Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition
Basics of Urologic Surgery
Principles of Urologic Endoscopy
Brian D. Duty; Michael J. Conlin
- Patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy should receive prophylactic antibiotics if they have any of the following risk factors EXCEPT:
- poor nutritional status.
- anatomical anomalies.
- corticosteroid use.
- smoking history.
- Compared to digital cystourethroscopes, fiberoptic scopes have improved:
- contrast evaluation.
- depth of field.
- color representation.
- Techniques that have been shown to improve flexible cystourethroscopy tolerance in men include all of the following EXCEPT:
- allowing the patient to observe the procedure.
- having the patient empty his bladder before the procedure.
- playing classical music during the procedure.
- using lidocaine lubricating gel.
- increasing the hydrostatic pressure of the irrigant during scope passage.
- Indications for ureteroscopy include all of the following EXCEPT:
- obstructing ureteral calculus.
- filling defect of the renal pelvis.
- 1.2-cm renal calculus in the lower pole.
- ureteropelvic junction obstruction with a large crossing vessel present.
- 1.5-cm midureteral stricture.
- Which of the following statements about ureteroscopy are TRUE?
- Ureteral access sheaths decrease intrarenal pressure during ureteroscopy.
- Flexible ureteroscopes accept working instruments 3.6 Fr in diameter.
- Normal saline should be used for irrigation during ureteroscopy.
- A preoperative antibiotic is needed only in high-risk patients.
- a and c.
- Compared to white light endoscopy, narrow band imaging has been shown to:
- predict favorable response to bacille Calmette-Guérin intravesical therapy.
- accurately differentiate between low- and high-grade lesions.
- obviate the need for re-resection in high-grade pT1 patients.
- significantly improve detection accuracy of muscle-invasive lesions.
- improve detection of noninvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ.
- Which of the following statements is TRUE?
- The holmium laser is absorbed in 3 cm of water.
- Water is the preferred irrigant for ureteroscopy because of improved visibility.
- Baskets made of nitinol are more "kink resistant" compared to stainless steel.
- Balloon dilation of the intramural ureter is usually necessary before flexible ureteroscopy.
- Compared to fiberoptic flexible ureteroscopes, digital flexible ureteroscopes less frequently require the use of ureteral access sheaths.
- Techniques to minimize staff radiation exposure include all of the following EXCEPT:
- using "last image hold" setting.
- using fixed fluoroscopy units.
- surgeon control of the foot pedal.
- using image collimation.
- using pulse fluoroscopy mode.
- c. Hypertension.The American Urological Association's Best Practice Policy Statement on Antimicrobial Prophylaxis did not recommend routine antibiotic administration for diagnostic cystourethroscopy.This recommendation was based on the recognition that some randomized studies have shown antibiotic prophylaxis reduces bacteriuria and symptomatic infection rates, whereas others have not. However, antibiotic administration was advocated by the panel for patients with host factors increasing their risk of infection. These include advanced age, anatomic anomalies, poor nutritional status, smoking, chronic corticosteroid use, immunodeficiency, chronic indwelling hardware infected with endogenous or exogenous material, distant coinfection, and prolonged hospitalization.
- a. Illumination.An in vitro study from the University of California at Irvine compared the resolution, contrast evaluation, depth of field, color representation, and illumination of fiberoptic, standard-definition, and high-definition digital flexible cystoscopes (Lusch et al, 2013).* All three scopes were by the same manufacturer (Olympus, Center Valley, PA). The high-definition digital cystourethroscope was found to have a significantly higher resolution and depth of field compared to the standard-definition digital and fiberoptic models. Color representation was also slightly improved. There was no difference in contrast evaluation among the three models. The only parameter that was found to be superior in the fiberoptic model was illumination.
- b. Having the patient empty his bladder before the procedure.A variety of prospective studies have been performed with the aim of improving patient tolerance during office-based diagnostic flexible cystourethroscopy. A meta-analysis of four randomized trials involving 411 patients found that patients receiving lidocaine gel were 1.7 times less likely to experience moderate to severe pain during the procedure (Aaronson et al, 2009). Results of a randomized trial involving 151 men indicated that increasing the hydrostatic pressure of the irrigation solution during passage of the scope through the membranous urethra was associated with significantly less discomfort on an analog pain scale (Gunendran et al, 2008). In another study, men who were allowed to watch the procedure had significantly less pain on a 100-mm visual analog scale (Patel et al, 2007). Last, 70 men were randomly assigned to hear either no music or classical music during cystourethroscopy (Yeo et al, 2013). Patients listening to classical music had significantly less pain, greater satisfaction, lower postprocedure pulse rates, and lower systolic blood pressures.
- d. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction with a large crossing vessel present.All of the options are common indications for ureteroscopy except ureteropelvic junction obstruction due to a large crossing vessel. Although ureteropelvic junction obstruction can be managed with ureteroscopic endopyelotomy, patients with a large crossing vessel are better treated by laparoscopic pyeloplasty.
- e. a and c.Auge and colleagues measured the pressure within the renal pelvis, proximal, mid and distal ureter before and after ureteral access sheath placement in five patients who had previously undergone nephrostomy tube placement (Auge et al, 2004). The pressure within the collecting system was found to be significantly lower at each location following access sheath placement.
- e. Improve detection of noninvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ.Narrow-band imaging uses only blue (415 nm) and green (540 nm) wavelengths to image the urothelium compared to white light endoscopy, which uses the entire visible light spectrum. Blue and green wavelengths are strongly absorbed by hemoglobin, improving visibility of urothelial capillaries, small papillary lesions, and carcinoma in situ. A meta-analysis of eight studies including 1022 patients found that narrow-band imaging improves detection accuracy of noninvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ (Zheng et al, 2012).
- c. Baskets made of nitinol are more "kink resistant" compared to stainless steel.Nitinol has a variety of advantageous properties compared to stainless steel. Nitinol is more biocompatible, has greater torqueability and improved "memory," and is more resistant to kinking. These properties make it ideal for stone basket construction. Holmium laser energy is absorbed by 3 mm of water. Saline is the preferred irrigation solution because of the decreased risk of "transurethral resection syndrome" compared to hypotonic solutions. The need for ureteral dilation has decreased over time with the advent of smaller diameter ureteroscopes. However, digital models have larger tip and shaft diameters, making them more likely to need ureteral dilation or access sheath placement compared to their fiberoptic counterparts.
- b. Using fixed fluoroscopy units.All endourologic procedures using fluoroscopy should operate on the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable). Techniques that have been shown to minimize radiation exposure include surgeon control of the foot pedal, using "last image hold," image collimation, and pulsed fluoroscopy mode. Compared to fixed units, mobile C-arm fluoroscopy machines are able to position the image intensifier closer to the patient, thereby reducing exposure while improving image quality.
- Simple cystoscopy does not require prophylactic antibiotics unless there are risk factors.
- If electrocautery is used, an electrolyte-free solution should be employed.
- Narrow-band imaging filters light into two separate bands, blue and green wavelengths, which are absorbed by hemoglobin, aiding in identifying hypervascular lesions. Narrow-band imaging improves detection accuracy of noninvasive lesions, including carcinoma in situ.
- The designation of the size of an instrument in French (Fr) is approximately the circumference of the instrument. To determine the diameter of the instrument, the French size is divided by 3. Thus a 21-Fr cystoscope is 7 mm in diameter. For ureteroscopy, the irrigants are typically physiologic solutions, such as normal saline. However, with a ureteral access sheath in place, low-osmolarity irrigant fluids may be used.
- Complications of basketing include ureteral avulsion, intussusception, abrasion, perforation, postoperative stricture formation, and basket entrapment and retention.
- When introducing an instrument into the bladder through the male urethra, the most uncomfortable area is the membranous urethra.
- One should not step on the pedal when using the holmium laser if the tip of the fiber cannot be seen in contact with the stone; otherwise the ureter or the ureteroscope may be damaged.
- Hydrophilic-coated guidewires should not be used as safety wires.
* Sources referenced can be found in Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition, on the Expert Consult website.