Cardiology Intensive Board Review, 3 ed.

Physiology/Biochemistry

Amar Krishnaswamy

QUESTIONS

1.At the level of the endothelium, nitric oxide (NO) causes the following:

a.Promotes smooth muscle relaxation

b.Reduced leukocyte adhesion

c.Increased smooth muscle proliferation

d.Downregulation of oxidative enzymes

2.The following cells are considered most important to the process of atherosclerosis:

a.Monocyte/macrophage lineage

b.Platelets

c.Red blood cells

d.B cells

3.The following are characteristics of a vulnerable plaque except

a.high concentration of macrophages.

b.high concentration of collagen.

c.neovascularization.

d.large necrotic core.

4.Arterial thrombosis after plaque rupture is initiated by

a.tissue plasminogen activator.

b.factor XIII.

c.protein C.

d.activated protein C.

e.tissue factor.

5.Low levels of gene expression can be detected by

a.Northern blot.

b.Western blot.

c.reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

d.Southern blot.

e.gene transfer.

6.The final common pathway of platelet aggregation is mediated through

a.adenosine diphosphate (ADP) binding.

b.collagen.

c.thrombin.

d.αvβ3 receptor.

e.glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor.

7.Inducers of smooth muscle cell proliferation include the following except

a.platelet-derived growth factor-β.

b.basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).

c.transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

d.thrombin.

e.oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

8.Inhibitors of cardiac myocyte apoptosis include

a.insulin-like growth factor-1β.

b.dobutamine.

c.ischemia.

d.caspase 3.

e.Bid cleavage.

9.The following are endothelium-independent vasodilators except

a.nitroglycerin.

b.papaverine.

c.adenosine.

d.acetylcholine (ACh).

e.verapamil.