Campbell-Walsh Urology, 11th Edition

PART II

Basics of Urologic Surgery

9

Evaluation and Management of Hematuria

Stephen A. Boorjian; Jay D. Raman; Daniel A. Barocas

Questions

  1. Microhematuria sufficient to trigger a diagnostic evaluation is defined as:
  2. a positive chemical test (urine dipstick) showing small, moderate, or large blood on one properly collected specimen.
  3. a positive chemical test (urine dipstick) showing small, moderate, or large blood on at least two of three properly collected specimens.
  4. a positive chemical test (urine dipstick) showing large blood on one properly collected specimen.
  5. urine microscopy showing three or more red blood cells per high-powered field (RBCs/HPF) on one properly collected urine specimen.
  6. urine microscopy showing three or more RBCs/HPF on at least two of three properly collected urine specimens.
  7. The likelihood of finding a malignancy in a patient with microhematuria is influenced by all of the following, EXCEPT:
  8. age.
  9. gender.
  10. use of anticoagulants.
  11. tobacco use.
  12. degree of hematuria.
  13. According to American Urological Association guidelines, the proper initial assessment of a 50-year-old patient with asymptomatic microhematuria includes:
  14. blood pressure measurement, serum creatinine level, cystoscopy, and computed tomographic (CT) urogram.
  15. urine cytology, cystoscopy, and CT urogram.
  16. urine cytology, blue-light cystoscopy, and any upper tract imaging.
  17. urine cytology and renal/bladder ultrasound.
  18. no evaluation unless microhematuria is persistent/recurrent or hematuria is visible.
  19. In the evaluation of patients with microhematuria, cystoscopy may be safely avoided if:
  20. there are no associated symptoms in a patient of any age.
  21. the patient is younger than 35 years and without symptoms or risk factors for malignancy.
  22. the patient is taking aspirin or warfarin.
  23. the cytology is negative.
  24. the patient has a history of urinary tract infection, and hematuria is still present after treatment.
  25. Patients presenting with gross hematuria in the absence of recent trauma or concurrent infection who are on anticoagulation medications should be evaluated with:
  26. urinalysis, urine cytology, and cystoscopy only.
  27. CT urogram, with cystoscopy only if symptomatic.
  28. no evaluation is necessary.
  29. assessment of anticoagulation status, and evaluation only if supratherapeutic.
  30. urine cytology, cystoscopy, and CT urogram.
  31. The metabolite of oxazaphosphorine chemotherapeutic agents that is responsible for hemorrhagic cystitis is:
  32. mesna.
  33. acrolein.
  34. formalin.
  35. gemcitabine.
  36. methotrexate.
  37. Use of intravesical alum for hemorrhagic cystitis should be avoided in patients with:
  38. a history of malignancy.
  39. a history of detrusor instability.
  40. active gross hematuria.
  41. renal insufficiency.
  42. vesicoureteral reflux.
  43. The molecular pathophysiology linking benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and hematuria is exemplified by the identification of which of the following in the prostate tissue from men with BPH?
  44. Decreased microvessel density
  45. Androgen-independent angiogenesis
  46. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  47. Reduced cell proliferation
  48. Diminished blood flow
  49. A 65-year-old man with a history of BPH has recurrent gross hematuria. The patient is clinically stable, with no transfusion requirement, no clots in urine, and no difficulty with bladder emptying. A hematuria evaluation with CT urogram, cystoscopy, and urine cytology is unremarkable. The best next step in management is:
  50. five-alpha reductase inhibitor.
  51. alpha-blocker therapy.
  52. angioembolization of internal iliac artery.
  53. channel transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  54. trial of antibiotic therapy.
  55. A 35-year-old man presents with the complaint of penile pain and immediate detumescence during intercourse. Physical examination notes blood at the urethral meatus. The next step should be:
  56. immediate operative exploration.
  57. CT scan of the pelvis.
  58. retrograde urethrography.
  59. to obtain serum coagulation parameters.
  60. conservative management with serial examinations.
  61. A 55-year-old woman presents with intermittent gross hematuria 2 weeks after undergoing a right partial nephrectomy for a 4-cm solid enhancing renal mass. She is afebrile with stable vital signs. She is able to void to completion, and her urine is red without clots. Her creatinine is 1.1 mg/dL. The next step should be:
  62. surgical exploration.
  63. renal angiography.
  64. continuous bladder irrigation.
  65. observation.
  66. noncontrast CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis.

Answers

  1. d. Urine microscopy showing three or more red blood cells per high-powered field (RBCs/HPF) on one properly collected urine specimen.The presence of three or more RBCs/HPF on a single urine microscopy is associated with malignancy in 2.3% to 5.5% of patients. Chemical tests for hematuria detect the peroxidase activity of erythrocytes by using benzidine and can render false results in the presence of dehydration, myoglobinuria, high doses of vitamin C, improper technique, and other factors. Although higher levels of microhematuria (> 25 RBCs/HPF) are known to be associated with higher rates of malignancy on evaluation, setting the threshold higher than 3 RBCs/HPF or requiring more than one positive urinalysis would lead to an unknown number of missed opportunities for diagnosis.
  2. c. Use of anticoagulants.Increasing age, male gender, and tobacco use are risk factors for urologic cancers and specifically for urothelial carcinoma. In addition, although there are few data to distinguish among thresholds of 2, 3, 4, or 5 RBCs/HPF, it is clear that a high level of microhematuria (> 25 RBCs/HPF) is associated with a greater likelihood of malignancy. By contrast, patients using anticoagulant medications or antiplatelet medications have a risk of malignancy similar to that of those who do not use these medications. Therefore, such patients should be evaluated comparably to those who do not use anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents.
  3. a. Blood pressure measurement, serum creatinine level, cystoscopy, and computed tomographic (CT) urogram.The AUA suggests that adult patients presenting with asymptomatic microhematuria should undergo evaluation to determine the cause. Blood pressure measurement and serum creatinine level may help identify patients who require concurrent nephrologic workup, and creatinine level also helps determine patient eligibility for contrast imaging. The evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria includes imaging (preferably with CT urogram) and cystoscopy in patients 35 and older and those under 35 with risk factors for malignancy.
  4. b. The patient is younger than 35 years and without symptoms or risk factors for malignancy.The AUA guidelines call for use of cystoscopy for evaluation of hematuria in all patients 35 years and older (Recommendation). The risk of malignancy is very low in persons younger than 35 years, such that the potential benefits of cystoscopy may be outweighed by the very small risks associated with the procedure. Therefore, it is an option to omit cystoscopy in patients younger than the age of 35, provided that the patient does not have risk factors for a urologic malignancy.
  5. e. Urine cytology, cystoscopy, CT urogram.Given the increased frequency with which clinically significant findings are associated with gross hematuria, the recommended evaluation in this setting is relatively uniform. That is, patients presenting with gross hematuria in the absence of antecedent trauma or culture-documented urinary tract infection should be evaluated with a urine cytology, cystoscopy, and upper tract imaging, preferably CT urogram. Importantly, patients who develop hematuria and are on anticoagulation medications should undergo a complete evaluation in the same manner as patients not taking such medications, because the prevalence of hematuria, as well as the likelihood of finding genitourinary cancers, among patients with hematuria on anticoagulation has been reported to be no different from that for patients not taking such medications.
  6. b. Acrolein.Bladder toxicity with oxazaphosphorine chemotherapeutic agents results from renal excretion of the metabolite acrolein, which is produced by the liver and which stimulates bladder mucosal sloughing and subsequent tissue edema/fibrosis. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate), which binds to acrolein and renders it inert, has been suggested for prophylaxis against cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.
  7. d. Renal insufficiency. Alum may be considered for first-line intravesical therapy among patients with hemorrhagic cystitis failing initial supportive measures. However, although cell penetration and therefore overall toxicity of this agent is low, systemic absorption may nevertheless occur and may result in aluminum toxicity,with consequent mental status changes, particularly among patients with renal insufficiency. Meanwhile, before intravesical administration of silver nitrate or formalin, a cystogram should be obtained to evaluate for the presence of vesicoureteral reflux.
  8. c. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).The etiology for BPH-related hematuria has been thought to be increased prostatic vascularity due to higher microvessel density in hyperplastic prostate tissue. This noted increase in microvessel density has in turn been linked to higher levels of VEGF. Moreover, because the pathophysiology of BPH-related bleeding has been postulated as increased cell proliferation stimulating increased vascularity, efforts to suppress prostate growth via androgen ablation have been explored. Indeed, both estrogens and antiandrogens have, in small case reports, been associated with decreased prostate bleeding, presumably through the repression of androgen-stimulated angiogenesis and the induction of programmed cell death within the prostate.
  9. a. Five-alpha reductase inhibitor. Treatment with finasteride is associated with decreased VEGF expression, prostate microvessel density, and prostatic blood flow.Clinically, multiple series have demonstrated the efficacy of finasteride for BPH-related hematuria, with symptom improvement or resolution consistently noted in approximately 90% of patients. Therefore, in otherwise stable patients, finasteride represents a reasonable first-line therapy for BPH-related gross hematuria after the completion of an initial diagnostic evaluation. Channel TURP has typically been used in the setting of prostate cancer, whereas a "standard" TURP or an alternative form of such endoscopic prostate tissue removal/destruction may be used for patients with persistent bleeding from BPH despite conservative therapies and/or endoscopic fulguration, particularly when additional indications for BPH surgery coexist. In cases with persistent bleeding despite TURP, selective angioembolization should be considered.
  10. c. Retrograde urethrography.The clinical scenario is consistent with an acute penile fracture. Blood at the meatus raises suspicion for concomitant urethral injury, which requires investigation by retrograde urethrography before planned operative repair. Conservative management poses the risk of untreated urethral and corporal injury, which can result in urethral stricture disease and erectile dysfunction.
  11. b. Renal angiography.The clinical scenario is consistent with a renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Renal angiography is both diagnostic and therapeutic in this scenario, with the ability to coil or embolize this abnormal vascular communication. Observation and bladder irrigation do not address the underlying causative factor, and noncontrast CT imaging fails to delineate the vascular anatomy. Surgical exploration has a high likelihood of renal loss and is reserved for cases refractory to angiographic modalities.

Chapter review

  1. Initial hematuria most commonly originates from the urethra; terminal hematuria is usually from the trigone, bladder neck, or prostate.
  2. Substances that may make the urine appear to contain blood include bilirubin, myoglobin, porphyrins, ingested foods such as beets and rhubarb, and phenazopyridine.
  3. Malignancy is found in 2% to 4% of patients evaluated for microhematuria.
  4. Vigorous exercise may cause hematuria.
  5. Patients who are on anticoagulants and have hematuria, microscopic or gross, should be fully evaluated.
  6. None of the urinary biomarkers, including cytology, are sufficiently sensitive to eliminate cystoscopy in the evaluation.
  7. Alum concentration should not exceed 1%; aluminum toxicity may be a complication. It should not be used in patients with renal insufficiency.
  8. Silver nitrate concentration should not exceed 1%; formalin concentration should not exceed preferably 1% or 2% at most (it is normally supplied in a 10% concentration). Higher concentrations of silver nitrate and formalin markedly increase serious complications such as bladder wall slough, bladder contracture, and perforation. Before intravesical administration of silver nitrate or of formalin, a cystogram should be obtained to evaluate for the presence of vesicoureteral reflux.
  9. Bilateral nephrostomy tubes may be helpful in patients with persistent hemorrhagic cystitis when all other conservative methods fail.
  10. Laser fulguration has shown promise in controlling bleeding in patients with persistent hemorrhagic cystitis.
  11. Signs that the bleeding is glomerular in origin include red blood cell casts, dysmorphic red cells, and significant proteinuria.
  12. BPH is the most common cause of prostate bleeding; when the bleeding is due to untreated prostate cancer, one should think of more advanced disease, such as invasion into the bladder neck.
  13. Microhematuria is defined as urine microscopy showing three or more red blood cells per high-powered field on one properly collected urine specimen.
  14. The evaluation of asymptomatic hematuria includes imaging (preferably with CT urogram), cytology, and cystoscopy in patients 35 and older and those younger than 35 years with risk factors for malignancy.
  15. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate), which binds to acrolein and renders it inert, has been suggested for prophylaxis against cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.
  16. The etiology for BPH-related hematuria has been thought to be increased prostatic vascularity due to higher microvessel density in hyperplastic prostate tissue. Treatment with finasteride is associated with decreased VEGF expression, prostate microvessel density, and prostatic blood flow
  17. In cases with persistent prostatic bleeding despite TURP, selective angioembolization should be considered.