Atlas of the Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd Edition

Section 2 - Thick Stained Sections of the Brain and Brain Stem in the Three Orthogonal Planes



Plate 72 Gross Midsagittal Section of the Brain and Brain Stem with Meninges and Blood Vessels Intact


Gross midsagittal section of the brain and brain stem with meninges and blood vessels intact. Arachnoid granulations are seen along the crest of the hemisphere. The posterior commissure, decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, and medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) are well demonstrated.

1. Stria medullaris of thalamus

2. Third ventricle

3. Habenular commissure

4. Pineal gland

5. Stratum opticum

6. Cerebral aqueduct

7. Inferior colliculus

8. Central gray substance

9. Superior medullary velum

10. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle

11. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (bundle)

12. Superior central nucleus

13. Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle

14. Obex

15. Inferior central nucleus

16. Medulla oblongata

17. Posterior commissure

18. Interpeduncular nucleus

19. Basilar artery

20. Central rami of basilar artery

21. Posterior perforated substance

22. Mamillary body

23. Infundibular recess

24. Supraoptic recess

25. Lamina terminalis

26. Hypothalamus

27. Preoptic area

28. Pericallosal artery

29. Anterior commissure

30. Septum pellucidum

31. Interventricular foramen

32. Column of fornix

33. Paraventricular nucleus of thalamus

34. Body of fornix

35. Arachnoidal granulations

36. Velum interpositum and tela choroidea


Plate 73 Gross Parasagittal Section through the Red Nucleus, Medial Lemniscus, and Inferior Olivary Nucleus


Gross parasagittal section through the red nucleus, medial lemniscus, and inferior olivary nucleus. The corticospinal fibers can be traced from the crus cerebri to the spinal cord. The abducent nerve (CN VI), is seen exiting from the pontobullar sulcus.

1. Prerubral tract

2. Dorsal medial nucleus of thalamus

3. Crus of fornix

4. Medial pulvinar nucleus of thalamus

5. Pretectal area

6. Fasciolar gyrus

7. Posterior cerebral artery

8. Calcarine sulcus

9. Medial lemniscus

10. Lateral lemniscus

11. Superior cerebellar peduncle

12. Dentate nucleus

13. Striae medullares of fourth ventricle

14. Medial lemniscus

15. Corticospinal tract

16. Abducent nerve (VI)

17. Substantia nigra

18. Medullary lamina of red nucleus

19. Posterior cerebral artery

20. Tegmental area H

21. Optic nerve (II)

22. Ansa lenticularis

23. Tegmental area H2

24. Inferior thalamic peduncle

25. Zona incerta

26. Tegmental area H1

27. Ventricular surface of head of caudate nucleus

28. Mamillothalamic tract

29. Cingulate sulcus

30. Anteroventral nucleus of thalamus

31. Posteromedial ventral nucleus of thalamus

32. Internal medullary lamina of thalamus


Plate 74 Gross Parasagittal Section through the Caudate Nucleus, Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Dentate Nucleus


Gross parasagittal section through the caudate nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus. The abducent nerve (CN VI) is seen exiting the pontobulbar sulcus. Damage to the subthalamic nucleus results in hemiballism. Parkinson disease results from a cell loss of the pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra.

1. Stratum zonale of thalamus

2. Centromedian nucleus of thalamus

3. Posteromedial ventral nucleus of thalamus

4. Medial pulvinar nucleus of thalamus

5. Medial geniculate body

6. Cingulum

7. Parahippocampal gyrus

8. Medial lemniscus

9. Peduncle of substantia nigra

10. Lateral corticobulbar fibers

11. Dentate nucleus

12. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

13. Pontine nuclei

14. Olive

15. Abducent nerve (VI)

16. Substantia nigra

17. Subthalamicotegmental tract

18. Posterior cerebral artery

19. Uncus

20. Oculomotor nerve (III)

21. Optic nerve (II)

22. Olfactory tract

23. Anterior cerebral artery

24. Capsule of subthalamic nucleus

25. Subthalamic nucleus

26. Anterior limb of internal capsule

27. Head of caudate nucleus

28. Genu of internal capsule

29. Tegmental area H2

30. Tegmental area H1

31. Zona inserta

32. Posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus


Plate 75 Coronal Section through the Anterior Commissure, Amygdala, Septal Nuclei, and Optic Chiasm


Coronal section through the anterior commissure, amygdala, septal nuclei, and optic chiasm. The septal nuclei have reciprocal connections with the hippocampal formation. Bilateral destruction of the amygdaloid nuclei results in the Klüver-Busey syndrome (psychic blindness, hyperphagia, and hypersexuality.) An aneurism of the internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus (CS) may compress the following nerves: CN III, CN IV, V-1, V-2, VI and postganglionic sympathetic fibers. Compression of postganglionic sympathetic fibers in the CS results in oculosympathetic paralysis of miosis, hemihidrosis, mild ptosis, and apparent enophthalmos.

1. Pericallosal artery

2. Body of corpus callosum

3. Lateral septal nucleus

4. Head of caudate nucleus

5. Anterior limb of internal capsule

6. Globus pallidus II

7. Extreme capsule

8. Insula

9. Putamen

10. Lateral cerebral fissure

11. Uncinate fasciculus (uncinate bundle)

12. Lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery

13. Olfactory part of anterior commissure

14. Middle cerebral artery

15. Anterior cerebral artery

16. Internal carotid artery

17. Optic chiasm

18. Nucleus of diagonal band

19. Anterior perforated substance (substantia innominata)

20. Amygdala

21. Anterior commissure

22. Orbitofrontal fibers

23. Inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (inferior occipitofrontal bundle)

24. Middle cerebral artery

25. Claustrum

26. External medullary lamina of globus pallidus

27. External capsule

28. Superior longitudinal fasciculus (bundle)

29. Corona radiata

30. Superior occipitofrontal fasciculus (superior occipitofrontal bundle)

31. Anterior horn of lateral ventricle

32. Septum pellucidum

33. Longitudinal cerebral fissure (interhemispheric fissure)


Plate 76 Coronal Section through the Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule, Mamillothalamic Tract (MTT), Mamillary Body, and Hippocampal Formation


Coronal section through the posterior limb of the internal capsule, mamillothalamic tract (MTT), mamillary body, and hippocampal formation. Note the MTT entering the anterior ventral nucleus. The optic tracts are visible bilaterally. Claustrum and third ventricle.

1. Cingulate artery

2. Body of fornix

3. Interthalamic adhesion (massa intermedia)

4. Anteroventral nucleus of thalamus

5. Stria terminalis and thalamostriate vein

6. Tail of caudate nucleus

7. Lateral ventral nucleus of thalamus

8. Mamillothalamic tract

9. Claustrum

10. External capsule

11. Lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery

12. Globus pallidus II

13. Globus pallidus I

14. Zona incerta

15. Subthalamic nucleus

16. Substantia nigra

17. Cerebral peduncle

18. Posterior cerebral artery

19. Principal mamillary fasciculus (bundle)

20. Basilar artery

21. Pons

22. Interpeduncular fossa

23. Mamillary body

24. Third ventricle

25. Hippocampal sulcus

26. Hippocampus

27. Alveus of hippocampus

28. Inferior horn of lateral ventricle

29. Amygdala and nucleus basalis

30. Optic tract

31. Internal medullary lamina of globus pallidus

32. External medullary lamina of globus pallidus

33. Extreme capsule

34. Putamen

35. Posterior limb of internal capsule

36. Rostral peduncle of thalamus

37. Tegmental area H2

38. Velum interpositum


Plate 77 Coronal Section through the Thalamus, Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus (VPM) and the Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus (VPL), Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule, Substantia Nigra, and Red Nucleus


Coronal section through the thalamus, ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) and the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL), posterior limb of the internal capsule, substantia nigra, and red nucleus. The optic tract lies dorsal to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. A lesion of the red nucleus involves the ipsilaterial intra-axial oculomotor fibers and the contralateral dentatorubrothalamic fibers from the cerebellum. This is Benedikt syndrome, characterized by a third nerve palsy and a contralateral cerebellar ataxia.

1. Third ventricle

2. Dorsal medial nucleus of thalamus

3. Body of lateral ventricle

4. Rostral peduncle of thalamus

5. Corona radiata

6. Posterior limb of internal capsule

7. Circular sulcus of insula

8. Claustrum

9. Centromedian nucleus of thalamus

10. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (bundle)

11. Globus pallidus II

12. Optic radiation

13. Tail of caudate nucleus

14. Stria terminalis

15. Optic tract

16. Uncus

17. Cerebral peduncle

18. Red nucleus

19. Habenulo-interpeduncular tract (fasciculus retroflexus)

20. Medial nucleus of pons

21. Interpeduncular fossa

22. Middle cerebellar peduncle

23. Interpeduncular nucleus

24. Substantia nigra

25. Posterior cerebral artery

26. Hippocampus

27. Medullary lamina of red nucleus

28. Medial lemniscus

29. Posteromedial ventral nucleus of thalamus

30. Putamen

31. Posterolateral ventral nucleus of thalamus

32. Central sulcus

33. Posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus

34. Tail of caudate nucleus

35. Superior occipitofrontal fasciculus (superior occipitofrontal bundle)

36. Stria terminalis

37. Lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus

38. Body of fornix


Plate 78 Coronal Section through the Lateral and Medial Lemnisci, Lateral and Medial Geniculate Nuclei, and Hippocampal Formation


Coronal section through the lateral and medial lemnisci, lateral and medial geniculate nuclei, and hippocampal formation

1. Cingulum

2. Crus of fornix

3. Tail of caudate nucleus

4. Third ventricle

5. Posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus

6. Posterior commissure

7. Posterior limb of internal capsule

8. Cerebral aqueduct

9. Superior temporal gyrus

10. Medial lemniscus

11. Parahippocampal gyrus

12. Collateral sulcus (rhinal fissure)

13. Central tegmental bundle

14. Decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles

15. Pontine nuclei

16. Raphe of pons

17. Inferior olivary nucleus

18. Superior cerebellar peduncle

19. Middle cerebellar peduncle

20. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (bundle)

21. Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus

22. Inferior temporal gyrus

23. Lateral lemniscus

24. Inferior horn of lateral ventricle

25. Alveus of hippocampus

26. Tail of caudate nucleus

27. Posterior cerebral artery

28. Lateral geniculate body

29. Transcapsular caudatolenticular gray striae

30. Medial geniculate body

31. Rostral peduncle of thalamus

32. Dorsal medial nucleus of thalamus

33. Habenulo-interpeduncular tract (fasciculus retroflexus)

34. Body of corpus callosum


Plate 79 Coronal Section through the Pulvinar Nuclei, Pineal Gland (Epiphysis), Superior and Inferior Colliculi, and Trochlear Nerve (CN IV)


Coronal section through the pulvinar nuclei, pineal gland (epiphysis), superior and inferior colliculi, and trochlear nerve (CN IV). The abducent nucleus is seen in the dorsomedial pontine tegmentum; it is surrounded by exiting root fibers of the fascial nerve (CN VII); the facial colliculus (FC) is found in the floor of the rostral pontine tegmentum. A lesion of the FC results in a central paralysis of the CN VII, a complete abducent paralysis, and a medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral conjugate gaze.

1. Velum interpositum

2. Internal cerebral vein

3. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

4. Choroidal fissure

5. Tail of caudate nucleus

6. Pineal gland

7. Superior colliculus

8. Triangular area

9. Fimbria of hippocampus

10. Alveus of hippocampus

11. Hippocampus (Sommer's sector)

12. Dentate gyrus

13. Brachium of inferior colliculus

14. Inferior colliculus

15. Commissure of inferior colliculus

16. Uncinate fasciculus (bundle)

17. Superior cerebellar peduncle

18. Median sulcus

19. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract

20. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (bundle)

21. Nucleus of abducent nerve (VI)

22. Inferior cerebellar peduncle

23. Middle cerebellar peduncle

24. Trochlear nerve (IV)

25. Collateral sulcus (rhinal fissure)

26. Cingulum

27. Inferior horn of lateral ventricle

28. Optic radiation

29. Tapetum

30. Tail of caudate nucleus

31. Retrolenticular part of internal capsule

32. Lateral pulvinar nucleus of thalamus

33. Transcapsular caudatolenticular gray striae

34. Thalamostriate vein

35. Body of lateral ventricle

36. Crus of fornix

37. Medial pulvinar nucleus of thalamus

38. Splenium of corpus callosum


Plate 80 Axial Section through the Internal Capsule, Anterior Commissure, and Pulvinar Nuclei


Axial section through the internal capsule, anterior commissure, and pulvinar nuclei. Locate the visual radiation and the basal ganglia: caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen; caudate nucleus + putamen = lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus + putamen = striatum.

1. Circular sulcus of insula

2. Lateral ventral nucleus of thalamus

3. Dorsal medial nucleus of thalamus

4. Tail of caudate nucleus

5. Fimbria of hippocampus

6. Tapetum

7. Optic radiation

8. Retrosplenial gyrus of hippocampus

9. Stria medullaris of thalamus

10. Longitudinal cerebral fissure (interhemispheric fissure)

11. Great cerebral vein

12. Medial pulvinar nucleus of thalamus

13. Choroidal fissure

14. Lateral pulvinar nucleus of thalamus

15. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle

16. Triangular area

17. Retrolenticular part of internal capsule

18. Mamillothalamic tract

19. Branch of middle cerebral artery

20. Posterior limb of internal capsule

21. Long gyrus of insula

22. Globus pallidus I

23. Short gyri of insula

24. Globus pallidus II

25. Internal medullary lamina of globus pallidus

26. Anterior limb of internal capsule

27. Lateral preoptic nucleus

28. Column of fornix

29. Cingulate gyrus

30. Anterior commissure

31. Third ventricle

32. Head of caudate nucleus

33. Putamen

34. Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

35. Lateral cerebral fissure

36. External medullary lamina of globus pallidus

37. Temporal operculum

38. Interthalamic adhesion (massa intermedia)


Plate 81 Axial Section through the Mamillary Nuclei and the Superior Colliculi


Axial section through the mamillary nuclei, and the superior colliculi. In Wernicke's encephalopathy, one sees petechial hemorrhages in the mamillary nuclei. In Parkinson disease, the substantia nigra shows a loss of pigmented neurons. In Benedikt syndrome, a lesion of the red nucleus, the following structures are lesioned: root fibers of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), dentatorubrothalamic fibers, and the medial lemniscus.

1. Inferior horn of lateral ventricle

2. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle, inferior horn

3. Medial geniculate body

4. Red nucleus

5. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (bundle)

6. Superior colliculus

7. Central gray matter

8. Superior cistern

9. Tegmental reticular formation (lateral mesencephalic nucleus)

10. Substantia nigra

11. Cerebral peduncle

12. Dentate gyrus

13. Tapetum

14. Hippocampus

15. Fimbria of hippocampus

16. Mamillary body

17. Principal mamillary fasciculus (bundle)

18. Branch of middle cerebral artery

19. Lateral cerebral fissure

20. Optic tract

21. Tuber cinereum

22. Medial orbital gyrus

23. Straight gyrus

24. Anterior cerebral artery

25. Anterior perforated substance

26. Mamillothalamic tract

27. Uncus

28. Amygdala

29. Anterior commissure

30. Lateral geniculate body

31. Tail of caudate nucleus

32. Alveus of hippocampus


Plate 82 Axial Section through the Mamillary Nuclei, Inferior Colliculi, and Optic Chiasm


Axial section through the mamillary nuclei, inferior colliculi, and optic chiasm. The amygdala and hippocampal formations are outstanding; lesions of the amygdala and hippocampal formation result in memory loss. Plates 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 and 82 show normal brains with no neuropathology. Lead lines point to normal structures which in time will demonstrate pathology (e.g., lead line points to the normal substantia nigra). In Parkinson disease there is a depopulation of melanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra and in the locus ceruleus.

1. Parahippocampal gyrus

2. Lateral lemniscus

3. Cisterna ambiens

4. Brachium of inferior colliculus

5. Cerebral aqueduct

6. Vermis of cerebellum

7. Calcarine sulcus

8. Central gray matter

9. Inferior colliculus

10. Medial lemniscus

11. Substantia nigra

12. Frontopontine tract

13. Parietotemporo-occipitopontine tract

14. Dentate gyrus

15. Hippocampus

16. Mamillary body

17. Alveus of hippocampus

18. Anterior commissure

19. Amygdala

20. Infundibulum

21. Optic chiasm

22. Anterior cerebral artery

23. Olfactory sulcus

24. Straight gyrus

25. Medial orbital gyrus

26. Olfactory tract

27. Optic tract

28. Temporal pole

29. Interpeduncular fossa

30. Corticospinal tract