Hadzic's Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Anatomy for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia, 2nd

21. Femoral Nerve Block


FIGURE 21-1. Needle insertion for femoral nerve block.

General Considerations

A femoral nerve block is a quintessential nerve block technique that is easy to master, carries a low risk of complications, and has significant clinical application for surgical anesthesia and postoperative pain management. The femoral block is well-suited for surgery on the anterior thigh and knee, quadriceps tendon repair, and postoperative pain management after femur and knee surgery. When combined with a block of the sciatic nerve, anesthesia of almost the entire lower extremity from the midthigh level can be achieved.

Functional Anatomy

The femoral nerve is the largest branch of the lumbar plexus, arising from the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves. The nerve descends through the psoas muscle, emerging from the psoas at the lower part of its lateral border, and it runs downward between the psoas and the iliacus. The femoral nerve eventually passes underneath the inguinal ligament into the thigh, where it assumes a more flattened shape (Figure 21-2). The inguinal ligament is a convergent point of the transversalis fascia (fascial sac lining the deep surface of the anterior abdominal wall) and iliac fascia (fascia covering the posterior abdominal wall). As it passes beneath the inguinal ligament, the nerve is positioned lateral and slightly deeper than the femoral artery between the psoas and iliacus muscles. At the femoral crease, the nerve is on the surface of the iliacus muscle and covered by the fascia iliaca or sandwiched between two layers of fascia iliaca. In contrast, vascular fascia of the femoral artery and vein, a funnel-shaped extension of the transversalis fascia, forms a distinctly different compartment from that of the femoral nerve but often contains the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve lateral to the vessels (Figure 21-3). The physical separation of the femoral nerve from the vascular fascia explains the lack of spread of a “blind paravascular” injection of local anesthetic toward the femoral nerve.


FIGURE 21-2. Anatomy of the femoral triangle. Image femoral artery. Image femoral nerve. Image femoral vein. Image anterior superior iliac spine. Image inguinal ligament. Image sartorius.


FIGURE 21-3. Arrangement of the fascial sheaths at the femoral triangle. Femoral nerve is enveloped by two layers of fascia iliaca, whereas femoral vessels are contained in the vascular (femoral) sheath made up of fascia lata.


• It is useful to think of the mnemonic “VAN” (vein, artery, nerve: medial to lateral) when recalling the relationship of the femoral nerve to the vessels in the femoral triangle.

The branches to the sartorius muscle depart from the anteromedial aspect of the femoral nerve toward the sartorius muscle. Because sartorius muscle twitch may be the result of the stimulation of this specific branch and not the femoral nerve, the sartorius motor response should not be accepted. Although the needle in the proper position (close to the main trunk of the femoral nerve) often results in sartorius muscle twitch, quadriceps twitch results in more consistent blockade, and it routinely should be sought before injecting local anesthetic unless ultrasound is used concomitantly.

The femoral nerve supplies the muscular branches of the iliacus and pectineus and the muscles of the anterior thigh, except for the tensor fascia lata. The nerve also provides cutaneous branches to the front and medial sides of the thigh, the medial leg and foot (saphenous nerve), and the articular branches of the hip and knee joints (Table 21-1).

TABLE 21-1 Femoral Nerve Branches


Distribution of Blockade

Femoral nerve block results in anesthesia of the skin and muscles of the anterior thigh and most of the femur and knee joint (Figure 21-4). The block also confers anesthesia of the skin on the medial aspect of the leg below the knee joint (saphenous nerve, a superficial terminal extension of the femoral nerve).



FIGURE 21-4. (A) Motor innervation of the femoral nerve. (B) Sensory innervation of the femoral nerve and its cutaneous branches.

Single-Injection Femoral Nerve Block


A standard regional anesthesia tray is prepared with the following equipment:

• Sterile towels and gauze packs

• One 20-mL syringe containing local anesthetic

• A 3-mL syringe plus 25-gauge needle with local anesthetic for skin infiltration

• A 5-cm, 22-gauge short-bevel insulated stimulating needle

• Peripheral nerve stimulator

• Sterile gloves; marking pen

Landmarks and Patient Positioning

The patient is in the supine position with both legs extended. In obese patients, a pillow placed underneath the hips can facilitate palpation of the femoral artery and the block performance.

Landmarks for the femoral nerve block are easily recognizable in most patients and include the femoral crease (Figure 21-5) and femoral artery pulse (Figure 21-6).


FIGURE 21-5. Femoral nerve block is performed at the level of the femoral crease (line).


FIGURE 21-6. The main landmark for the femoral nerve block is the femoral artery, which is palpated at the level of the femoral crease. Needle insertion point is just lateral to the pulse of the femoral artery.


• Note that the needle is inserted at the level of the femoral crease, a naturally occurring skin fold positioned a few centimeters below the inguinal ligament.

The following maneuvers can be used to facilitate landmark identification:

• The femoral crease can be accentuated in obese patients by having an assistant retract the lower abdomen laterally.

• Retraction of the abdomen should be maintained throughout the procedure to facilitate palpation of the femoral artery and performance of the block.

• Avoid excessive pressure on the crease when palpating for the artery because it can distort the landmarks.

The needle insertion site is labeled immediately lateral to the pulse of the femoral artery (Figure 21-6). All landmarks should be outlined with a marking pen.


After thorough preparation of the area with an antiseptic solution, local anesthetic is infiltrated subcutaneously at the estimated site of needle insertion. The injection for the skin anesthesia should be shallow and in a line extending laterally to allow for a more lateral needle reinsertion when necessary. The anesthesiologist should stand at the side of the patient with the palpating hand on the femoral artery. The needle is introduced immediately at the lateral border of the artery and advanced in sagittal, slightly cephalad plane (Figure 21-1).


A visible or palpable twitch of the quadriceps muscle (a patella twitch) at 0.2–0.4 mA is the most reliable response.


• A twitch of the sartorius is a common occurence and it is seen as a band-like contraction across the thigh without movement of the patella.

• A sartorius muscle twitch is not a reliable sign because the branches to the sartorius muscle may be outside the femoral sheath (iliacus fascia).

• When a sartorius muscle twitch occurs, simply redirect the needle laterally and advance it several millimeters deeper to obtain patella twitch, assuring that needle tip is in the vicinity of the main trunk of the femoral nerve.

After initial stimulation of the femoral nerve is obtained, the stimulating current is gradually decreased until twitches are still seen or felt at 0.2 to 0.4 mA, which typically occurs at a depth of 2 to 3 cm. After obtaining negative results from an aspiration test for blood, 15 to 20 mL of local anesthetic is injected slowly.


When stimulation of the quadriceps muscle is not obtained on the first needle pass, the palpating hand should not be moved from its position. Instead, visualize the needle plane in which the stimulation was not obtained and:

• Ensure that the nerve stimulator is properly connected and functional.

• Withdraw the needle to skin level, redirect it 10° to 15° laterally, and repeat needle advancement (Figure 21-7).


FIGURE 21-7. When lateral redirection of the needle does not bring about motor response, the needle is reinserted 1 cm lateral to the original reinsertion point.


• It is essential to keep the palpating finger in the same position throughout the procedure. This strategy allows for a more organized approach to localize the femoral nerve.

When the procedure just described fails to produce a twitch, the needle is withdrawn from the skin and reinserted 1 cm laterally, and the previously described steps are repeated with a progressively more lateral needle insertion.

Table 21-2 shows some common responses to nerve stimulation and the course of action required to obtain the proper response.

TABLE 21-2 Common Responses to Nerve Stimulation and Course of Action for Proper Response


Block Dynamics and Perioperative Management

Femoral nerve blockade is associated with minimal patient discomfort because the needle passes only through the skin and adipose tissue of the femoral inguinal region. However, many patients feel uncomfortable being exposed during palpation of the femoral artery, and appropriate sedation is necessary for the patient’s comfort and acceptance. The administration of midazolam 1 to 2 mg after the patient is positioned and alfentanil 250 to 500 μg just before infiltration of the local anesthetic suffices for most patients. A typical onset time for this block is 15 to 20 minutes, depending on the type, concentration, and volume of anesthetic used. The first sign of onset of the blockade is a loss of sensation in the skin over the medial aspect of the leg below the knee (saphenous nerve). Weightbearing on the blocked side is impaired, which should be clearly explained to the patient to prevent falls. Some practitioners advocate the use of large volume of local anesthetic to anesthetize lateral femoral cutaneous and obturator nerves in addition to the femoral nerve. However, such an extensive spread of the local anesthetic has not been substantiated in the literature. Injection of local anesthetic during femoral nerve blockade results primarily in pooling of the injectate around the femoral nerve underneath the fascia iliaca without consistent latera-medial spread (Figure 21-8).


FIGURE 21-8. Injection of local anesthetic during femoral nerve blockade results primarily in pooling of the injectate around the femoral nerve underneath the fascia iliaca without consistent latera-medial spread. FN - femoral nerve, IC - Iliac Crest, P - Psoas Muscle, I - Iliacus muscle, ON - Obturator Nerve.

Continuous Femoral Nerve Block

The continuous femoral nerve block technique is similar to the single-injection procedure; however, insertion of the needle at a slightly lower angle may be necessary to facilitate threading of the catheter. The most common indications for use of this block are postoperative analgesia after knee arthroplasty, anterior cruciate ligament repair, and femoral fracture repair.


A standard regional anesthesia tray is prepared with the following equipment:

• Sterile towels and gauze packs

• One 20-mL syringes containing local anesthetic

• Sterile gloves, marking pen, and surface electrode

• A 3- to 5-mL syringe plus 25-gauge needle with local anesthetic for skin infiltration

• Peripheral nerve stimulator

• Catheter kit (including a 5- to 8-cm large-gauge stimulating needle and catheter)

Either nonstimulating (conventional) or stimulating catheters can be used. During the placement of a conventional, nonstimulating catheter, the stimulating needle is first advanced until appropriate motor responses are obtained. Five to 10 mL of local anesthetic or nonconducting injectate (e.g., D5W) is injected to “open up” a space for the catheter to advance with less resistance. Then the catheter is threaded through the needle to approximately 3–5 cm beyond the tip of the needle. The needle is withdrawn, the catheter secured, and the remaining local anesthetic is injected via the catheter.

Landmarks and Patient Positioning

The patient is in the supine position with both legs extended. In obese patients, a pillow placed underneath the hips can facilitate palpation of the femoral artery and the block performance.

The landmarks for a continuous femoral block include:

1. Femoral (inguinal crease)

2. Femoral artery

3. Needle insertion site is marked immediately lateral to the pulse of the femoral artery


With the patient in the supine position, the skin is infiltrated with local anesthetic at the injection site using a 25-gauge needle. The palpating hand is used to keep the middle finger on the pulse of the femoral artery while the entire hand slightly pulls the skin caudally to keep it from wrinkling on needle insertion (Figure 21-1). The stimulating needle connected to the nerve stimulator (1.0 mA) is inserted and advanced at a 45° to 60° angle. Care should be taken to avoid insertion of the needle too medially to decrease the risk of a puncture of the femoral artery. The goal is to obtain a quadriceps muscle response (patella twitch) at 0.5 mA. The catheter should be advanced 3 to 5 cm beyond the needle tip (Figure 21-9). The catheter is advanced deeper in obese patients to prevent catheter dislodgement with shifting of the adipose tissue postoperatively. Then the needle is withdrawn back to the skin level, and the catheter is advanced simultaneously to prevent inadvertent removal of the catheter.


FIGURE 21-9. Catheter insertion for continuous femoral nerve block. The catheter is inserted 3–5 cm beyond the needle tip.

The catheter is checked for inadvertent intravascular placement and secured to the thigh using an adhesive skin preparation such as benzoin, followed by application of a clear dressing. The infusion port should be clearly marked “continuous nerve block.”

Continuous Infusion

Continuous infusion is always initiated following an initial bolus (15–20 mL) of dilute local anesthetic through the needle or catheter. For this purpose, we routinely use 0.2% ropivacaine. The infusion is maintained at 5 mL/h with a patient-controlled regional analgesic dose of 5 mL/h.

Complications and How to Avoid Them

Table 21-3 provides some general and specific instructions on possible complications and how to avoid them.

TABLE 21-3 Complications of Femoral Nerve Block and Preventive Techniques




Single-Injection Femoral Nerve Block

Allen HW, Liu SS, Ware PD, Nairn CS, Owens BD. Peripheral nerve blocks improve analgesia after total knee replacement surgery. Anesth Analg. 1998;87:93-97.

Beaulieu P, Babin D, Hemmerling T. The pharmacodynamics of ropivacaine and bupivacaine in combined sciatic and femoral nerve blocks for total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:768-774.

Biboulet P, Morau D, Aubas P, Bringuier-Branchereau S, Capdevila X. Postoperative analgesia after total-hip arthroplasty: comparison of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine and single injection of femoral nerve or psoas compartment block. a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:102-109.

de Lima ESR, Correa CH, Henriques MD, de Oliveira CB, Nunes TA, Gomez RS. Single-injection femoral nerve block with 0.25% ropivacaine or 0.25% bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after total knee replacement or anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Clin Anesth. 2008;20:521-527.

Eledjam JJ, Cuvillon P, Capdevila X, et al. Postoperative analgesia by femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.2% after major knee surgery: continuous versus patient-controlled techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:604-611.

Fowler SJ, Symons J, Sabato S, Myles PS. Epidural analgesia compared with peripheral nerve blockade after major knee surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Br J Anaesth. 2008;100:154-164.

Hadžić; A, Vloka JD, Kuroda MM, Koorn R, Birnbach DJ. The practice of peripheral nerve blocks in the United States: a national survey [p2e comments]. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1998;23:241-246.

Iskandar H, Benard A, Ruel-Raymond J, Cochard G, Manaud B. Femoral block provides superior analgesia compared with intra-articular ropivacaine after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:29-32.

Jansen TK, Miller BE, Arretche N, Pellegrini JE. Will the addition of a sciatic nerve block to a femoral nerve block provide better pain control following anterior cruciate ligament repair surgery? AANA J. 2009;77:213-218.

Jochum D, O’Neill T, Jabbour H, Diarra PD, Cuignet-Pourel E, Bouaziz H. Evaluation of femoral nerve blockade following inguinal paravascular block of Winnie: are there still lessons to be learnt? Anaesthesia. 2005;60:974-977.

Johnson TW. Will the addition of sciatic nerve block to a femoral nerve block provide better pain control following anterior cruciate ligament repair surgery? AANA J. 2009;77:417.

Kardash K, Hickey D, Tessler MJ, Payne S, Zukor D, Velly AM. Obturator versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:853-858.

Lang SA, Yip RW, Chang PC, Gerard MA. The femoral 3-in-1 block revisited. J Clin Anesth. 1993;5:292-296.

Macalou D, Trueck S, Meuret P, et al. Postoperative analgesia after total knee replacement: the effect of an obturator nerve block added to the femoral 3-in-1 nerve block. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:251-254.

Madej TH, Ellis FR, Halsall PJ. Evaluation of “3 in 1” lumbar plexus block in patients having muscle biopsy. Br J Anaesth. 1989;62:515-517.

Marhofer P, Nasel C, Sitzwohl C, Kapral S. Magnetic resonance imaging of the distribution of local anesthetic during the three-in-one block. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:119-124.

Martin F, Martinez V, Mazoit JX, et al. Antiinflammatory effect of peripheral nerve blocks after knee surgery: clinical and biologic evaluation. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:484-490.

Montes FR, Zarate E, Grueso R, et al. Comparison of spinal anesthesia with combined sciatic-femoral nerve block for outpatient knee arthroscopy. J Clin Anesth. 2008;20:415-420.

Mulroy MF, Larkin KL, Batra MS, Hodgson PS, Owens BD. Femoral nerve block with 0.25% or 0.5% bupivacaine improves postoperative analgesia following outpatient arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:24-29.

Ng HP, Cheong KF, Lim A, Lim J, Puhaindran ME. Intraoperative single-shot “3-in-1” femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.25%, ropivacaine 0.5% or bupivacaine 0.25% provides comparable 48-hr analgesia after unilateral total knee replacement. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48:1102-1108.

Noiseux N, Prieto I, Bracco D, Basile F, Hemmerling T. Coronary artery bypass grafting in the awake patient combining high thoracic epidural and femoral nerve block: first series of 15 patients. Br J Anaesth.2008;100:184-189.

Parkinson SK, Mueller JB, Little WL, Bailey SL. Extent of blockade with various approaches to the lumbar plexus. Anesth Analg. 1989;68:243-248.

Ritter JW. Femoral nerve “sheath” for inguinal paravascular lumbar plexus block is not found in human cadavers. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7:470-473.

Rosaeg OP, Krepski B, Cicutti N, Dennehy KC, Lui AC, Johnson DH. Effect of preemptive multimodal analgesia for arthroscopic knee ligament repair. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:125-130.

Schafhalter-Zoppoth I, Moriggl B. Aspects of femoral nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:92-93; author reply 93.

Schiferer A, Gore C, Gorove L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of femoral nerve blockade administered preclinically for pain relief in femoral trauma. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1852-1854; table of contents.

Schulz-Stubner S, Henszel A, Hata JS. A new rule for femoral nerve blocks. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:473-477.

Seeberger MD, Urwyler A. Paravascular lumbar plexus block: block extension after femoral nerve stimulation and injection of 20 vs. 40 ml mepivacaine 10 mg/ml. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1995;39:769-773.

Singelyn FJ, Vanderelst PE, Gouverneur JM. Extended femoral nerve sheath block after total hip arthroplasty: continuous versus patient-controlled techniques. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:455-459.

Vloka JD, Hadžić; A, Drobnik L, Ernest A, Reiss W, Thys DM. Anatomical landmarks for femoral nerve block: a comparison of four needle insertion sites. Anesth Analg. 1999;89:1467-1470.

Vloka JD, Hadžić; A, Mulcare R, Lesser JB, Kitain E, Thys DM. Femoral and genitofemoral nerve blocks versus spinal anesthesia for outpatients undergoing long saphenous vein stripping surgery. Anesth Analg. 1997;84:749-752.

Wang H, Boctor B, Verner J. The effect of single-injection femoral nerve block on rehabilitation and length of hospital stay after total knee replacement. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:139-144.

Williams BA, Bottegal MT, Kentor ML, Irrgang JJ, Williams JP. Rebound pain scores as a function of femoral nerve block duration after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: retrospective analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:186-192.

Williams BA, Kentor ML, Irrgang JJ, Bottegal MT, Williams JP. Nausea, vomiting, sleep, and restfulness upon discharge home after outpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia/antiemesis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:193-202.

Winnie AP, Ramamurthy S, Durrani Z. The inguinal paravascular technic of lumbar plexus anesthesia: the “3-in-1 block.” Anesth Analg. 1973;52:989-996.

Wulf H, Lowe J, Gnutzmann KH, Steinfeldt T. Femoral nerve block with ropivacaine or bupivacaine in day case anterior crucial ligament reconstruction. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:414-420.

YaDeau JT, Cahill JB, Zawadsky MW, et al. The effects of femoral nerve blockade in conjunction with epidural analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:891-895.

Yazigi A, Madi-Gebara S, Haddad F, Hayeck G, Tabet G. Intraoperative myocardial ischemia in peripheral vascular surgery: general anesthesia vs combined sciatic and femoral nerve blocks. J Clin Anesth. 2005;17:499-503.

Continuous Femoral Nerve Block

Allen JG, Denny NM, Oakman N. Postoperative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty: a study comparing spinal anesthesia and combined sciatic femoral 3-in-1 block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1998;23:142-146.

Barrington MJ, Olive D, Low K, Scott DA, Brittain J, Choong P. Continuous femoral nerve blockade or epidural analgesia after total knee replacement: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg.2005;101:1824-1829.

Barrington MJ, Olive DJ, McCutcheon CA, et al. Stimulating catheters for continuous femoral nerve blockade after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1316-1321.

Birnbaum J, Volk T. Use of a stimulating catheter for femoral nerve block. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:139.

Brodner G, Buerkle H, Van Aken H, et al. Postoperative analgesia after knee surgery: a comparison of three different concentrations of ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:256-262.

Capdevila X, Barthelet Y, Biboulet P, Ryckwaert Y, Rubenovitch J, d’Athis F. Effects of perioperative analgesic technique on the surgical outcome and duration of rehabilitation after major knee surgery. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:8-15.

Capdevila X, Biboulet P, Morau D, et al. Continuous three-in-one block for postoperative pain after lower limb orthopedic surgery: where do the catheters go? Anesth Analg. 2002;94:1001-1006.

Capdevila X, Pirat P, Bringuier S, et al. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in hospital wards after orthopedic surgery: a multicenter prospective analysis of the quality of postoperative analgesia and complications in 1,416 patients. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:1035-1045.

Cuvillon P, Ripart J, Lalourcey L, et al. The continuous femoral nerve block catheter for postoperative analgesia: bacterial colonization, infectious rate and adverse effects. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:1045-1049.

Dauri M, Fabbi E, Mariani P, et al. Continuous femoral nerve block provides superior analgesia compared with continuous intra-articular and wound infusion after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reg Anesth Pain Med.2009;34:95-99.

Dauri M, Sidiropoulou T, Fabbi E, et al. Efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block with stimulating catheters versus nonstimulating catheters for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:282-287.

Eipe N, McCartney CJ, Kummer C. Transient neurological dysfunction after continuous femoral nerve block: should this change our practice? Anesthesiology. 2007;107:177-178.

Hadzic A, Houle TT, Capdevila X, Ilfeld BM. Femoral nerve block for analgesia in patients having knee arthroplasty. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(5):1014-1015.

Hayek SM, Ritchey RM, Sessler D, et al. Continuous femoral nerve analgesia after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: stimulating versus nonstimulating catheters. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:1565-1570.

Hirst GC, Lang SA, Dust WN, Cassidy JD, Yip RW. Femoral nerve block. Single injection versus continuous infusion for total knee arthroplasty. Reg Anesth. 1996;21:292-297.

Ilfeld BM, Le LT, Meyer RS, et al. Ambulatory continuous femoral nerve blocks decrease time to discharge readiness after tricompartment total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:703-713.

Ilfeld BM, Moeller LK, Mariano ER, Loland VJ, Stevens-Lapsley JE, Fleisher AS, Girard PJ, Donohue MC, Ferguson EJ, Ball ST. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: is local anesthetic dose the only factor, or do concentration and volume influence infusion effects as well? Anesthesiology. 2010;112:347-354.

Ilfeld BM, Mariano ER, Williams BA, Woodard JN, Macario A. Hospitalization costs of total knee arthroplasty with a continuous femoral nerve block provided only in the hospital versus on an ambulatory basis: a retrospective, case-control, cost-minimization analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:46-54.

Ilfeld BM, Meyer RS, Le LT, et al. Health-related quality of life after tricompartment knee arthroplasty with and without an extended-duration continuous femoral nerve block: a prospective, 1-year follow-up of a randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:1320-1325.

Ilfeld BM, Moeller LK, Mariano ER, et al. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: is local anesthetic dose the only factor, or do concentration and volume influence infusion effects as well? Anesthesiology.2010;112:347-354.

Kadic L, Boonstra MC, De Waal Malefijt MC, Lako SJ, Van Egmond J, Driessen JJ. Continuous femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:914-920.

Morin AM, Eberhart LH, Behnke HK, et al. Does femoral nerve catheter placement with stimulating catheters improve effective placement? A randomized, controlled, and observer-blinded trial. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1503-1510.

Morin AM, Kratz CD, Eberhart LH, et al. Postoperative analgesia and functional recovery after total-knee replacement: comparison of a continuous posterior lumbar plexus (psoas compartment) block, a continuous femoral nerve block, and the combination of a continuous femoral and sciatic nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:434-445.

Paul JE, Arya A, Hurlburt L, Cheng J, Thabane L, Tidy A, Murthy Y. Femoral nerve block improves analgesia outcomes after total knee artheoplasty: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:1144-1162.

Pham Dang C, Difalco C, Guilley J, Venet G, Hauet P, Lejus C. Various possible positions of conventional catheters around the femoral nerve revealed by neurostimulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:285-289.

Pham Dang C, Gautheron E, Guilley J, et al. The value of adding sciatic block to continuous femoral block for analgesia after total knee replacement. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:128-133.

Pham Dang C, Guilley J, Dernis L, et al. Is there any need for expanding the perineural space before catheter placement in continuous femoral nerve blocks? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:393-400.

Salinas FV, Liu SS, Mulroy MF. The effect of single-injection femoral nerve block versus continuous femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty on hospital length of stay and long-term functional recovery within an established clinical pathway. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:1234-1239.

Salinas FV, Neal JM, Sueda LA, Kopacz DJ, Liu SS. Prospective comparison of continuous femoral nerve block with nonstimulating catheter placement versus stimulating catheter-guided perineural placement in volunteers. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:212-220.

Shum CF, Lo NN, Yeo SJ, Yang KY, Chong HC, Yeo SN. Continuous femoral nerve block in total knee arthroplasty: immediate and two-year outcomes. J Arthroplasty. 2009;24:204-209.

Singelyn FJ, Gouverneur JM. Extended “three-in-one” block after total knee arthroplasty: continuous versus patient-controlled techniques. Anesth Analg. 2000;91:176-180.

Williams BA, Kentor ML, Vogt MT, et al. Reduction of verbal pain scores after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with 2-day continuous femoral nerve block: a randomized clinical trial. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:315-327.

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