Park's Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners, 6th Ed.

APPENDIX D

Normal Echocardiographic Values

TABLE D-1

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-DERIVED M-MODE MEASUREMENTS OF THE LEFT VENTRICULAR DIMENSION AND WALL THICKNESS: MEAN (-2 SD TO +2 SD)

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BSA, Body surface area; IVS (D), interventricular septal thickness, end diastolic; IVS (S), interventricular septal thickness, end systolic; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD, left ventricular end-systolic dimension; LVPW (D), left ventricular posterior wall thickness, end diastolic; LVPW (S), left ventricular posterior wall thickness, end systolic; SD,standard deviation.

 Values are rounded off to the nearest 0.5 mm.

Values have been derived from graphic data of Lai WW, Mertens LL, Cohen MS, Geva T, (eds): Appendix 1. In Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (UK), 2010.

TABLE D-2

STAND-ALONE M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS: RIGHT VENTRICLE, AORTA, AND LEFT ATRIUM BY BODY SURFACE AREA: MEAN (90% TOLERANCE LIMITS) (IN MM)

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BSA, Body surface area; LA, left atrium; RV, right ventricle.

 Values rounded off to the nearest 0.5 mm or measurements <10 mm and to the nearest 1 mm for measurements ≥10 mm.

Values have been derived from graphic data of Roge CL, Silverman NH, Hart PA, Ray RM: Cardiac structure growth pattern determined by echocardiography. Circulation 57:285-290, 1978.

TABLE D-3

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF AORTIC ROOT AND AORTA: MEAN (-2 SD TO +2 SD) (IN MM)

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BSA, Body surface area; SD, standard deviation.

 Values are rounded off to the nearest 0.5 mm.

Values have been derived from graphic data of Lai WW, Mertens LL, Cohen MS, Geva T, (eds): Appendix 1. In Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (UK), 2010.

TABLE D-4

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF THE PULMONARY VALVE AND PULMONARY ARTERIES (IN MM): MEAN (-2 SD TO +2 SD)

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 Values are rounded off to the nearest 0.5 mm.

Values have been derived from graphic data of Lai WW, Mertens LL, Cohen MS, Geva T, (eds): Appendix 1. In Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (UK), 2010.

TABLE D-5

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES (IN MM): MEAN (-2 SD TO +2 SD)

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 Values are rounded off to the nearest 0.5 mm.

Values have been derived from graphic data of Lai WW, Mertens LL, Cohen MS, Geva T, (eds): Appendix 1. In Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (UK), 2010.

TABLE D-6

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF MEAN AND PREDICTION LIMITS FOR 2 AND 3 STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR MAJOR CORONARY ARTERY SEGMENTS

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BSA, Body surface area; LCA, left anteror descending coronary artery; LMCA, left main coronary artery; RCA, right coronary artery; SD, standard deviation.

 Measurements are made from inner edge to inner edge. Values are rounded off to the nearest 0.1 mm.

Values are from graphic data of Kurotobi S, Nagai T, Kawakami N, Sano T: Coronary diameter in normal infants, children and patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Int 44:1-4, 2002.

TABLE D-7

LEFT VENTRICULAR MASS AND LEFT VENTRICULAR MASS INDEX BY M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

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From Khoury PR, Mitsnefes M, Daniels SR, Kimball TR: Age-specific reference intervals for indexed left ventricular mass in children. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 22:709-714, 2009.

TABLE D-8

LEFT VENTRICULAR MASS USING THE 5/6AL BY BODY SURFACE AREA: MEAN (-2 SD TO +2 SD)

BSA

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

LV mass

13 (9–20)

19 (12–28)

24 (16–36)

31 (20–44)

37 (25–53)

44 (30–62)

51 (36–71)

60 (40–80)

66 (47–92)

72 (52–102)

BSA

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

LV mass

80 (58–112)

91 (64–123)

102 (70–136)

110 (77–144)

120 (83–154)

130 (90–166)

138 (100–178)

148 (108–190)

158 (114–202)

166 (122–212)

BSA, Body surface area; LV, left ventricular; SD, standard deviation.

 Values are rounded off to the nearest 1 gram.

Values have been derived from graphic data of Figure Left ventricular mass using the 5/6 × area × length algorithm (5/6AL) versus body surface area from Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, Lai WW, Mertens LL, Cohen MS, and Geva T (editors), Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

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FIGURE D-1 A, Biplane transesophageal echocardiographic views from transgastric position III. B, Biplane transesophageal echocardiographic views at midesophageal position II.C, Biplane transesophageal echocardiography views from the base of the heart at position I. D, Basal views of the heart and great vessels with use of the longitudinal plane probe at position I. A, Anterior; AA, ascending aorta; AML, anterior mitral leaflet; AO, aorta; ASC, ascending; AV, aortic valve; CS, coronary sinus; I, inferior; IAS, interatrial septum; IVC, inferior vena cava; L, left; LA, left atrium; LAA, left atrial appendage; LCA, left coronary artery; LPA, left pulmonary artery; LUPV, left upper pulmonary vein; LV, left ventricle; LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; MPA, main pulmonary artery; MVO, mitral valve orifice; P, posterior; PML, posterior mitral leaflet; PPM, posterior papillary muscle; PV, pulmonary valve; R, right; RA, right atrium; RAA, right atrial appendage; RCA, right coronary artery; RLPV, right lower pulmonary vein; RPA, right pulmonary artery; RV, right ventricle; RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract; S, superior; SVC, superior vena cava. (From Bansal RC, Shakudo M, Shah PM, Shah PM: Biplane transesophageal echocardiography: Technique, image orientation, and preliminary experience in 131 patients. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 3:348–366, 1990.)