Atlas of the Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd Edition

Section 5 - Blood Supply


Blood Supply to the Brain Stem



Carotid Angiogram-Lateral Projection

Identify the cortical branches of the cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Follow the course of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Remember that aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery may result in third-nerve palsy. The paracentral lobule is irrigated by the callosomarginal artery. Cortical branches of the MCA are designated with dots. PCoM = posterior communicating artery.

Carotid Angiogram-Anteroposterior Projection

Identify the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and internal carotid artery (ICA). The horizontal branches of the MCA perfuse the basal ganglia and internal capsule. ACoM = anterior communicating artery.


Vertebral Angiogram-Lateral Projection

Two structures are found between the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and the superior cerebellar artery: the tentorium and the third cranial nerve. PCoM = posterior communicating artery; PICA = posterior inferior cerebellar artery; SCA = superior cerebellar artery.

Vertebral Angiogram-Anteroposterior Projection

Which artery supplies the visual cortex? The calcarine artery, a branch of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Occlusion of the PCA (calcarine artery) results in a contralateral homonymous hemianopia, with macular sparing. PICA = posterior cerebellar artery.


Carotid Angiogram—Venous Phase

Shows the cerebral veins and venous sinuses.


Arteries of the Brain

A. Carotid angiogram, lateral projection. B. Carotid angiogram, anteroposterior projection. C. Vertebral angiogram, lateral projection. D. Vertebral angiogram, anteroposterior projection.

List of structures:

1. Anterior cerebral artery

2. Anterior choroidal artery

3. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

4. Basilar artery

5. Calcarine artery (of posterior cerebral artery)

6. Callosomarginal artery (of anterior cerebral artery)

7. Callosomarginal and pericallosal arteries (of anterior cerebral artery)

8. Internal carotid artery

9. Lateral striate arteries (of middle cerebral artery)

10. Middle cerebral artery

11. Opthalmic artery

12. Pericallosal artery (of anterior cerebral artery)

13. Posterior cerebral artery

14. Posterior choroidal arteries (of posterior cerebral artery)

15. Posterior communicating artery

16. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

17. Superior cerebellar artery

18. Vertebral artery