Atlas of the Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd Edition

Section 1 - Anatomy and Sections of the Brain and Spinal Cord

 

 

Plate 1 Arteries and Cranial Nerves of the Base of the Brain

 

1. Anterior communicating artery

2. Anterior cerebral artery

3. Transverse pontine arteries

4. Middle cerebral artery

5. Labyrinthine artery

6. Trochlear nerve

7. Trigeminal nerve

8. Facial, intermediate, and vestibulocochlear nerves

9. Vagal group (glossopharyngeal, vagal, and accessory nerves)

10. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

11. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

12. Accessory nerve

13. Dorsal spinal artery

14. Hypophysis

15. Optic nerve

16. Internal carotid artery

17. Posterior communicating artery

18. Anterior choroidal artery

19. Oculomotor nerve

20. Posterior cerebral artery

21. Superior cerebellar artery

22. Abducens nerve

23. Basilar artery

24. Hypoglossal nerve

25. Vertebral artery

26. First cervical nerve (ventral root)

27. Ventral spinal artery

 

Plate 2 Base of the Brain with the Cranial Nerves

 

1. Frontal pole

2. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

3. Olfactory bulb

4. Temporal pole

5. Olfactory tract

6. Optic nerve

7. Hypophysis

8. Olfactory trigone

9. Anterior perforated substance

10. Ophthalmic nerve CN V

11. Maxillary nerve CN V

12. Motor root CN V

13. Mandibular nerve CN V

14. Trigeminal ganglion

15. Optic chiasm

16. Optic tract

17. Tuber cinereum

18. Oculomotor nerve

19. Trochlear nerve

20. Sensory root of trigeminal nerve

21. Mamillary body

22. Interpeduncular fossa

23. Pons (basilar sulcus)

24. Abducens nerve

25. Facial nerve

26. Intermediate nerve of CN VII

27. Vestibulocochlear nerve

28. Glossopharyngeal nerve

29. Vagal nerve

30. Hypoglossal nerve

31. Pyramidal decussation

32. Ventral root of first cervical nerve

33. Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle

34. Flocculus

35. Horizontal fissure

36. Cranial root of accessory nerve

37. Spinal root of accessory nerve

38. Olive

39. Pyramid

40. Ventral median fissure

41. Tonsil

42. Vermis of cerebellum

43. Occipital pole

 

Plate 3 Base of the Brain with the Brain Stem Removed

 

1. Frontal pole

2. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

3. Orbital gyri

4. Olfactory bulb

5. Gyrus rectus

6. Olfactory sulcus

7. Olfactory tract

8. Temporal pole

9. Olfactory trigone

10. Optic nerve

11. Infundibulum

12. Optic chiasm

13. Optic tract

14. Tuber cinereum

15. Oculomotor nerve

16. Basis pedunculi

17. Mamillary body

18. Interpeduncular fossa

19. Substantia nigra

20. Red nucleus

21. Cerebral aqueduct

22. Diagonal band of Broca and anterior perforated substance

23. Uncus and uncal notch

24. Rhinal sulcus

25. Hippocampal sulcus

26. Inferior temporal gyrus

27. Inferior temporal sulcus

28. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus

29. Collateral sulcus

30. Parahippocampal gyrus

31. Superior colliculus

32. Isthmus of cingulate gyrus

33. Corpus callosum, splenium

34. Pineal body

35. Calcarine sulcus

36. Precuneus

37. Parietooccipital sulcus

38. Cuneus

39. Calcarine sulcus

40. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus

41. Occipital pole

 

Plate 4 Arteries of the Medial Aspect of the Right Cerebral Hemisphere and the Brain Stem

 

Plate 4 continued

1. Pericallosal artery

2. Fornix, column

3. Posterior communicating artery

4. Septum pellucidum

5. Corpus callosum, rostrum

6. Corpus callosum, genu

7. Callosomarginal artery

8. Frontopolar artery

9. Anterior cerebral artery

10. Anterior communicating artery

11. Orbital artery

12. Optic chiasm

13. Optic nerve

14. Internal carotid artery

15. Infundibulum

16. Hypophysis

17. Oculomotor nerve

18. Posterior cerebral artery

19. Transverse pontine artery

20. Basilar artery

21. Abducens nerve

22. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)

23. Hypoglossal nerve

24. Vertebral artery

25. First cervical nerve (ventral rootlets)

26. Dorsal spinal artery

27. Corpus callosum, body

28. Interthalamic adhesion

29. Mamillary body

30. Choroid plexus of third ventricle

31. Basis pedunculi

32. Pineal body

33. Internal cerebral vein

34. Corpus callosum, splenium

35. Great cerebral vein

36. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA)

37. Parietooccipital artery

38. Calcarine artery

39. Trochlear nerve

40. Mesencephalic branch of posterior cerebral artery

41. Superior cerebellar artery

42. Trigeminal nerve

43. Labyrinthine artery

44. Vestibulocochlear nerve

45. Glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves

46. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

47. Second cervical nerve (dorsal rootlets)

48. Spinal accessory nerve rootlets

 

Plate 5 Medial Surface of the Right Hemisphere and the Brain Stem

 

1. Superior frontal gyrus

2. Cingulate sulcus

3. Paracentral sulcus

4. Central sulcus

5. Paracentral lobule

6. Marginal branch of cingulate sulcus

7. Subparietal sulcus

8. Precuneus

9. Parietooccipital sulcus

10. Cingulate gyrus

11. Callosal sulcus

12. Corpus callosum, genu

13. Septum pellucidum

14. Fornix, column

15. Interventricular foramen

16. Corpus callosum, body

17. Thalamus

18. Choroid plexus of third ventricle

19. Posterior commissure

20. Tela choroidea of third ventricle

21. Corpus callosum, splenium

22. Pineal body

23. Great cerebral vein

24. Isthmus of cingulate gyrus

25. Calcarine sulcus

26. Cuneus

27. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus

28. Superior colliculus

29. Inferior colliculus

30. Superior medullary velum

31. Tela choroidea and choroid plexus of fourth ventricle

32. Medial aperture of fourth ventricle

33. Corpus callosum (rostrum)

34. Subcallosal area

35. Paraterminal gyrus

36. Anterior commissure

37. Lamina terminalis

38. Hypothalamus

39. Optic nerve

40. Gyrus rectus

41. Olfactory bulb

42. Hypophysis

43. Rhinal sulcus

44. Mamillary body

45. Infundibulum of hypophysis

46. Mesencephalon (tegmentum)

47. Oculomotor nerve

48. Cerebral aqueduct

49. Parahippocampal gyrus

50. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus

51. Pons

52. Fourth ventricle

53. Pontomedullary junction (pontobulbar sulcus)

54. Medulla oblongata

55. Central canal

56. Cerebellum

 

Plate 6 Medial Aspect of the Third Ventricle and the Brain Stem

 

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Cingulate sulcus

3. Callosal sulcus

4. Cingulate sulcus (marginal branch)

5. Subparietal sulcus

6. Precuneus

7. Great cerebral vein

8. Isthmus of cingulate gyrus

9. Parietooccipital sulcus

10. Calcarine sulcus

11. Primary fissure

12. Calcarine sulcus

13. Cuneus

14. Lingual gyrus

15. Corpus callosum, genu

16. Septum pellucidum

17. Corpus callosum, body

18. Fornix, column

19. Hypothalamic sulcus

20. Interventricular foramen

21. Interthalamic adhesion

22. Choroid plexus of third ventricle

23. Thalamus

24. Tela choroidea of third ventricle

25. Stria medullaris thalami

26. Pineal recess

27. Habenular commissure

28. Suprapineal recess

29. Corpus callosum (splenium)

30. Pineal gland

31. Corpus callosum (rostrum)

32. Subcallosal area

33. Anterior commissure

34. Paraterminal gyrus

35. Lamina terminalis

36. Optic chiasm

37. Optic nerve

38. Hypophysis

39. Optic recess

40. Infundibular recess

41. Mamillary body

42. Oculomotor nerve

43. Posterior commissure

44. Mesencephalon (tegmentum)

45. Cerebral aqueduct

46. Lingula

47. Fourth ventricle

48. Nodulus

49. Pontobulbar sulcus (pontomedullary junction)

50. Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle

51. Posterolateral fissure

52. Central canal of spinal cord

53. Central lobule

54. Culmen

55. Declive

56. Folium

57. Tuber

58. Prepyramidal fissure

59. Pyramis

60. Uvula

 

Plate 7 Medial Surface of the Right Hemisphere with the Brain Stem Removed

 

1. Central sulcus

2. Parietooccipital sulcus

3. Superior frontal gyrus

4. Cingulate sulcus

5. Paracentral sulcus

6. Paracentral lobule

7. Cingulate sulcus, marginal branch

8. Subparietal sulcus

9. Precuneus

10. Cuneus

11. Calcarine sulcus

12. Cingulate gyrus

13. Callosal sulcus

14. Corpus callosum, genu

15. Corpus callosum, rostrum

16. Septum pellucidum

17. Corpus callosum, body

18. Corpus callosum, splenium

19. Olfactory bulb

20. Gyrus rectus

21. Subcallosal area

22. Paraterminal gyrus

23. Lamina terminalis

24. Anterior commissure

25. Interventricular foramen

26. Fornix, column

27. Thalamus

28. Fornix, body

29. Fornix, crus

30. Fornix, fimbria

31. Uncus

32. Parahippocampal gyrus

33. Hippocampal sulcus

34. Isthmus of cingulate gyrus

35. Rhinal sulcus

36. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus

37. Collateral sulcus

38. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus

39. Inferior temporal gyrus

40. Inferior temporal sulcus

 

Plate 8 Lateral Convex Surface of the Left Hemisphere

 

Plate 8 continued

1. Superior frontal gyrus

2. Superior frontal sulcus

3. Central sulcus

4. Middle frontal gyrus

5. Inferior frontal sulcus

6. Precentral sulcus

7. Precentral gyrus

8. Inferior frontal gyrus

9. Orbital gyri

10. Anterior ramus of lateral sulcus

11. Pars orbitalis of inferior frontal gyrus

12. Pars triangularis of inferior frontal gyrus

13. Ascending ramus of lateral sulcus

14. Pars opercularis of inferior frontal gyrus

15. Lateral sulcus

16. Postcentral gyrus

17. Postcentral sulcus

18. Superior parietal lobule

19. Intraparietal sulcus

20. Supramarginal gyrus

21. Lateral sulcus (ramus posterior)

22. Angular gyrus

23. Parietooccipital sulcus

24. Occipital gyri

25. Superior temporal gyrus

26. Superior temporal sulcus

27. Middle temporal gyrus

28. Inferior temporal gyrus

29. Middle temporal sulcus

30. Preoccipital incisure (notch)

 

Plate 9 Dorsal Aspect of the Brain Stem with the Cerebellum Removed

 

1. Third ventricle

2. Tenia ventriculi tertii

3. Posterior commissure

4. Habenular trigone

5. Habenular commissure

6. Suprapineal recess

7. Brachium of superior colliculus

8. Pulvinar

9. Medial geniculate body

10. Superior colliculus

11. Pineal body

12. Brachium of inferior colliculus

13. Inferior colliculus

14. Lateral geniculate body

15. Lemniscal trigone

16. Crus cerebri

17. Trochlear nerve

18. Frenulum of superior medullary velum

19. Superior medullary velum

20. Middle cerebellar peduncle

21. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

22. Superior cerebellar peduncle

23. Striae medullares of fourth ventricle

24. Dorsal median sulcus

25. Median eminence of fourth ventricle

26. Facial colliculus

27. Lateral aperture of fourth ventricle

28. Sulcus limitans

29. Hypoglossal trigone

30. Vagal trigone

31. Tenia of fourth ventricle

32. Obex

33. Tuberculum cinereum

34. Tuberculum nuclei cuneati (cuneate tubercle)

35. Tuberculum nuclei gracilis (gracile tubercle)

36. Dorsal median sulcus

37. Dorsal intermediate sulcus

38. Dorsal lateral sulcus

39. Area vestibularis

40. Stria separans

41. Area postrema

42. Fasciculus gracilis

43. Fasciculus cuneatus

44. Lateral funiculus

 

Plate 10 Dorsal Lateral Aspect of the Brain Stem

 

1. Lateral geniculate body

2. Medial geniculate body

3. Brachium of superior colliculus

4. Habenular trigone

5. Pineal body

6. Pulvinar

7. Crus cerebri

8. Lemniscal trigone

9. Brachium of inferior colliculus

10. Superior colliculus

11. Inferior colliculus

12. Pons

13. Trigeminal nerve, sensory root

14. Trigeminal nerve, motor root

15. Trochlear nerve

16. Superior cerebellar peduncle

17. Middle cerebellar peduncle

18. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

19. Dorsal median sulcus

20. Facial colliculus

21. Striae medulares of fourth ventricle

22. Sulcus limitans

23. Hypoglossal trigone

24. Vagal trigone

25. Obex

26. Gracile tubercle (tuberculum nuclei gracilis)

27. Cuneate tubercle (tuberculum nuclei cuneati)

28. Tuberculum cinereum

29. First cervical nerve (dorsal rootlets)

30. Facial nerve

31. Intermediate nerve CN VII

32. Abducens nerve

33. Vestibulocochlear nerve

34. Glossopharyngeal nerve

35. Olive

36. Vagal nerve

37. Hypoglossal nerve

38. Accessory nerve (cranial division)

39. First cervical nerve (ventral rootlets)

40. Second cervical nerve (ventral rootlets)

41. Accessory nerve (spinal division)

42. Second cervical nerve (dorsal rootlets)

 

Plate 11 Spinal Cord at Lower Sacral Level

 

Plate 11 continued

1. Cauda equina

2. Dorsal median sulcus

3. Septomarginal fasciculus

4. Fasciculus gracilis

5. Dorsal rootlet

6. Medial root entry zone

7. Dorsomarginal nucleus

8. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer) and lateral root entry zone

9. Substantia gelatinosa of dorsal horn

10. Nucleus proprius of dorsal horn

11. Central canal with central gray matter

12. Ventral white commissure

13. Ventral horn (column)

14. Lateral spinothalamic tract

15. Lateral corticospinal tract

16. Ventral median fissure

17. Ventral spinal artery and vein in pia mater

18. Dura mater

19. Arachnoid

20. Ventral spinothalamic tract

21. Medullary reticulospinal tract

22. Pontine reticulospinal tract

23. Vestibulospinal tract

24. Spinospinal tract (fasciculus proprius)

 

Plate 12 Spinal Cord at Midsacral Level

 

Plate 12 continued

1. Dura mater

2. Arachnoid

3. Pia mater (dehisced)

4. Dorsal median sulcus

5. Fasciculus gracilis

6. Dorsal root

7. Cauda equina

8. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer) and dorsolateral sulcus

9. Substantia gelatinosa of dorsal horn

10. Nucleus proprius of dorsal horn

11. Lateral corticospinal tract

12. Central canal

13. Ventral white commissure

14. Ventral horn (column)

15. Lateral motor nuclei

16. Lateral spinothalamic tract

17. Ventral root fascicles of spinal nerve

18. Ventral median fissure

19. Ventral spinothalamic tract

20. Medullary reticulospinal tract

21. Pontine reticulospinal tract

22. Vestibulospinal tract

23. Spinospinal tract

24. Fasciculus septomarginalis

25. Dorsomarginal nucleus

 

Plate 13 Spinal Cord at Upper Sacral Level

 

Plate 13 continued

1. Dura mater

2. Cauda equina

3. Blood vessels within subarachnoid space

4. Dorsal spinal artery and vein

5. Dorsal median sulcus

6. Dorsal median septum

7. Fasciculus gracilis

8. Arachnoid

9. Pia mater

10. Dorsal root

11. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer)

12. Substantia gelatinosa of dorsal horn

13. Nucleus proprius of dorsal horn

14. Lateral corticospinal tract

15. Central canal

16. Ventral white commissure

17. Ventral horn

18. Medial motor nucleus

19. Lateral motor nuclei

20. Lateral spinothalamic tract

21. Ventral median fissure

22. Ventral spinal artery and vein

23. Ventral spinothalamic tract

24. Medullary reticulospinal tract

25. Pontine reticulospinal tract

26. Vestibulospinal tract

27. Spinospinal tract

28. Dorsomarginal nucleus

29. Fasciculus septomarginalis

 

Plate 14 Spinal Cord at Lower Lumbar Level

 

Plate 14 continued

1. Dorsal root

2. Dorsal median sulcus

3. Dorsal median septum

4. Fasciculus gracilis

5. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer)

6. Substantia gelatinosa

7. Nucleus proprius

8. Lateral corticospinal tract

9. Central canal

10. Ventral white commissure

11. Medial motor nucleus

12. Lateral motor nuclei

13. Lateral spinothalamic tract

14. Ventral median fissure

15. Ventral spinothalamic tract

16. Ventral corticospinal tract

17. Rubrospinal tract

18. Medullary reticulospinal tract

19. Pontine reticulospinal tract

20. Vestibulospinal tract

21. Spinospinal tract

22. Fasciculus septomarginalis

23. Dorsomarginal nucleus

 

Plate 15 Spinal Cord at Upper Lumbar Level

 

Plate 15 continued

1. Dorsal median sulcus

2. Dorsal median septum

3. Fasciculus septomarginalis

4. Spinospinal tract

5. Fasciculus gracilis

6. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer)

7. Nucleus dorsomarginalis

8. Substantia gelatinosa

9. Nucleus proprius

10. Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke)

11. Central canal

12. Ventral white commissure

13. Medial motor nucleus

14. Lateral motor nuclei

15. Intermediolateral nucleus

16. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

17. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

18. Lateral spinothalamic tract

19. Ventral spinothalamic tract

20. Ventral median fissure

21. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

22. Ventral corticospinal tract

23. Pontine reticulospinal tract

24. Tectospinal tract

25. Medullary rehculospmal tract

26. Vestibulospinal tract

27. Rubrospinal tract

28. Lateral corticospinal tract

29. Ventral spinal artery

30. Dura

 

Plate 16 Spinal Cord at Midthoracic Level

 

Plate 16 continued

1. Dura mater

2. Dorsal median sulcus

3. Dorsal median septum

4. Fasciculus gracilis

5. Fasciculus cuneatus

6. Dorsolateral sulcus

7. Dorsal rootlets

8. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer)

9. Dorsomarginal nucleus

10. Substantia gelatinosa

11. Nucleus proprius

12. Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke's column)

13. Central canal

14. Ventral white commissure

15. Medial motor nucleus

16. Lateral motor nuclei

17. Intermediolateral nucleus and lateral horn

18. Lateral corticospinal tract

19. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

20. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

21. Lateral spinothalamic tract

22. Ventral spinothalamic tract

23. Ventral median fissure

24. Ventral corticospinal tract

25. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

26. Tectospinal tract

27. Spinospinal tract

28. Medullary reticulospinal tract

29. Pontine reticulospinal tract

30. Vestibulospinal tract

31. Fasciculus septomarginalis

32. Fasciculus interfascicularis

33. Rubrospinal tract

34. Dorsal intermediate sulcus

35. Dorsal intermediate septum

36. Denticulate ligament

 

Plate 17 Spinal Cord at Lower Cervical Level (C-8)

 

Plate 17 continued

1. Dura mater

2. Dorsal median sulcus

3. Dorsal intermediate sulcus

4. Dorsolateral sulcus

5. Dorsal rootlets

6. Dorsal median septum

7. Fasciculus gracilis

8. Dorsal intermediate septum

9. Fasciculus cuneatus

10. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer)

11. Dorsomarginal nucleus

12. Substantia gelatinosa

13. Nucleus proprius

14. Nucleus dorsalis (Clarke's column)

15. Central canal

16. Ventral white commissure

17. Medial motor nucleus

18. Lateral motor nuclei

19. Intermediolateral nucleus and lateral horn

20. Reticular process

21. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

22. Lateral corticospinal tract

23. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

24. Lateral spinothalamic tract

25. Ventral spinothalamic tract

26. Ventral corticospinal tract

27. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

28. Ventral median fissure

29. Ventral spinal artery

30. Spinospinal tract

31. Tectospinal tract

32. Medullary reticulospinal tract

33. Pontine reticulospinal tract

34. Vestibulospinal tract

35. Rubrospinal tract

36. Fasciculus septomarginalis

37. Fasciculus interfascicularis

 

Plate 18 Spinal Cord at Midcervical Level

 

Plate 18 continued

1. Dorsal median sulcus

2. Fasciculus gracilis

3. Dorsal median septum

4. Dorsal intermediate sulcus

5. Dorsal intermediate septum

6. Fasciculus cuneatus

7. Medial root entry zone

8. Dorsolateral sulcus

9. Dorsal root

10. Dorsolateral tract (Lissauer)

11. Dorsomarginal nucleus

12. Substantia gelatinosa

13. Nucleus proprius

14. Central canal

15. Ventral white commissure

16. Medial motor nucleus

17. Lateral motor nuclei (including spinal accessory nucleus)

18. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

19. Lateral corticospinal tract

20. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

21. Lateral spinothalamic tract

22. Ventral spinothalamic tract

23. Ventral corticospinal tract

24. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

25. Ventral median fissure

26. Dura mater

27. Ventral lateral sulcus

28. Tectospinal tract

29. Spinospinal tract

30. Medullary reticulospinal tract

31. Pontine reticulospinal tract

32. Vestibulospinal tract

33. Rubrospinal tract

34. Fasciculus septomarginalis

35. Fasciculus interfascicularis

36. Phrenic nucleus (C-3-C-5)

 

Plate 19 Spinal Cord at the Level of C-1

 

Plate 19 continued

1. Fasciculus gracilis

2. Fasciculus cuneatus

3. Spinal trigeminal tract

4a. Spinal trigeminal nucleus (pars gelatinosa)

4b. Spinal trigeminal nucleus (pars magnocellularis)

5. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract

6. Lateral corticospinal tract

7. Ventral spinocerebellar tract

8. Lateral spinothalamic tract

9. Ventral horn (column)

10. Ventral median fissure

11. Central canal

12. Ventral white commissure

13. Ventral spinothalamic tract

14. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

15. Ventral corticospinal tract

16. Tectospinal tract

17. Pontine recticulospinal tract

18. Medullary reticulospinal tract

19. Vestibulospinal tract

20. Spino spinal tract

21. Rubrospinal tract

 

Plate 20 Medulla Oblongata at the Caudal Level of the Pyramidal Decussation (Transition from Spinal Cord to Medulla Oblongata)

 

Plate 20 continued

1. Dorsal median sulcus

2. Dorsal intermediate sulcus

3. Fasciculus gracilis

4. Fasciculus cuneatus

5. Nucleus gracilis

6. Spinal trigeminal tract

7. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

8. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

9. Lateral corticospinal tract

10. Central canal

11. Lateral spinothalamic tract

12. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

13. Pyramidal decussation (decussation of lateral corticospinal tract)

14. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

15. Ventral horn (column) (spinal accessory nucleus)

16. Ventral corticospinal tract

17. Ventral median fissure

18. Ventral spinothalamic tract

 

Plate 21 Medulla Oblongata at the Rostral Level of the Pyramidal Decussation (Motor Decussation)

 

Plate 21 continued

1. Dorsal median sulcus

2. Fasciculus gracilis

3. Fasciculus cuneatus

4. Nucleus gracilis

5. Spinal trigeminal tract

6. Nucleus cuneatus

7. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

8. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

9. Central canal and surrounding central gray matter

10. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

11. Lateral spinothalamic tract

12. Spinal accessory nucleus

13. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

14. Pyramidal decussation

15. Tectospinal tract

16. Ventral corticospinal tract

17. Ventral median fissure

 

Plate 22 Medulla Oblongata at the Caudal Level of the Decussation of the Medial Lemniscus (Sensory Decussation)

 

Plate 22 continued

1. Fasciculus gracilis

2. Nucleus gracilis

3. Fasciculus cuneatus

4. Accessory cuneate nucleus

5. Nucleus cuneatus

6. Solitary tract

7. Solitary nucleus

8. Dorsal motor nucleus of vagal nerve

9. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

10. Spinal trigeminal tract

11. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

12. Hypoglossal nucleus

13. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

14. Spinal lemniscus*

15. Nucleus ambiguus

16. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

17. Internal arcuate fibers

18. Tectospinal tract

19. Lateral reticular nucleus

20. Medial lemniscus

21. Decussation of medial lemniscus

22. Inferior olivary nucleus

23. Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)

24. Arcuate nucleus of medulla

25. Intra-axial root fibers of hypoglossal nerve

 

Plate 23 Medulla Oblongata at the Rostral Level of the Decussation of the Medial Lemniscus

 

Plate 23 continued

1. Nucleus gracilis

2. Solitary nucleus

3. Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

4. Solitary tract

5. Hypoglossal nucleus

6. Dorsal motor nucleus of vagal nerve

7. Nucleus cuneatus

8. Fasciculus cuneatus

9. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

10. Internal arcuate fibers

11. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

12. Spinal trigeminal tract

13. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT)

14. Tectospinal tract

15. Nucleus ambiguus

16. Lateral reticular nucleus

17. Spinal lemniscus

18. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

19. Medial lemniscus

20. Medial accessory olivary nucleus

21. Inferior olivary nucleus

22. Central tegmental tract

23. Corticospinal tract

24. Arcuate nucleus of medulla

25. Hypoglossal nerve (in preolivary sulcus)

 

Plate 24 Medulla Oblongata at Midolivary Level; Medulla Has “Opened” into Fourth Ventricle

 

Plate 24 continued

1. Inferior vestibular nucleus

2. Medial vestibular nucleus

3. Dorsal motor nucleus of vagal nerve

4. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

5. Solitary tract

6. Solitary nucleus

7. Hypoglossal nucleus

8. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

9. Intra-axial fibers of vagal nerve

10. Spinal trigeminal tract

11. Spinal trigeminal nucleus (masked by olivocerebellar fibers)

12. Nucleus ambiguus

13. Tectospinal tract

14. Olivocerebellar fibers

15. Vagal nerve rootlet (in postolivary sulcus)

16. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

17. Spinal lemniscus

18. Dorsal accessory olivary nucleus

19. Central tegmental tract

20. Inferior olivary nucleus

21. Medial accessory olivary nucleus

22. Medial lemniscus

23. Corticospinal tract

 

Plate 25 Medulla Oblongata at the Level of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

 

Plate 25 continued

1. Dorsal cochlear nucleus

2. Inferior vestibular nucleus

3. Medial vestibular nucleus

4. Nucleus prepositus

5. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

6. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

7. Intra-axial root fibers and rootlet of glossopharyngeal nerve

8. Spinal trigeminal tract

9. Spinal trigeminal nucleus (partially masked by olivocerebellar fibers)

10. Nucleus ambiguus

11. Tectospinal tract

12. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

13. Spinal lemniscus

14. Central tegmental tract

15. Medial lemniscus

16. Corticospinal tract

 

Plate 26 Medulla Oblongata at the Level of the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus

 

Plate 26 continued

1. Dentate nucleus

2. Juxtarestiform body

3. Superior vestibular nucleus

4. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

5. Middle cerebellar peduncle

6. Nucleus prepositus

7. Medial vestibular nucleus

8. Lateral vestibular nucleus

9. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

10. Tectospinal tract

11. Nucleus ambiguus

12. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

13. Spinal trigeminal tract

14. Ventral cochlear nucleus

15. Vestibulocochlear nerve

16. Pontobulbar body

17. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

18. Spinal lemniscus

19. Central tegmental tract

20. Postolivary sulcus

21. Glossopharyngeal nerve

22. Medial lemniscus

23. Inferior olivary nucleus

24. Corticospinal tract

25. Preolivary sulcus

 

Plate 27 Oblique Section through the Rostral Medulla Oblongata and the Caudal Pontine Tegmentum at the Level of the Facial Nucleus

 

Plate 27 continued

1. Sulcus limitans

2. Dorsal median sulcus

3. Superior vestibular nucleus

4. Juxtarestiform body

5. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

6. Middle cerebellar peduncle

7. Nucleus prepositus

8. Medial vestibular nucleus

9. Lateral vestibular nucleus

10. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

11. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

12. Spinal trigeminal tract

13. Intra-axial fibers of vestibular division of CN VIII

14. Tectospinal tract

15. Facial nucleus

16. Pontobulbar body

17. Vestibular division of CN VIII in cerebellopontine angle

18. Facial nerve in cerebellopontine angle

19. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

20. Spinal lemniscus

21. Central tegmental tract

22. Inferior olivary nucleus

23. Medial lemniscus

24. Corticospinal tract

 

Plate 28 Pons at the Level of the Facial and the Abducent Nuclei, and the Cerebellum at the Level of the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei

 

Plate 28 continued

1. Dentate nucleus

2. Emboliform nucleus

3. Globose nucleus

4. Fastigial nucleus

5. Superior cerebellar peduncle

6. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

7. Middle cerebellar peduncle and corpus medullare

8. Middle cerebellar peduncle

9. Corticospinal tract

10. Vestibulocochlear nerve in cerebellopontine angle

11. Facial nerve in cerebellopontine angle

 

Plate 29 Pons at the Level of the Trapezoid Body and the Facial Colliculus (Same Level as Plate 28)

 

Plate 29 continued

1. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

2. Juxtarestiform body

3. Abducens nucleus

4. Genu of facial nerve

5. Medial vestibular nucleus

6. Lateral vestibular nucleus

7. Superior vestibular nucleus

8. Superior cerebellar peduncle

9. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

10. Tectospinal tract

11. Descending intra-axial fibers of facial nerve

12. Spinal trigeminal tract

13. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

14. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

15. Intra-axial fibers of abducens nerve

16. Central tegmental tract

17. Facial nucleus

18. Trapezoid body

19. Spinal lemniscus

20. Superior olivary nucleus

21. Lateral lemniscus

22. Middle cerebellar peduncle

23. Corticospinal tract

24. Pontine nuclei (pontine gray)

 

Plate 30 Pons at the Level of the Trapezoid Body and the Motor and the Chief Sensory Nuclei of the Trigeminal Nerve

 

Plate 30 continued

1. Cerebellar vermis

2. Superior medullary velum

3. Superior cerebellar peduncle

4. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

5. Mesencephalic tract and nucleus of CN V

6. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

7. Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve

8. Root fibers of trigeminal nerve

9. Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve

10. Lateral lemniscus

11. Superior olivary nucleus

12. Central tegmental tract

13. Trapezoid body: 1) ventral acoustic striae, 2) medial lemniscus, 3) corticobulbar fibers

14. Spinal lemniscus (ventral and lateral spinothalamic tracts, spinotectal tract)

15. Corticospinal tract

16. Pontine nuclei (pontine gray)

17. Basilar sulcus

18. Abducens nerve

 

Plate 31 Pons at the Level of the Trigeminal Nerve

 

Plate 31 continued

1. Superior cerebellar peduncle

2. Mesencephalic tract and nucleus of CN V

3. Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve

4. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

5. Middle cerebellar peduncle

6. Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve

7. Central tegmental tract

8. Tectospinal tract

9. Lateral lemniscus

10. Ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus

11. Spinal lemniscus

12. Medial lemniscus

13. Intra-axial root fibers and root of trigeminal nerve

14. Corticospinal tract

 

Plate 32 Rostral Pons at the Level of the Locus Ceruleus

 

Plate 32 continued

1. Cerebellar vermis

2. Superior medullary velum

3. Nucleus loci cerulei (locus ceruleus)

4. Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus (Schütz)

5. Fourth ventricle

6. Pigmented tegmentocerebellar nucleus

7. Mesencephalic tract and nucleus of CN V

8. Superior cerebellar peduncle

9. Ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT)

10. Pigmented nucleus of superior cerebellar peduncle

11. Lateral lemniscus

12. Spinal lemniscus

13. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

14. Central tegmental tract

15. Ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus

16. Medial lemniscus

17. Transverse pontine fibers

18. Corticospinal tract

19. Pontine nucleus

 

Plate 33 Pons at the Level of the Isthmus

 

Plate 33 continued

1. Mesencephalic tract and nucleus of CN V

2. Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus (Schütz)

3. Decussation of trochlear nerves

4. Nucleus loci cerulei (locus ceruleus)

5. Intra-axial fibers of trochlear nerve

6. Pigmented tegmentocerebellar nucleus

7. Lateral lemniscus

8. Superior cerebellar peduncle

9. Dorsal tegmental nucleus

10. Ventral tegmental nucleus

11. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

12. Dorsal nucleus of lateral lemniscus

13. Pigmented nucleus of superior cerebellar peduncle

14. Spinal lemniscus

15. Medial lemniscus

16. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

17. Transverse pontine fibers (decussation)

18. Pontine nuclei (pontine gray)

19. Transverse pontine fibers

20. Corticospinal tract

 

Plate 34 Pons at the Level of the Frenulum of the Superior Medullary Velum

 

Plate 34 continued

1. Intra-axial fibers of trochlear nerve

2. Frenulum of superior medullary velum

3. Cerebral aqueduct

4. Lateral lemniscus

5. Superior cerebellar peduncle

6. Dorsal tegmental nucleus

7. Ventral tegmental nucleus

8. Dorsal decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle

9. Spinal lemniscus

10. Medial lemniscus

11. Ventral decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

12. Pontine nucleus (pontine gray)

13. Extension of pontine gray

14. Dorsal decussation of transverse pontine fibers

15. Corticospinal tract

16. Ventral decussation of transverse pontine fibers

 

Plate 35 Mesencephalon at the Level of the Inferior Colliculus

 

Plate 35 continued

1. Commissure of inferior colliculus

2. Nucleus of inferior colliculus

3. Periaqueductal gray

4. Cerebral aqueduct

5. Brachium of inferior colliculus

6. Lateral lemniscus

7. Mesencephalic tract and nucleus of CN V

8. Trochlear nucleus

9. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

10. Central tegmental tract

11. Tectospinal tract

12. Spinal lemniscus

13. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

14. Medial lemniscus

15. Substantia nigra

16. Parietotemporooccipitopontine tracts

17. Corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts

18. Frontopontine tract

19. Interpeduncular nucleus

20. Interpeduncular fossa

21. Oculomotor nerve

* Corpus parabigeminum

 

Plate 36 Mesencephalon at the Level of the Superior Colliculus

 

Plate 36 continued

1. Pulvinar

2. Brachium of superior colliculus

3. Superior colliculus

4. Commissure of superior colliculus

5. Lateral geniculate body

6. Brachium of inferior colliculus

7. Medial geniculate body

8. Spinal lemniscus

9. Periaqueductal gray

10. Cerebral aqueduct

11. Optic tract

12. Parietotemporooccipitopontine tracts

13. Medial lemniscus

14. Central tegmental tract

15. Oculomotor nucleus

16. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

17. Dentatorubrothalamic tracts, capsule of red nucleus

18. Red nucleus

19. Dorsal tegmental decussation

20. Corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts

21. Substantia nigra

22. Frontopontine tract

23. Interpeduncular fossa

24. Habenulointerpeduncular tract

*Layers of superior colliculus

1. Stratum zonale

2. Stratum cinereum

3. Stratum opticum

4. Stratum griseum intermediale

5. Stratum album intermediale

6. Stratum griseum profundum

7. Stratum album profundum

NOTE: Stratum lemnisci = Strata 4-7

**Peripenducular nucleus

***Ventral tegmental area of Tsai

 

Plate 37 Transition Mesencephalon-Diencephalon at the Level of the Ventral Posterior Lateral and the Ventral Posterior Medial Nuclei (VPL and VPM) of the Thalamus

 

Plate 37 continued

1. Pulvinar

2. Habenular nuclei

3. Centromedian nucleus (centrum medianum)

4. Habenulointerpeduncular tract (tractus retroflexus of Meynert)

5. Posterior commissure (PC)

6. Nucleus of Darkschewitsch

7. Interstitial nucleus of Cajal

8. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

9. Oculomotor nucleus

10. Red nucleus

11. Ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL)

12. Ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM)

13. Medial lemniscus, spinothalamic and trigeminothalamic tracts

14. Optic tract

15. Basis pedunculi

16. Substantia nigra

 

Plate 38 Midthalamus at the Level of the Lateral Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Subthalamic Nucleus

 

Plate 38 continued

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Cingulum

3. Corpus callosum, body

4. Caudate nucleus, body

5. Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus

6. Fornix, body

7. Stria medullaris of thalamus

8. Putamen

9. Lateral reticular nucleus of thalamus

10. Dorsal median nucleus (DM)

11. Internal medullary lamina of thalamus

12. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

13. Ventral lateral nucleus (VL)

14. Interthalamic adhesion

15. Globus pallidus, medial segment

16. Internal capsule, posterior limb

17. Lenticular fasciculus (H2 of Forel)

18. Thalamic fasciculus (H1 of Forel)

19. Zona incerta (ventral extension of lateral reticular nucleus of thalamus)

20. Forel's field H (prerubral field)

21. Third ventricle

22. Principal mamillary fasciculus (including mamillothalamic tract)

23. Mamillary body

24. Subthalamic nucleus

25. Optic tract

26. Basis pedunculi

27. Substantia nigra

28. Hippocampus

29. Ansa lenticularis

 

Plate 39 Rostral Thalamus at the Level of the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus and the Tuber Cinereum

 

Plate 39 continued

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Cingulum

3. Medial longitudinal stria of indusium griseum

4. Lateral longitudinal stria of indusium gnseum

5. Corpus callosum, body

6. Caudate nucleus, head

7. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

8. Fornix (body) and subfornical organ*

9. Sulcus terminalis, stria terminalis, and vena terminalis

10. Internal capsule, posterior limb

11. Ventral anterior nucleus (VA)

12. Anterior nucleus (AV)

13. Choroid plexus of third ventricle

14. Stria medullaris of thalamus

15. Putamen

16. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

17. Globus pallidus, medial segment

18. Fornix, column

19. Hypothalamic sulcus

20. Inferior thalamic peduncle

21. Anterior commissure

22. Substantia innominata of Reichert (contains basal nucleus of Meynert)

23. Optic tract

24. Supraoptic nucleus

25. Paraventricular nucleus

26. Tuber cinereum

27. Ansa peduncularis

28. Ansa lenticularis

29. Amygdaloid nucleus

 

Plate 40 Frontal Section through the Neostriatum at the Level of the Rostrum of the Corpus Callosum

 

1. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

2. Corpus callosum, body

3. Lateral ventricle, frontal horn

4. Septum pellucidum

5. Corpus callosum, rostrum

6. Caudate nucleus, head

7. Internal capsule, anterior limb

8. Putamen

9. Anterior cerebral arteries

10. External capsule

11. Claustrum

12. Extreme capsule

13. Insular cortex

 

Plate 41 Frontal Section through the Corpus Striatum at the Level of the Columns of the Fornix

 

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Corpus callosum, body

3. Caudate nucleus, head

4. Lateral ventricle

5. Septum pellucidum

6. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

7. Fornix, column

8. Septal gray

9. Nucleus accumbens septi

10. Subcallosal area

11. Extreme capsule

12. Claustrum

13. External capsule

14. Putamen

15. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

16. Internal capsule, anterior limb

 

Plate 42 Frontal Section through the Corpus Striatum, the Anterior Commissure, and the Genu of the Internal Capsule

 

1. Corpus callosum, body

2. Caudate nucleus, head

3. Fornix, column

4. Anterior nucleus of thalamus

5. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

6. Internal capsule, anterior limb

7. Putamen

8. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

9. Fornix, column

10. Bed nucleus of stria terminalis

11. Nucleus accumbens septi

12. Anterior commissure

 

Plate 43 Frontal Section through the Anterior Thalamus at the Level of the Anterior Commissure and the Olfactory Trigone

 

1. Corpus callosum, body

2. Caudate nucleus, body

3. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

4. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

5. Fornix, body

6. Subfornical organ

7. Stria medullaris thalami

8. Insular cortex

9. Claustrum

10. Putamen

11. Lateral medullary lamina of globus pallidus

12. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

13. Internal capsule, anterior limb

14. Ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus

15. Anterior nucleus of thalamus

16. Internal medullary lamina of thalamus

17. Mamillothalamic tract

18. Fornix, column

19. Lateral preoptic area

20. Anterior commissure

21. Lateral preoptic area and medial forebrain bundle

22. Medial preoptic area

23. Nucleus accumbens septi

24. Diagonal band of Broca

25. Lamina terminalis

26. Middle cerebral artery

27. Olfactory trigone

28. Anterior cerebral artery

 

Plate 44 Frontal Section through the Anterior Thalamus at the Level of the Preoptic Nuclei of the Hypothalamus

 

1. Corpus callosum, body

2. Caudate nucleus, body

3. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

4. Fornix, body

5. Lateral reticular nucleus

6. Ventral anterior nucleus

7. Anterior nucleus

8. Internal medullary lamina of thalamus

9. Putamen

10. Internal capsule, anterior limb

11. Lateral medullary lamina of globus pallidus

12. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

13. Medial medullary lamina of globus pallidus

14. Globus pallidus, medial segment

15. Anterior commissure

16. Fornix, column

17. Third ventricle and choroid plexus

18. Medial preoptic area

19. Nucleus accumbens septi

20. Diagonal band of Broca

21. Uncinate fasciculus

22. Middle cerebral artery

23. Lateral olfactory stria

24. Anterior cerebral artery

25. Optic nerve

26. Olfactory trigone

 

Plate 45 Frontal Section through the Anterior Thalamus at the Level of the Optic Chiasm and the Anterior Perforated Substance

 

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Lateral longitudinal stria of indusium griseum

3. Medial longitudinal stria of indusium griseum

4. Corpus callosum, body

5. Caudate nucleus, body

6. Lateral ventricle, body

7. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

8. Fornix, body

9. Putamen

10. Lateral medullary lamina of globus pallidus

11. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

12. Medial medullary lamina of globus pallidus

13. Globus pallidus, medial segment

14. Internal capsule, genu

15. Ventral anterior nucleus

16. Anterior nucleus

17. Midline nuclei

18. Hypothalamic sulcus

19. Claustrum

20. Uncinate fasciculus

21. Anterior commissure

22. Ansa lenticularis

23. Inferior thalamic peduncle

24. Fornix, column

25. Lateral hypothalamic area

26. Medial hypothalamic area

27. Lateral olfactory stria

28. Middle cerebral artery

29. Anterior perforated substance

30. Diagonal band of Broca

31. Optic chiasm

 

Plate 46 Frontal Section through the Midthalamus at the Level of the Ventral Lateral Nucleus, the Interthalamic Adhesion, and the Tuber Cinereum

 

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Lateral longitudinal stria of indusium griseum

3. Corpus callosum, body

4. Caudate nucleus, body

5. Lateral ventricle, body

6. Fornix, body

7. Ventral lateral nucleus

8. Lateral dorsal nucleus

9. Stria medullaris of thalamus

10. Internal medullary lamina of thalamus

11. Dorsal medial nucleus

12. Mamillothalamic tract

13. Interthalamic adhesion (massa intermedia) and midline nuclei

14. Third ventricle

15. Extreme capsule

16. Claustrum

17. Putamen

18. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

19. Accessory medullary lamina of globus pallidus

20. Globus pallidus, medial segment

21. Internal capsule, posterior limb

22. Uncinate fasciculus

23. Anterior commissure

24. Ansa lenticularis

25. Supraoptic nucleus

26. Fornix, column

27. Amygdaloid nucleus

28. Dorsal supraoptic commissure and supraoptic nucleus

29. Optic tract

30. Medial hypothalamic area (paraventricular nucleus)

31. Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus

32. Tuber cinereum

 

Plate 47 Frontal Section through the Midthalamus at the Level of the Fields of Forel and the Tuber Cinereum

 

1. Corpus callosum, body

2. Caudate nucleus, body

3. Stria, vena, and sulcus terminalis

4. Stratum zonale of thalamus

5. Lateral dorsal nucleus

6. Fornix, crus

7. Stria medullaris of thalamus

8. External medullary lamina of thalamus

9. Ventral lateral nucleus

10. Dorsal medial nucleus

11. Internal capsule, posterior limb

12. Lateral reticular nucleus

13. Internal medullary lamina of thalamus

14. Interthalamic adhesion (massa intermedia) and midline nuclei

15. Putamen

16. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

17. Globus pallidus, medial segment

18. Lenticular fasciculus (H2 of Forel)

19. Zona incerta

20. Thalamic fasciculus (H1 of Forel)

21. Mamillothalamic tract

22. Third ventricle

23. Amygdaloid nucleus

24. Substantia nigra

25. Optic tract

26. Fornix, column

27. Tuber cinereum

28. Uncus

29. Uncinate fasciculus

30. Anterior commissure

 

Plate 48 Frontal Section through the Midthalamus at the Level of the Subthalamic Nucleus and the Mamillary Bodies

 

1. Caudate nucleus, tail

2. Stratum zonale of thalamus

3. Lateral dorsal nucleus

4. Fornix, crus

5. Stria medullaris of thalamus

6. Lateral reticular nucleus

7. Ventral lateral nucleus

8. Dorsal medial nucleus

9. Dehiscence of interthalamic adhesion

10. Claustrum

11. Putamen

12. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

13. Globus pallidus, medial segment

14. Internal capsule, posterior limb

15. Zona incerta

16. Lenticular fasciculus (H2 of Forel)

17. Thalamic fasciculus (H1 of Forel)

18. Tegmental field H of Forel

19. Mamillothalamic tract

20. Principal mamillary fasciculus (including mamillothalamic tract)

21. Optic tract

22. Substantia nigra

23. Basis pedunculi

24. Fornix fibers

25. Medial nucleus of mamillary body

26. Subthalamic nucleus

27. Amygdaloid nucleus

28. Uncus

 

Plate 49 Frontal Section through the Posterior Thalamus at the Level of the Ventral Posterior Nucleus (VPL and VPM) and the Diencephalo-Mesencephalic Junction

 

1. Caudate nucleus, tail

2. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

3. Fornix, crus

4. Corpus callosum, body

5. Putamen

6. Lateral posterior nucleus

7. Lateral dorsal nucleus

8. Dorsal medial nucleus

9. Stria medullaris thalami and habenular nuclei

10. Ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL)

11. Ventral posterior inferior nucleus (VPI)

12. Ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM)

13. Centromedian nucleus (centrum medianum)

14. Parafascicular nucleus

15. Habenulointerpeduncular nucleus (tractus retroflexus of Meynert)

16. Medial leminscus and trigeminothalamic tract

17. Red nucleus

18. Substantia nigra

19. Basis pedunculi

20. Optic tract

21. Lateral ventricle, inferior horn

22. Alveus

23. Fimbria of fornix

24. Hippocampus

25. Root fibers, oculomotor nerve

 

Plate 50 Frontal Section through the Posterior Thalamus at the Level of the Posterior Commissure and the Medial and Lateral Geniculate Bodies

 

1. Caudate nucleus, tail

2. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

3. Fornix, crus

4. Pulvinar

5. Geniculocalcarine tract (optic radiation)

6. Lateral geniculate body

7. Brachium of superior colliculus

8. Auditory radiation

9. Medial geniculate body

10. Brachium of inferior colliculus

11. Medial lemniscus

12. Pretectal area

13. Posterior commissure

14. Habenular commissure

15. Alveus of hippocampus

16. Dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation

17. Fimbria of fornix

18. Optic tract

19. Superficial medullary lamina of entorhinal area

20. Nigrostriatal and striatonigral tracts

21. Dentatothalamic tract

22. Periaqueductal gray

23. Nucleus of Darkschewitsch

24. Oculomotor nucleus

25. Red nucleus

26. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

27. Habenulointerpeduncular tract

28. Substantia nigra

29. Basis pedunculi

30. Oculomotor nerve

31. Pons, base

32. Parahippocampal gyrus

33. Collateral sulcus

 

Plate 51 Frontal Section through the Posterior Thalamus at the Level of the Pulvinar, Pretectal Area, and Medial Geniculate Body

 

1. Caudate nucleus, tail

2. Alveus of hippocampus

3. Fimbria of fornix

4. Stria terminalis

5. Glomus of choroid plexus in trigone of lateral ventricle

6. Fornix, crus

7. Corpus callosum, splenium

8. Hippocampal commissure (commissure of fornix)

9. Pulvinar

10. Brachium of superior colliculus

11. Periaqueductal gray, and cerebral aqueduct

12. Pineal body (epiphysis)

13. Lateral ventricle, temporal horn

14. Dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation

15. Entorhinal area of parahippocampal gyrus

16. Brachium of inferior colliculus

17. Superficial medullary lamina of parahippocampal gyrus

18. Medial geniculate body

19. Medial lemniscus

20. Oculomotor nucleus

21. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

22. Red nucleus, capsule

23. Interpeduncular fossa

24. Nigrostriatal and striatonigral tracts

25. Basis pedunculi

26. Substantia nigra

27. Interpeduncular nucleus

 

Plate 52 Horizontal Section through the Corpus Callosum and the Body of the Lateral Ventricle

 

1. Frontal pole

2. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

3. Insular cortex

4. Lateral ventricle, body

5. Corpus callosum, body

6. Visual cortex with stria of Gennari

7. Occipital pole

*Claustrum visible bilaterally, not labeled

 

Plate 53 Horizontal Section through the Dorsal Aspect of the Caudate Nucleus and the Lateral Ventricle

 

1. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

2. Cingulate gyrus

3. Lateral ventricle, frontal horn

4. Corpus callosum, genu

5. Stria terminalis

6. Caudate nucleus, head

7. Septum pelludicum

8. Caudate nucleus, body

9. Lateral ventricle, body

10. Medial longitudinal stria of indusium griseum

11. Corpus callosum, body and hippocampal commissure

12. Lateral longitudinal stria of indusium griseum

 

Plate 54 Horizontal Section through the Genu and the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum and the “Dorsal” Nuclei of the Thalamus

 

1. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

2. Corpus callosum, genu

3. Lateral ventricle, frontal horn

4. Cavum septi pellucidi

5. Caudate nucleus, head

6. Septum pellucidum

7. Septal gray

8. Sulcus, vena, and stria terminalis

9. Anterior nucleus

10. Lateral posterior nucleus

11. Lateral dorsal nucleus

12. Caudate nucleus, tail

13. Lateral ventricle, occipital horn

14. Fornix, crus

15. Corpus callosum, splenium

16. Medial and lateral longitudinal striae of indusium griseum

17. Claustrum

18. Putamen

19. Internal capsule, anterior limb

20. Internal capsule, genu

21. Internal capsule, posterior limb

 

Plate 55 Horizontal Section through the Anterior and the Dorsal Medial Nuclei of the Thalamus

 

1. Corpus callosum, genu

2. Caudate nucleus, head

3. Insular cortex

4. Putamen

5. Internal capsule, anterior limb

6. Internal capsule, genu

7. Internal capsule, posterior limb

8. Ventral anterior nucleus

9. Ventral lateral nucleus

10. Lateral posterior nucleus

11. Pulvinar

12. Anterior nucleus

13. Dorsal medial nucleus

14. Septal gray

15. Fornix, body

16. Fornix, crus

17. Corpus callosum, splenium

18. Caudate nucleus, tail

19. Lateral ventricle, occipital horn

 

Plate 56 Horizontal Section through the Rostrum and the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum

 

1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Lateral ventricle, frontal horn

3. Caudate nucleus, head

4. Corpus callosum, rostrum

5. Subcallosal area

6. Paraterminal gyrus

7. Fornix, column

8. Stria medullaris thalami

9. Third ventricle

10. Anterior nucleus

11. Dorsal medial nucleus

12. Pulvinar

13. Ventral posterior lateral nucleus

14. Ventral lateral nucleus

15. Ventral anterior nucleus

16. Internal capsule, genu

17. Internal capsule, posterior limb

18. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

19. Lateral medullary lamina of globus pallidus

20. Putamen

21. Extreme capsule

22. External capsule

23. Claustrum

24. Fornix, crus

25. Lateral ventricle, occipital horn

26. Corpus callosum, splenium

 

Plate 57 Horizontal Section through the Anterior Commissure, the Interthalamic Adhesion, and the Splenium of the Corpus Callosum

 

1. Medial medullary lamina of globus pallidus

2. Lateral medullary lamina of globus pallidus

3. Putamen

4. Internal capsule, anterior limb

5. Caudate nucleus, head

6. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

7. Globus pallidus, medial segment

8. Anterior commissure

9. Paraterminal gyrus

10. Fornix, column

11. Inferior thalamic peduncle

12. Mamillothalamic tract

13. Interthalamic adhesion

14. Dorsal medial nucleus

15. Centromedian nucleus (centrum medianum)

16. Habenula (habenular nuclei and stria medullaris thalami)

17. Pulvinar

18. Caudate nucleus, tail

19. Fornix, fimbria

20. Lateral ventricle, trigone

21. Corpus callosum, splenium

22. Retrosplenial gyrus

23. Longitudinal cerebral fissure

24. Transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl

25. Insular cortex

 

Plate 58 Horizontal Section through the Anterior Commissure, the Habenular Commissure, and the Pineal Body

 

1. Anterior commissure

2. Caudate nucleus, head

3. Fornix, column

4. Mamillothalamic tract

5. Habenula and habenular commissure

6. Pineal body with acervulus

7. Fornix, fimbria

8. Caudate nucleus, tail

9. Lateral ventricle, trigone

10. Pulvinar

11. Centromedian nucleus (centrum medianum)

12. Dorsal medial nucleus

13. Ventral posterior lateral nucleus

14. Ventral posterior medial nucleus

15. Internal capsule, posterior limb

16. Globus pallidus, medial segment

17. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

18. Putamen

19. Internal capsule, anterior limb

20. Insular cortex

21. Claustrum

22. Transverse temporal gyrus (auditory cortex)

 

Plate 59 Horizontal Section through the Posterior Commissure, the Medial and the Lateral Geniculate Bodies, and the Subthalamic Nucleus

 

1. Putamen

2. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

3. Medial lemniscus, trigeminal lemniscus, spinothalamic tracts, and dentatothalamic tract

4. Subthalamic nucleus

5. Anterior commissure

6. Ansa lenticularis

7. Inferior thalamic peduncle

8. Lamina terminalis

9. Fornix, column

10. Mamillothalamic tract

11. Habenulointerpeduncular tract (tractus retroflexus of Meynert)

12. Posterior commissure

13. Medial geniculate body

14. Pulvinar

15. Brachium of superior colliculus

16. Superior colliculus

17. Pineal body

18. Caudate nucleus, tail

19. Hippocampal formation, dentate gyrus

20. Collateral sulcus

21. Cerebellar vermis

 

Plate 60 Horizontal Section through the Superior Colliculus, the Medial and the Lateral Geniculate Bodies, the Hypothalamus, and the Amygdaloid Nucleus

 

1. Insular cortex

2. Putamen

3. Anterior commissure

4. Anterior perforated substance

5. Amygdaloid nucleus

6. Optic tract

7. Anterior cerebral arteries

8. Lamina terminalis

9. Fornix, column

10. Mamillothalamic tract

11. Red nucleus

12. Substantia nigra

13. Basis pedunculi

14. Lateral geniculate body

15. Pulvinar

16. Medial geniculate body

17. Lateral ventricle, trigone

18. Superficial medullary lamina

19. Brachium of superior colliculus

20. Medial lemniscus

21. Superior colliculus

22. Collateral sulcus

23. Cerebral aqueduct

24. Cerebellar vermis

 

Plate 61 Horizontal Section through the Mesencephalon at the Level of the Oculomotor Nucleus and the Mamillary Bodies

 

1. Insular cortex

2. Putamen

3. Amygdaloid nucleus

4. Optic tract

5. Fornix, column

6. Principal mamillary fasciculus

7. Red nucleus

8. Substantia nigra

9. Basis pedunculi

10. Lateral geniculate body

11. Medial geniculate body

12. Oculomotor nucleus

13. Caudate nucleus, tail and stria terminalis

14. Dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation

15. Pulvinar

16. Brachium of inferior colliculus

17. Periaqueductal gray

18. Decussation of superior colliculus

19. Cerebellar vermis

 

Plate 62 Horizontal Section through the Mesencephalon at the Level of the Inferior Colliculus and the Amygdaloid Nucleus

 

1. Middle cerebral artery

2. Olfactory trigone

3. Olfactory sulcus

4. Gyrus rectus

5. Dorsal supraoptic commissure

6. Amygdaloid nucleus

7. Optic tract

8. Hypothalamus

9. Third ventricle

10. Mamillary body

11. Interpeduncular fossa and oculomotor nerves

12. Red nucleus and capsule

13. Substantia nigra

14. Basis pedunculi

15. Lateral ventricle, temporal horn

16. Caudate nucleus, tail

17. Hippocampus

18. Parahippocampal gyrus

19. Inferior colliculus, nucleus

20. Trochlear nucleus

 

Plate 63 Horizontal Section through the Mesencephalon, the Frenulum of the Superior Medullary Velum, and the Optic Chiasm

 

1. Olfactory trigone

2. Gyrus rectus

3. Internal carotid artery

4. Optic chiasm

5. Infundibular recess of the third ventricle

6. Caudate nucleus, tail

7. Lateral ventricle, inferior horn

8. Hippocampus

9. Parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal area)

10. Amygdaloid nucleus

11. Basis pedunculi

12. Oculomotor nerves in interpeduncular fossa

13. Substantia nigra

14. Decussation of inferior cerebellar peduncles

15. Trochlear nerve

 

Plate 64 Parasagittal Section through the Optic Chiasm, the Pineal Body, and the Cerebral Aqueduct

 

1. Superior frontal gyrus

2. Precentral sulcus

3. Central sulcus

4. Cingulate sulcus, marginal branch

5. Paracentral lobule

6. Precuneus

7. Cingulate gyrus

8. Gyrus rectus

9. Anterior commissure

10. Corpus callosum, rostrum

11. Corpus callosum, genu

12. Corpus callosum, body

13. Corpus callosum, splenium

14. Septal gray

15. Fornix, column

16. Thalamus

17. Posterior commissure

18. Pineal body

19. Tectum of mesencephalon

20. Cerebral aqueduct

21. Principal mamillary fasciculus

22. Optic chiasm

23. Infundibulum of hypothalamus

24. Mamillary body

25. Interpeduncular fossa

26. Red nucleus, capsule

27. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

28. Pons

29. Superior medullary velum

30. Posterior lateral fissure

31. Primary fissure

32. Arcuate nucleus of medulla

33. Pyramid, corticospinal tract

34. Fasciculus gracilis

 

Plate 65 Parasagittal Section through the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

 

1. Optic chiasm

2. Anterior commissure

3. Septal gray

4. Corpus callosum, rostrum

5. Corpus callosum, genu

6. Corpus callosum, body

7. Corpus callosum, splenium

8. Fornix, column

9. Thalamus

10. Posterior commissure

11. Interventricular foramen (Monro), and choroid plexus

12. Hypothalamus

13. Mamillary body

14. Red nucleus and capsule

15. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

16. Oculomotor-trochlear nuclear complex

17. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

18. Pons

19. Striae medullares of the fourth ventricle

20. Hypoglossal nucleus

21. Inferior olivary nucleus

 

Plate 66 Parasagittal Section through the Habenular Trigone and the Abducent Nucleus

 

1. Precentral sulcus

2. Central sulcus

3. Cingulate sulcus, marginal ramus

4. Parietooccipital sulcus

5. Corpus callosum, rostrum

6. Corpus callosum, genu

7. Corpus callosum, body

8. Corpus callosum, splenium

9. Lateral ventricle

10. Anterior commissure

11. Anterior nucleus

12. Dorsal medial nucleus

13. Fornix, crus

14. Mamillothalamic tract

15. Posterior commissure

16. Habenula (habenular trigone)

17. Inferior colliculus

18. Primary fissure

19. Optic chiasm

20. Pars tecta fornicis

21. Mamillary body

22. Oculomotor nerve

23. Red nucleus

24. Periaqueductal gray

25. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

26. Pons

27. Fourth ventricle

28. Abducent nucleus

29. Medial lemniscus

30. Corticospinal tract

31. Inferior olivary nucleus

32. Solitary tract and nucleus

33. Posterior lateral fissure

34. Spinal trigeminal nucleus

 

Plate 67 Parasagittal Section through the Centrum Medianum and the Subthalamic Nucleus

 

1. Central sulcus

2. Parietooccipital sulcus

3. Calcarine sulcus

4. Corpus callosum, genu

5. Corpus callosum, body

6. Corpus callosum, splenium

7. Caudate nucleus, head

8. Lateral ventricle, body

9. Lateral dorsal nucleus

10. Fornix, crus

11. Anterior commissure

12. Internal capsule, genu

13. Ventral anterior nucleus

14. Dorsal medial nucleus

15. Pulvinar

16. Ventral lateral nucleus

17. Centromedian nucleus (centrum medianum)

18. Brachium of superior colliculus

19. Brachium of inferior colliculus

20. Optic tract

21. Subthalamic nucleus

22. Ventral posterior medial nucleus

23. Substantia nigra

24. Basis pedunculi

25. Pons

26. Emboliform nucleus

27. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

 

Plate 68 Parasagittal Section through the Medial Geniculate Body, the Globus Pallidus, and the Dentate Nucleus

 

1. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus (lingual gyrus)

2. Medial geniculate body

3. Basis pedunculi

4. Optic tract

5. Substantia innominata (Reichert) including nucleus basalis of Meynert

6. Uncus

7. Putamen

8. Caudate nucleus, head

9. Internal capsule, anterior limb

10. Internal capsule, genu

11. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

12. Globus pallidus, medial segment

13. Lateral posterior nucleus

14. Ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL)

15. Pulvinar

16. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

17. Fornix, fimbria

18. Central sulcus

19. Middle cerebellar peduncle

20. Dentate nucleus

 

Plate 69 Parasagittal Section through the Lateral Geniculate Body, the Amygdaloid Nucleus, and the Hippocampal Formation

 

1. Claustrum

2. Anterior commissure

3. Optic tract

4. Amygdaloid nucleus

5. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle, temporal horn

6. Dentate gyrus

7. Hippocampus

8. Lateral geniculate body

9. Choroidal fissure

10. Lateral ventricle, occipital horn

11. Fornix, fimbria

12. Lateral ventricle, trigone

13. Caudate nucleus, tail

14. Central sulcus

15. Putamen

16. Globus pallidus, lateral segment

17. Globus pallidus, medial segment

18. Internal capsule, posterior limb

19. Basis pedunculi

20. Pulvinar

21. Corpus medullare cerebelli

22. Dentate nucleus

 

Plate 70 Parasagittal Section through the Putamen, the Amygdaloid Nucleus, and the Hippocampal Formation

 

1. Claustrum

2. Insular cortex

3. Extreme capsule

4. External capsule

5. Putamen

6. Anterior commissure

7. Caudate nucleus, tail

8. Geniculocalcarine tract in sublenticular division of internal capsule

9. Auditory radiation

10. Internal capsule, retrolenticular division

11. Caudate nucleus, tail

12. Lateral ventricle, trigone

13. Calcar avis

14. Lateral ventricle, occipital horn

15. Amygdaloid nucleus

16. Lateral ventricle, temporal horn

17. Pes hippocampi of hippocampal formation

18. Dentate gyrus

19. Fornix, fimbria

20. Hippocampus of parahippocampal gyrus

21. Corpus medullare of cerebellum

 

Plate 71 Parasagittal Section through the Insular Gyri, the Claustrum, and the Hippocampal Formation

 

1. Uncinate fasciculus

2. Limen insulae

3. Gyri breves insulae

4. Transverse temporal gyri

5. Claustrum

6. External capsule

7. Amygdaloid nucleus

8. Lateral ventricle, temporal horn

9. Pes hippocampi of hippocampal formation

10. Dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation

11. Caudate nucleus, tail

12. Choroid plexus

13. Central sulcus

14. Postcentral sulcus

15. Corpus medullare of cerebellum


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