para-aortic lymph nodes along with testicular drainage.
  79. Which layers of the scrotum and testicular tunics usually need to be debrided in patients with Fournier gangrene?
  80. The scrotal skin only
  81. The scrotal skin and dartos layer
  82. The scrotal skin, dartos layer, and external spermatic fascia
  83. The scrotal skin, dartos layer, and external cremasteric and internal spermatic fasciae, leaving the tunica vaginalis intact
  84. All tissues, including the tunica vaginalis
  85. Lymphatic drainage from the bladder passes through the:
  86. external iliac lymph nodes.
  87. obturator and internal iliac lymph nodes.
  88. internal and common iliac lymph nodes.
  89. common iliac, periureteral, and para-aortic lymph nodes.
  90. a, b, and c.
  91. To preserve potency during a radical cystectomy, ligation of the lateral and posterior vascular pedicles is best carried out:
  92. close to their origin from the internal iliac vessels.
  93. near the bladder.
  94. from beneath the bladder after rotating the prostate cephalad.
  95. as they cross the ureter.
  96. lateral to the rectum.

Answers

  1. d. Sacrospinous ligament.The sacrospinous ligament separates the greater and lesser sciatic foramina.
  2. a. Superficial inferior epigastric artery and vein.The superficial inferior epigastric vessels are encountered during inguinal incisions and can cause troublesome bleeding during placement of pelvic laparoscopic ports.
  3. e. Buttock.Blood and urine can accumulate in the scrotum and penis deep to the dartos fascia after an anterior urethral injury. In the perineum, their spread is limited by the fusions of Colles fascia to the ischiopubic rami laterally and to the posterior edge of the perineal membrane; the resulting hematoma is therefore butterfly shaped. These processes will not extend down the leg or into the buttock, but they can freely travel up the anterior abdominal wall deep to Scarpa fascia to the clavicles and around the flank to the back.
  4. a. 50% and 25% of patients, respectively.In half of patients, one or more accessory obturator veins drain into the underside of the external iliac vein and can easily be torn during lymphadenectomy. In 25% of people, an accessory obturator artery arises from the inferior epigastric artery and runs medial to the femoral vein to reach the obturator canal.
  5. d. Inability to extend the knee and numbness over the anterior thigh.The femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4) supplies sensation to the anterior thigh and motor innervation to the extensors of the knee.
  6. e. a, b, and c.The presynaptic sympathetic cell bodies reach the pelvic plexus by two pathways: (1) the superior hypogastric plexus and (2) the pelvic continuation of the sympathetic trunks. Presynaptic parasympathetic innervation arises from the intermediolateral cell column of the sacral cord.
  7. b. Laterally in the abdomen and medially in the pelvis. Blood supply to the pelvic ureter enters laterally; thus the pelvic peritoneum should be incised only medial to the ureter.
  8. b. Sphincteric closure of the ureteral orifice.The intravesical portion of the ureter lies immediately beneath the bladder urothelium and is therefore quite pliant; it is backed by a strong plate of detrusor muscle. With bladder filling, this arrangement is thought to result in passive occlusion of the ureter, like a flap valve.
  9. d. Smooth muscle of the ureter forms the interureteric ridge (Mercier bar).Fibers from each ureter meet to form a triangular sheet of muscle that extends from the two ureteral orifices to the internal urethra meatus. The edges of this muscular sheet are thickened between the ureteral orifices (the interureteric crest, or Mercier bar) and between the ureters and the internal urethral meatus (Bell muscle).
  10. e. All of the above.In addition to the vesical branches, the bladder may be supplied by any adjacent artery arising from the internal iliac artery.
  11. d. It is shaped like a signet ring and is 2 to 2.5 cm in length.The membranous urethra spans on average 2 to 2.5 cm (range: 1.2 to 5 cm). In the male it is surrounded by the striated (external) urethral sphincter, which is often incorrectly depicted as a flat sheet of muscle sandwiched between two layers of fasciae. The striated sphincter is actually shaped like a signet ring, broad at its base and narrowing as it passes through the urogenital hiatus of the levator ani to meet the apex of the prostate.
  12. a. Dorsal nerve of the penis.The pudendal nerve follows the vessels in their course through the perineum. Its first branch, the dorsal nerve of the penis, travels ventral to the main pudendal trunk in the Alcock canal.
  13. c. Through the superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes.The penis, scrotum, and perineum drain into the inguinal lymph nodes. These nodes can be divided into superficial groups and deep groups.
  14. b. The scrotal skin and dartos layer.The external, cremasteric, and internal spermatic fasciae are embryologically distinct from the scrotal and dartos layers and have their own blood and nerve supplies. It is uncommon for them to be involved in the necrotic process in Fournier gangrene; therefore they can be spared. (In practice in patients with Fournier gangrene, all scrotal tissue is debrided to the tunica vaginalis.)
  15. e. a, b, and c. In the bladder, the bulk of the lymphatic drainage passes to the external iliac lymph nodes. Some anterior and lateral drainage may go through the obturator and internal iliac nodes, and portions of the bladder base and trigone may drain into the internal and common iliac groups. Complete lymph node dissection during radical cystectomy should encompass all of these lymph node groups.
  16. b. Near the bladder.The bladder vasculature pierces the pelvic autonomic plexuses near the origin of the arteries from the internal iliac arteries. Ligation of these vessels proximally will injure the pelvic autonomic nervous plexuses. Ligation is best carried out near the bladder to avoid nerve damage.

Chapter review

  1. Scarpa fascia on the abdomen forms a distinct layer and is continuous with Colles fascia in the perineum medially. It fuses with the deep fascia of the thigh laterally. Colles fascia is continuous with the dartos fascia of the penis. Thus, urinary extravasation and infections confined by these fascia attachments do not allow for extension down the legs or into the buttocks but may allow for it to travel to the clavicles.
  2. The internal oblique and the transversalis fascia fuse to form the conjoin tendon. The conjoin tendon reinforces the posterior wall of the inguinal canal.
  3. A direct hernia of the inguinal canal occurs medial to the inferior epigastric vessels; an indirect hernia occurs lateral to these vessels.
  4. The superior vesicle artery arises from the proximal portion of the obliterated umbilical artery. The obliterated umbilical artery may be used to find the superior vesicle artery.
  5. In 25% of people there is an accessory obturator artery that arises from the inferior epigastric artery and courses medial to the femoral vein.
  6. The genitofemoral nerve courses along the ventral surface of the psoas muscle; the femoral nerve runs in the substance of the psoas muscle. Retractors compressing the muscle may result in nerve palsy. Sutures placed perpendicular to the muscle fibers may entrap the nerves.
  7. The obturator nerve supplies the adductors of the thigh.
  8. The male bladder neck receives abundant sympathetic innervation. The female bladder neck receives little sympathetic innervation.
  9. The blood supply to the prostate enters at the 4 and 8 o'clock positions. It is important to understand this in an open prostatectomy when securing hemostasis.
  10. Although lymphatic supply from the prostate is primarily to the obturator and internal iliac nodes, it may drain directly to the presacral and external iliac nodes.
  11. Denonvilliers fascia separates the prostate from the rectum.
  12. Scrotal lymphatics do not cross the median raphe; drainage is to the ipsilateral inguinal nodes. Lymphatics from the penis cross over extensively and may drain to either or both groin nodes irrespective of the side of the penis involved.
  13. The cavernosal nerves pass by the tips of the seminal vesicles and lie within the leaves of the lateral endopelvic fascia and course very close to the apex of the prostate, where they are most vulnerable to injury.
  14. The ureter is anterior (ventral) to the common iliac artery.
  15. The blood supply to the pelvic ureter enters laterally.
  16. The bladder is an intra-abdominal organ in the infant and may project above the umbilicus.
  17. The muscle of the trigone has three layers: (1) the superficial layer, derived from the longitudinal muscle of the ureter; (2) the deep layer, which arises from Waldeyer sheath on the ureter and inserts at the bladder neck; and (3) the detrusor layer.
  18. The bladder has a lateral pedicle that is lateral to the ureter and a posterior pedicle that is posteromedial to the ureter.