Park's Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners, 6th Ed.

Suggested Readings

General References

Allen H.D., Gutgesell H.P., Clark E.B., Driscoll D.J. Moss and Adams’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, Including the Fetus and Young Adult. ed 7. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.

Dick II. M. Clinical Electrophysiology in the Young. New York: Springer; 2010.

Gillette P.C., Garson Jr. A. Clinical Pediatric Arrhythmias. ed 2. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999.

Jonas R.A. Comprehensive Surgical Management of Congenital Heart Disease. London: Arnold; 2004.

Kwiterovich Jr. P.O. The Johns Hopkins Textbook of Dyslipidemia. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.

Mavroudis C., Backer C.L. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. ed 3. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2003.

Moller J.H., Hoffman J.I.E. Pediatric Cardiovascular Medicine. ed 2. New York: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.

Park M.K., Guntheroth W.G. How to Read Pediatric ECGs. ed 4. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2006.

Perloff J.K. Physical Examination of the Heart and Circulation. ed 3. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000.

Snider A.R., Serwer G.A., Ritter S.B. Echocardiography in Pediatric Heart Disease. ed 2. St. Louis: Mosby; 1997.

Walsh E.P., Saul J.P., Triedman J.K. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

Chapter 1. History Taking

Barger A.P., Hurley R. Evaluation of the hypercoagulable state. Whom to screen, how to test and treat. Postgrad Med. 2000;108(4):59–66.

Copel J.A., Kleinman C.S. Congenital heart disease and extracardiac anomalies: Association and indications for fetal echocardiography. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986;154:1121–1132.

Greenwood R.D., Rosenthal A., Nadas A.S. Cardiovascular malformations associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatrics. 1976;57:92–97.

Nora J.J. Etiologic aspects of heart disease. In: Adams F.H., Emmanouilides G.C., Riemenschneider T.A., eds. Moss’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ed 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

Chapter 2. Physical Examination

Braunwald E., Perloff J.K. Physical examination of the heart and circulation. In: Braunwald E., Zipes D.P., Libby P., eds. Heart Disease. ed 6. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001:45–81.

Chobanian A.V., Bakris G.L., Black H.R. et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560–2572.

Frolich E.D., Labarth D.R., Maxwell M.H. et al. Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometers: Report of a special task force appointed by the Steering Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1988;77(suppl A):501A–514A.

Fyler D.C., Nadas A.S. History, physical examination, and laboratory tests. In: Fyler D.C., ed. Nadas’ Pediatric Cardiology. St. Louis: Mosby; 1992.

Hammond I.W., Urbina E.M., Wattigney W.A. et al. Comparison of fourth and fifth Korotkoff diastolic blood pressure in 5 to 30 year old individuals. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8:1083–1089.

Leatham A. Auscultation of the heart. Lancet. 1958;2:757–766.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;111:555–576.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Update on the 1987 Task Force on high blood pressure in children: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Pediatrics. 1996;98:649–658.

O’Rourke M.F., Blazek J.V., Morreels Jr. C.L., Krovetz L.J. Pressure wave transmission along the human aorta: Changes with age and in arterial degenerative disease. Circ Res. 1968;23:567–579.

Park M.K. Blood pressure tables [letter to the editor]. Pediatrics. 2005;115(3):826–827.

Park M.K., Guntheroth W.G. Accurate blood pressure measurement in children: A review. Am J Noninvas Cardiol. 1989;3:297–309.

Park M.K., Lee D.-H. Normative blood pressure values in the arm and calf in the newborn. Pediatrics. 1989;83:240–243.

Park M.K., Lee D.-H., Johnson G.A. Oscillometric blood pressure in the arm, thigh and calf in healthy children and those with aortic coarctation. Pediatrics. 1993;91:761–765.

Park M.K., Menard S.W. Accuracy of blood pressure measurement by the Dinamap Monitor in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1987;79:907–914.

Park M.K., Menard S.W., Schoolfield J. Oscillometric blood pressure standards for children. Pediatr Cardiol. 2005;26:601–607.

Park M.K., Menard S.W., Yuan C. Comparison of auscultatory and oscillometric blood pressure. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:50–53.

Park M.K., Menard S.W., Yuan C. Comparison of blood pressure in children from three ethnic groups. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87:1305–1308.

Pelech A.N. Evaluation of the pediatric patient with a cardiac murmur. Pediatr Clin North Amer. 1999;46:167–188.

Perloff J.K. Physical Examination of the Heart and Circulation. ed 3. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000.

Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children. Pediatrics. 1987;79:1–25.

Rosenthal A. How to distinguish between innocent and pathologic murmurs in childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1984;31:1229–1240.

Rudolph A.M. Congenital Diseases of the Heart: Clinical-Physiologic Considerations in Diagnosis and Management. St. Louis: Mosby; 1974.

Urbina E., Alpert B., Flynn J. et al. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: Recommendations for standard assessment: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension. 2008;52:433–451.

Chapter 3. Electrocardiography

Davignon A., Rautaharju P., Boisselle E., Soumis F., Megelas M., Choquette A. Normal ECG standards for infants and children. Pediatr Cardiol. 1979/1980;1:123–131.

Park M.K., Guntheroth W.G. How to Read Pediatric ECGs. ed 3. St. Louis: Mosby; 1992.

Towbin J.A., Bricker J.T., Garson A. Electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in childhood. Am J Cardiol. 1992;69:1545–1548.

Chapter 4. Chest Roentgenography

Amplatz K. Plain film diagnosis of congenital heart disease. In: Moller J.H., Hoffman J.I.E., eds. Pediatric Cardiovascular Medicine. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:143–155.

Chapter 5. Noninvasive Imaging Tools

Daniels S.R., Meyer R.A., Liang Y.C. et al. Echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass index in normal children, adolescents, and young adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;12:703–708.

Huhta J.C., Gutgesell H.P., Murphy Jr. D.J., Ludomirsky A., Judd V.E. Segmental analysis of congenital heart disease. Dynamic Cardiovasc Imaging. 1987;1:117–125.

Nishimura R.A., Abel M.D., Hatle L.K. et al. Assessment of diastolic function of the heart: Background and current applications of Doppler echocardiography. II. Clinical studies. Mayo Clin Proc. 1989;64:181–204.

Prakash A., Powell A.J., Geva T. Multimodality non-invasive imaging for assessment of congenital heart disease. Circulation. 2010;3:112–125.

Rychik J., Ayers N., Cuneo B. et al. American Society of Echocardiography Guidelines and standards for performance of the fetal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004;17:803–810.

Chapter 6. Other Noninvasive Investigation Tools

Ahmed F., Kavey R.-E., Kveselis D.A. Response of non-obese white children to treadmill exercise. J Pediatr. 2001;139:284–290.

Chatrath R., Shenoy R., Serratto M. Physical fitness of urban American children. Pediatric Cardiol. 2002;23:608–612.

Cumming G.R., Everatt D., Hartman L. Bruce treadmill test in children: Normal values in a clinic population. Am J Cardiol. 1978;41:69–75.

Dickinson D.F., Scott O. Ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in 100 healthy teenage boys. Br Heart J. 1984;51(2):179–183.

Gibbons R.J., Balady G.J., Bricker J.T. et al. ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for exercise testing. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;40(8):1531–1540.

Paridon S.M., Alpert B.S., Boas S.R. et al. Clinical Stress testing in pediatric age group. A statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth. Circulation. 2006;113:1905–1920.

Rowell L.B., Brengelmann G.L., Blackmon J.R., Bruce R.A., Murray J.A. Disparities between aortic and peripheral pulse pressure induced by upright exercise and vasomotor changes in man. Circulation. 1968;37:954–964.

Soergel M., Kirschstein M., Busch C. et al. Oscillometric twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children and adolescents: A multicenter trial including 1141 subjects. J Pediatr. 1997;130:178–184.

Sorof J., Portman R.J. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pediatric patients. J Pediatr. 2000;165:578–586.

Southall D.P., Johnson A.M., Shinebourne E.A. et al. Frequency and outcome of disorder of cardiac rhythm and conduction in a population of newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1981;68:58–66.

Southall D.P., Richards J., Mitchell P. et al. Study of cardiac rhythm in healthy newborn infants. Br Heart J. 1980;43:14–20.

Southall D.P., Johnston F., Shinebourne E.A. et al. 14-hour electrocardiographic study of heart rate and rhythm patterns in population of healthy children. Br Heart J. 1981;45(3):281–291.

Urbina E., Alpert B., Flynn J. et al. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: Recommendations for standard assessment: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension. 2008;52:433–451.

Wühl E., Witte K., Soergel M. et al. Distribution of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children: normalized reference values and role of body dimensions. J Hypertens. 2002;20:1995–2007.

Chapter 7. Invasive Procedures

Bonhoeffer P., Bousjwmlinw Y., Saliba Z. et al. Percutaneous replacement of pulmonary valve in a right-ventricle to pulmonary-artery prosthetic conduit with valve dysfunction. Lancet. 2000;356:1403–1405.

Cassidy S.C., Schmidt K.G., Van Hare G.F. et al. Complications of pediatric cardiac catheterization: A 3-year study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;19:1285–1293.

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Lock J.E., Keane J.F., Mandell V.S. et al. Cardiac catheterization. In: Fyler D.C., ed. Nadas’ Pediatric Cardiology. St. Louis: Mosby; 1992.

Mullins C.E., Nihil M.R. Cardiac catheterization hemodynamics and intervention. In: Moller J.H., Hoffman H.E., eds. Pediatric Cardiovascular Medicine. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:203–215.

Chapter 8. Fetal and Perinatal Circulation

Guntheroth W.G., Kawabori I., Stevenson J.G. Physiology of the circulation: Fetus, neonate, and child. In: Kelly V.C., ed. Practice of Pediatrics. vol 8. Philadelphia: Harper & Row; 1982–1983.

Rudolph A.M. Congenital Diseases of the Heart: Clinical-Physiologic Considerations in Diagnosis and Management. Chicago: Mosby; 1974.

Chapter 9. Pathophysiology of Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions;

Chapter 10. Pathophysiology of Obstructive and Valvular Regurgitation Lesions; and

Chapter 11. Pathophysiology of Cyanotic Congenital Heart Defects

Duc G. Assessment of hypoxia in the newborn: Suggestions for a practical approach. Pediatrics. 1971;48:469–481.

Guntheroth W.G., Morgan B.C., Mullins G.L. Physiologic studies of paroxysmal hyperpnea in cyanotic congenital heart disease. Circulation. 1965;31:66–76.

Guntheroth W.G., Morgan B.C., Mullins G.L., Baum D. Venous return with knee-chest position and squatting in tetralogy of Fallot. Am Heart J. 1968;75:313–318.

Heath D., Edwards J.E. The pathology of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. Circulation. 1958;18:533–547.

King S.B., Franch R.H. Production of increased right-to-left shunting by rapid heart rates in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation. 1971;44:265–271.

Moller J.H., Amplatz K., Edwards J.E. Congenital Heart Disease. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn; 1971.

Rudolph A.M. Congenital Diseases of the Heart. Chicago: Mosby; 1974.

Chapter 12. Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

Atrial Septal Defect

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman III. R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Laussen P.C., Bichell D.P., McGowan F.X. et al. Postoperative recovery in children after minimum versus full length sternotomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69:591–596.

Magni G., Hijazi Z.M., Pandian N.G. et al. Two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in patient selection and assessment of atrial septal defect closure by the new DAS-Angel Wings Device. Circulation. 1997;96:1722–1728.

Radzik D., Davignon A., van Doesburg N. et al. Predictive factors for spontaneous closure of atrial septal defect diagnosed in the first 3 months of life. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22:851–853.

Rao V., Freedom R.M., Black M.D. Minimally invasive surgery with cardioscopy for congenital heart defects. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;68:1742–1745.

Shivaprakahas K., Murthy K.S., Coelho R. et al. Role of limited posterior thoracotomy for open-heart surgery in the current era. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68:2310–2313.

Ventricular Septal Defect

Graham Jr. T.P., Bender H.W., Spach M.S. Ventricular septal defect. In: Adams F.H., Emmanouilides G.C., Riemenschneider T.A., eds. Moss’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents. ed 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

Soto B., Becker A.E., Moulaezt A.H. et al. Classification of ventricular septal defects. Br Heart J. 1980;43:332–363.

Van Mill G.J., Moulaert A.J., Harinck E. Atlas of Two-Dimensional Echocardiography in Congenital Cardiac Defects. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff; 1983.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Desfrere L., Zohar S., Morville P. et al. Dose-finding study of ibuprofen in patent ductus arteriosus using the continual reassessment method. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2005;30:121–132.

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman III. R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Musewe N.N., Smallhorn J.F., Benson L.N. et al. Validation of Doppler-derived pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with ductus arteriosus under different hemodynamic states. Circulation. 1987;76:1081–1091.

Musewe N.N., Poppe D., Smallhorn J.F. et al. Doppler echocardiographic measurement of pulmonary artery pressure from ductal Doppler velocities in the newborn. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990;15:446–456.

Rao P.S., Sideris E.B., Haddad J. et al. Transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with adjustable buttoned device: Initial clinical experience. Circulation. 1993;88:1119–1126.

Van Overmeire B., Smets K., Lecoutere D. et al. A comparison of ibuprofen and indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:674–681.

Varvarigou A., Bardin C.L., Beharry K. et al. Early ibuprofen administration to prevent patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborn infants. JAMA. 1996;275:539–544.

Endocardial Cushion Defect

Anderson R.H., Macartney F.J., Shinebourne E.A. et al. Atrioventricular septal defects. In: Anderson R.H., Macartney F.J., Shinebourne E.A. et al., et al, eds. Pediatric Cardiology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1987.

Piccoli G.P., Gerlis L.M., Wilkinson J.L. et al. Morphology and classification of atrioventricular defects. Br Heart J. 1979;42:621–632.

Rastelli G.C., Kirklin J.W., Titus J.L. Anatomic observation on complete form of persistent common atrioventricular canal with special reference to atrioventricular valves. Mayo Clin Proc. 1966;41:296–308.

Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

Ward K.E., Mullins C.E. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections; pulmonary vein stenosis; atresia of the common pulmonary vein. In: Garson Jr. A., Bricker J.T., McNamara D.G., eds. The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1990.

Chapter 13. Obstructive Lesions

Pulmonary Stenosis

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman III. R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Stanger P., Cassidy S.C., Dried D.A. et al. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: Results of the valvuloplasty and angioplasty of congenital anomalies registry. Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:775–783.

Aortic Stenosis

ACC/AHA, 2006 ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. Circulation. 2006;114(5):e84–e231.

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman III. R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Geva A., McMahon C.J., Gauvreau K., Mohammed L., del Nido P.J., Geva T. Risk factors for reoperation after repair of discrete subaortic stenosis in children. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1498–1504.

Graham T.P., Driscoll D.J., Newburger J.W. et al. Task Force 2: Congenital Heart Disease. 36th Bethesda Conference. Eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1326–1333.

Kouchoukos N.T., Davila-Roman V.G., Spray T.L. et al. Replacement of the aortic root with a pulmonary autograft in children and young adults with aortic valve disease. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1–6.

McMahon C.J., Gauvreau K., Edwards J.C., Geva T. Risk factors for aortic valve dysfunction in children with discrete subaortic stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 2004;94:459–464.

Parry A.J., Kovalchin J.P., Suda K., McElhenney D.B. et al. Resection of subaortic stenosis; can a more aggressive approach be justified? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1999;15:631–638.

Van Son J.A.M., Schaff H.V., Danielson G.K. et al. Surgical treatment of discrete and tunnel subaortic stenosis. II. Late survival and risk of reoperation. Circulation. 1993;88:159–169.

Wilson W.R., Greer G.E., Durzinsky D.S., Curtis J.J. Ross procedure for complex left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;41:387–392.

Coarctation of the Aorta

Connolly H.M., Huston 3rd. J., Brown Jr. R.D. et al. Intracranial aneurysm in patients with coarctation of the aorta: a prospective magnetic resonance angiographic study of 100 patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:1491–1499.

Cowley C.G., Orsmond G.S., Feola P., McQuillan L., Shaddy R.E. Long-term, randomized comparison of balloon angioplasty and surgery for native coarctation of the aorta in childhood. Circulation. 2005;111:3453–3456.

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman III. R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Hellenbrand W.E., Allen H.D., Golinko R.J. et al. Balloon angioplasty for aortic recoarctation: Results of valvuloplasty and angioplasty of congenital anomalies registry. Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:793–797.

Peuster M., Wohlsein P., Brugman M. et al. A novel approach to temporary stenting: Degradable cardiovascular stents produced from corrodible metal—results 6–18 months after implantation into New Zealand white rabbits. Heart. 2001;86:563–569.

Ramaciotti C., Chin A.J. Noninvasive diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta in the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus. Am Heart J. 1993;125:179–185.

Tynan M., Finley J.P., Fontes V. et al. Balloon angioplasty for the treatment of native coarctation: Results of valvuloplasty and angioplasty of congenital anomalies registry. Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:790–793.

Chapter 14. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Defects

Mahle W.T., Newburger J.W., Matherne G.P. et al. Role of pulse oxymetry in examining newborns for congenital heart disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association and American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2009;120:447–458.

Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries

Blume E.D., Altman K., Mayer J.E. et al. Evolution of risk factors influencing early mortality of the arterial switch operation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:1702–1709.

Jex R.K., Puga F.J., Julsrud P.R. et al. Repair of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;100:682–686.

Jones R.A., Giglia T.M., Sanders S.P. et al. Rapid, two-stage arterial switch for transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum beyond the neonatal period. Circulation. 1989;80(suppl I):I-203–I-208.

Kovalchin J.P., Allen H.D., Cassidy S.C. et al. Pulmonary valve eccentricity in D-transposition of the great arteries and implications for the arterial switch operation. Am J Cardiol. 1994;73:186–190.

Lupinetti F.M., Bove E.L., Minich L.L. et al. Intermediate-term survival and functional results after arterial repair for transposition of the great arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;103:421–427.

Morell V.O., Jacobs J.P., Quintessenza J.A. Aortic translocation in the management of transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis: Results and follow-up. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:2089–2093.

Waldeman J.D., Lamberti J.J., George L. et al. Experience with Damus procedure. Circulation. 1988;78(suppl III):III-32–III-39.

Yacoub M., Bernhard A., Lange P. et al. Clinical and hemodynamic results of the two-stage anatomic correction of simple transposition of the great arteries. Circulation. 1980;62(suppl I):I-190–I-196.

Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries

Dabizzi R.P., Barletta G.A., Caprioli G. et al. Coronary artery anatomy in corrected transposition of the great arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;12:486–491.

Graham T.P., Bernard Y.D., Mellen B.G. et al. Long-term outcome in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:255–261.

Lundstrom U., Bull C., Wyse R.K.H. et al. The natural and “unnatural” history of congenitally corrected transposition. Am J Cardiol. 1990;65:1222–1229.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Bonhoeffer P., Bousjwmlinw Y., Saliba Z. et al. Percutaneous replacement of pulmonary valve in a right-ventricle to pulmonary-artery prosthetic conduit with valve dysfunction. Lancet. 2000;356:1403–1405.

Geva T. Indications and timing of pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Cardiol Surg Ann. 2006:11–22.

Gupta A., Odim J., Levi D., Chang R.-K., Laks H. Staged repair of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries: Experience with 104 patients. J Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 2003;126:1746–1752.

Khambadkone S., Coats L., Taylor A. et al. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation in humans: Results in 59 consecutive patients. Circulation. 2005;112:1189–1197.

Kirklin J.W., Blackstone E.H., Jonas R.A. et al. Morphologic and surgical determinant of outcome events after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis: A two-institution study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;103:706–723.

Lakier J.B., Stanger P., Heymann M.A. et al. Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve: Natural history and hemodynamic considerations. Circulation. 1974;50:167–175.

Lee C., Kim Y.M., Lee C.H. et al. Outcome of pulmonary valve replacement in 170 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation after relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Implication for optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:1005–1014.

Need L.R., Powell A.J., del Nide P. et al. Coronary echocardiography in tetralogy of Fallot: Diagnostic accuracy, resource utilization and surgical implications over 13 years. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:1371–1377.

Puga F.J., Leoni F.E., Julsrud P.R. et al. Complete repair of pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and severe peripheral arborization abnormalities of the central pulmonary arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1989;98:1018–1029.

Reddy V.M., Liddicoat J.R., Hanley F.L. Midline one-stage complete unifocalization and repair of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collaterals. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;109:832–844.

Sawatari K., Imai Y., Kurosawa H. et al. Staged operation for pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1989;98:738–750.

Watterson K.G., Wilkinson J.L., Karly T.R., Mee R.B.B. Very small pulmonary arteries: Central end-to-side shunt. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991;52:1131–1137.

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

Lupinetti F.M., Kulik T.J., Beekman R.H. et al. Correction of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in infancy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;106:880–885.

Van der Velde M.E., Parness I.A., Colan S.D. et al. Two-dimensional echocardiography in pre- and postoperative management of totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;18:1746–1751.

Tricuspid Atresia

Backer C.L., Deal B.J., Kaushal S. et al. Extracardiac versus intra-atrial lateral tunnel Fontan: Extracardiac is better. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Cardiol Surg Annu. 2011;14:4–10.

Bridges N.D., Mayer J.E., Lock J.E. et al. Effects of baffle fenestration on outcome of the modified Fontan operation. Circulation. 1992;86:1762–1769.

Castaneda A.R. From Glenn to Fontan: A continuing evolution,. Circulation. 1992;86(suppl II):II-80–II-84.

Gentles T.L., Mayer Jr. J.E., Gauvreau K. et al. Fontan operation in five hundred consecutive patients: Factors influencing early and late outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;114:376–391.

Giannico S., Como A., Marino B. et al. Total extracardiac right heart bypass. Circulation. 1992;86(suppl II):II-110–II-117.

Gupta A., Daggett C., Behera S. et al. Risk factors for persistent pleural effusions after the extracardiac Fontan procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127:1664–1669.

Hirsch JC, Goldberg C, Bove EL, et al: Fontan operation in the current era: a 15-year single institution experience.

Hsu D.T., Wuaegebeur J.M., Ing F.F. et al. Outcome after the single-stage, nonfenestrated Fontan procedure. Circulation. 1997;96 11-335–11-340.

Johnson J.T., Lindsey I., Day R.W. et al. Living at altitude adversely affects survival among patients with a Fontan procedure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:1283–1289.

Kawashima Y., Kitamura S., Matsuda H. et al. Total cavopulmonary shunt operation in complex cardiac anomalies. A new operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1984;87(1):74–81.

Kreutzer G., Galindez H., Bono H. et al. An operation for the correction of tricuspid atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1973;66(3):613–621.

McCrindle B.W., Manlhiot C., Cochrane A. et al. Factors associated with thrombotic complications after the Fontan procedure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:346–353.

Mertens L., Hagler D.J., Sauer U. et al. Protein-losing enteropathy after the Fontan operation: An international multicenter study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;115:1063–1073.

Rogers L.S., Glatz A.C., Ravishankar C. et al. 18 years of the Fontan operation at a single institution. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:1018–1025.

Salvin J.W., Scheurer M.A., Laussen P.C. et al. Factors associated with prolonged recovery after the Fontan operation. Circulation. 2008;118(suppl):S171–S176.

Song J.Y., Choi J.Y., Ko J.T. et al. Long-term aspirin therapy for hepatopulmonary syndrome. Pediatrics. 1996;97:917–920.

Thompson L.D., Petrossian E., McElhinney D.B. et al. Is it necessary to routinely fenestrate an extracardiac Fontan? J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:539–544.

Pulmonary Atresia

Alwi M., Geetha K., Bilkis A.A. et al. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum percutaneous radiofrequency-assisted valvotomy and balloon dilatation versus surgical valvotomy and Blalock-Taussig shunt. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:468–476.

Bull C., de Leval M.R., Mercanti C. et al. Pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum: A revised classification. Circulation. 1982;66:266–280.

Cheung Y.F., Leung M.P., Chau A.K. Usefulness of laser-assisted valvotomy with balloon valvoplasty for pulmonary valve atresia with intact ventricular septum. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:438–442.

Feltes T.F., Bacha E., Beekman III. R.H. et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2607–2652.

Hanley F.L., Sade R.M., Blackstone E.H., Kirklin J.W., Freedom R.M., Nanda N.C. Outcomes in neonatal pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum: A multi-institutional study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;105:406–427.

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Chang A.C., Farrell Jr. P.E., Murdison K.A. et al. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: Hemodynamic and angiographic assessment after initial reconstructive surgery and relevance to modified Fontan procedure. Pediatr Cardiol. 1991;17:1143–1149.

Douglas W.I., Goldberg C.S., Mosca R.S., Law I.H., Bove E.L. Hemi-Fontan procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: Outcome and suitability for Fontan. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68:1361–1368.

Galantowicz M., Cheatham J.P., Phillips A. et al. Hybrid approach for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: intermediate results after the leaning curve. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:2063–2071.

Glauser T.A., Rorke L.B., Weinberg P.M., Clancy R.R. Congenital brain anomalies associated with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatrics. 1990;85(6):984–990.

Galantowicz M., Cheatham J.P., Phillips A. et al. Hybrid approach for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: intermediate results after the leaning curve. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:2063–2071.

Hirsch J.C., Goldberg C., Bove E.L. et al. Fontan operation in the current era: a 15-year single institution experience. Ann Surg. 2008;248:402–410.

Jacobs M.L. Recent innovations in the Norwood sequence of operations. Cardiol Young. 2004;14(suppl 1):47–51.

Kishimoto H., Kawahira Y., Kawata H. et al. The modified Norwood palliation on a beating heart. J Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 1999;118:1130–1132.

Norwood W.I., Lang P., Castaneda A.R. et al. Experience with operations for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1981;82:511–519.

Ohye R.G., Sleeper L.A., Mahony L. et al. Comparison of shunt types in the Norwood procedure for single-ventricle lesions. New Engl J Med. 2010;362:1980–1992.

Rogers L.S., Glatz A.C., Ravishankar C. et al. 18 years of the Fontan operation at a single institution. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:1018–1025.

Starnes V.A., Griffin M.L., Pitlick P.T. et al. Current approach to hypoplastic left heart syndrome: Palliation, transplantation, or both. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104:189–195.

Ebstein’s Anomaly

Cappato R., Schuter M., Weiss C. et al. Radiofrequency current catheter ablation of accessory atrioventricular pathways in Ebstein’s anomaly. Circulation. 1996;94:376–383.

Carpentier A., Chauvaud S., Mace L. et al. A new reconstructive operation for Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;96:92–101.

Danielson G.K., Driscoll D.J., Mair D.D. et al. Operative treatment of Ebstein’s anomaly. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104:1195–1202.

Shiina A., Sewer J.B., Edwards W.D. et al. Two-dimensional echocardiographic spectrum of Ebstein’s anomaly: Detailed anatomic assessment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984;3:356–370.

Truncus Arteriosus

Lenox C.C., Debich D.E., Zuberbuhler J.R. The role of coronary artery abnormalities in the prognosis of truncus arteriosus. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104:1724–1742.

Spicer R.L., Behrendt D., Crowley D.C. et al. Repair of truncus arteriosus in neonates with the use of a valveless conduit. Circulation. 1984;70(suppl I):I-26–I-29.

Williams J.M., de Leeuw M., Black M.D. et al. Factors associated with outcomes of persistent truncus arteriosus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:545–553.

Single Ventricle

Douville E.C., Sade R.M., Fyfe D.A. Hemi-Fontan operation in surgery for single ventricle: A preliminary report. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991;51:893–899.

Freedom R.M., Benson L.N., Smallhorn J.F. et al. Subaortic stenosis, the univentricular heart, and banding of the pulmonary artery: An analysis of the courses of 43 patients with univentricular heart palliated by pulmonary artery banding. Circulation. 1986;73:758–764.

Newfeld E.A., Niakidoh H. Surgical management of subaortic stenosis in patients with a single ventricle and transposition of the great vessels. Circulation. 1987;76(suppl III):III-29–III-33.

Sano S., Ishino K., Kawata M. et al. Right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt in first-stage palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:504–510.

Stein D.G., Laks H., Drinkwater D.C. et al. Results of total cavopulmonary connection in the treatment of patients with a functional single ventricle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991;102:280–287.

Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

Belli E., Serraf A., Lacour-Gayet F. et al. Biventricular repair for double-outlet right ventricle: Results and long-term follow-up. Circulation. 1998;98:11-360–11-367.

Kirklin J.W., Pacifico A.D., Blackstone E.H. et al. Current risks and protocols for operation for double-outlet right ventricle: Derivation from an 18 year experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986;92:913–930.

Sridaromont S., Feldt R.H., Ritter D.G. et al. Double outlet right ventricle: Hemodynamic and anatomic correlation. Am J Cardiol. 1976;38:85–94.

Splenic Syndromes

Lamberti J.J., Waldman J.D., Mathewson J.W. et al. Repair of subdiaphragmatic total anomalous pulmonary venous connection without cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1984;88:627–630.

Pickering L.K., Baker C.J., Kimberlin D.W., Long S.S. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012.

Sapire D.W., Ho S.Y., Anderson R.H. et al. Diagnosis and significance of atrial isomerism. Am J Cardiol. 1986;58:342–346.

Van Mierop L.H.S., Gessner I.H., Schiebler G.L. Asplenia and polysplenia syndrome. Birth Defects: Original Article Series. 1972;8:36–44.

Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of Newborn

Abman S.H. Neonatal pulmonary hypertension: A physiologic approach to treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl. 2004;26:127–128.

Rudolph A.M. High pulmonary vascular resistance after birth. I. Pathophysiologic considerations and etiologic classification. Clin Pediatr. 1980;19:585–590.

Chapter 15. Miscellaneous Congenital Cardiac Conditions

Berthet K., Lavergne T., Cohen A. et al. Significant association of atrial vulnerability with atrial septal abnormalities in young patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause. Stroke. 2000;31(2):398–403.

Bird L.M., Billman G.F., Lacro R.V. et al. Sudden death in Williams syndrome: report of ten cases. J Pediatr. 1996;129:926–931.

Cheng C.P., Taur A.S., Lee G.S. et al. Relative lung perfusion distribution in normal lung scans: observations and clinical implications. Congenital Heart Disease. 2006;1(5):210–216.

Collins R.T., Aziz P.F., Gleason M.M. et al. Abnormalities of cardiac repolarization in Williams syndrome. Am J Cadiol. 2010;106:1029–1033.

Gao Y., Burrows P.E., Benson L.N. et al. Scimitar syndrome in infancy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22:873–882.

Goldmuntz E. DiGeorge syndrome: New insights. Clin Perinatol. 2005;32:963–978.

Goldstein L.B., Adams R., Alberts M.J. et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2006;113(24):e873–e923.

Grifka R.G., O’Laughlin M.P., Nihill M.R., Mullins C.E. Double-transseptal, double-balloon valvuloplasty for congenital mitral stenosis. Circulation. 1992;88:123–129.

Guntheroth W.G., Schwaegler R., Trent E. Comparative roles of the atrial septal aneurysm versus patient foramen ovale in systemic embolization with inference from neonatal studies. Am J Cardiol. 2004;94:1341–1343.

Hara H., Virmani R., Ladich E. et al. Patent foramen ovale: Current pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical status. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:1768–1776.

Hirsch R., Landt Y., Porter S. et al. Cardiac troponin I in pediatrics: Normal levels and potential use in the assessment of cardiac injury. J Pediatr. 1997;130:872–877.

Latson L.A., Pierce L.R. Congenital and acquired pulmonary vein stenosis. Circulation. 2007;115:103–108.

Lucas Jr. R.V., Krabill K.A. Anomalous venous connections, pulmonary and systemic. In: Adams F.H., Emmanouilides G.C., Riemenschneider T.A., eds. Moss’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ed 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

Mas J.L., Arquizan C., Lamy C. et al. Recurrent cerebrovascular events associated with patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, or both. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(24):1740–1746.

Meissner I., Khandheria B.K., Heit J.A. et al. Patent foramen ovale: innocent or guilty? Evidence from a prospective population-based study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(2):440–455.

Overell J.R., Bone I., Lees K.R. Interatrial septal abnormalities and stroke: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Neurology. 2000;55(8):1172–1179.

Reul RM, Cooley DA, Hallman GL, Reul GJ: Surgical treatment of coronary artery anomalies, Texas Heart Inst J 29:299–307.

Schwill S., Del Prete J., Cooley D.A. et al. Two scimitar veins in an adult: repair through a right thoracotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. Tex Heart Inst J. 2010;37:358–360.

Takeuchi S., Imamura H., Katsumoto K. et al. New surgical method for repair of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1979;89:7–11.

Tashiro T., Todo K., Haruta Y. et al. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;106:718–722.

Van Son J.A.M., Danielson G.K., Schaff H.V. et al. Congenital partial and complete absence of the pericardium. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993;68:743–747.

Zhu D., Bryant R., Heinle J., Hihill M.R. Isolated cleft of the mitral valve. Tex Heart Inst J. 2009;36:553–556.

Chapter 16. Vascular Ring

Hernanz-Schuylman M. Vascular rings: A practical approach to imaging diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:961–979.

Huhta J., Gutgesell H., Latson L. et al. Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the aorta in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Circulation. 1984;70:417–424.

Layton K.F., Kallmes D.F., Cloft H.J. et al. Bovine aortic arch variant in humans: Clarification of a common misnomer. Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1541–1542.

Shuford W.H., Sybers R.G. The Aortic Arch and Its Malformation with Emphasis on the Angiographic Features. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas; 1974.

Chapter 17. Chamber Localization and Cardiac Malposition

Huhta J.C., Smallhorn I.F., Macartney F.J. Two dimensional echocardiographic diagnosis of situs. Br Heart J. 1982;48:97–108.

Van Praagh R., Weinberg P.M., Foran R.B. et al. Malposition of the heart. In: Adams F.H., Emmanouilides G.C., Riemenschneider T.H., eds. Moss’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ed 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

Chapter 18. Primary Myocardial Disease

Anderson J.L., Gilbert E.M., O’Connell J.B. et al. Long-term (2 year) beneficial effects of beta-adrenergic blockage with bucindolol in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;17:1373–1381.

Ergul Y, Nishi K, Dermirel A, et al: Left ventricular non-compaction in child and adolescents: Clinical features, treatment and follow-up, Cardiol J 18(10):1-9, 2022.

Fazio S., Sabatini D., Capaldo B. et al. A preliminary study of growth hormone in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:809–814.

Friedman R.A., Moak J.P., Garson Jr. A. Clinical course of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in children. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;18:152–156.

Helton E., Darragh R., Francis P. et al. Metabolic aspects of myocardial disease and a role for L-carnitine in the treatment of childhood cardiomyopathy. Pediatrics. 2000;105:1260–1270.

Iarussi D., Indolfi P., Casale F. et al. Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in children with cancer: strategies for prevention and management. Paediatr Drugs. 2005;7:67–76.

Ino T., Benson L.N., Freedom R.M. et al. Endocardial fibroelastosis: Natural history and prognostic risk factors. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62:431–434.

Judge D.P. Use of genetics in the clinical evaluation of cardiomyopathy. JAMA. 2009;302:2471–2476.

Kalay N., Basar E., Ozdogru I. et al. Protective effects of carvedilol against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:2258–2262.

Katritsis D., Wilmshurst P.T., Wendon J.A. et al. Primary restrictive cardiomyopathy: Clinical and pathologic characteristics. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;18:1230–1235.

Lipshultz S.E., Miller T.L., Lipsitz S.R. et al. Continuous versus bolus infusion of doxorubicin in children with ALKL: Long-term cardiac outcomes. Pediatrics. 2012;13:1003–1011.

Marcus F.L., Fontaine G.H., Guiraudon G. et al. Right ventricular dysplasia: A report of 24 adult cases. Circulation. 1982;65:384–398.

Maron B.J., Bonow R.O., Cannon III. R.O. et al. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Interrelations of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and therapy. I. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:780–789.

Maron B.J., Bonow R.O., Cannon III. R.O. et al. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Interrelations of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and therapy. II. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:843–852.

Maron B.J., McKenna W.J., Danielson G.K. et al. American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology Clinical Expert Consensus Document on Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1687–1713.

Maron B.J., Towbin J.A., Thiene G. et al. Contemporary definition and classification of the cardiomyopathies. Circulation. 2006;113:1807–1816.

McElhinney D.B., Colan S.D., Moran A.M. et al. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy in children. Pediatrics. 2004;114:e452–e458.

Ni J., Bowles N.E., Kim Y.H. et al. Viral infection of the myocardium in endocardial fibroelastosis. Molecular evidence for the role of mumps virus as an etiologic agent. Circulation. 1997;95:133–139.

Pelliccia A., Maron B.J., Spataro A., Proschan M.A., Spirito P. The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:295–301.

Shaddy R.E. Beta-blocker therapy in young children with congestive heart failure under consideration for heart transplantation. Am Heart J. 1998;136:19–21.

Steinherz L.J., Graham T., Hurwitz R. et al. Guidelines for cardiac monitoring of children during and after anthracycline therapy: Report of the Cardiology Committee of the Children’s Cancer Study Group. Pediatrics. 1992;89:942–949.

Trachtenberg B.H., Landy D.C., Franco V.I. et al. Anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatr Cardiol. 2011;32:342–353.

Yetman A.T., McCrindle S.W., MacDonald C. et al. Myocardial bridging in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy—a risk factor for sudden death. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1201–1209.

Chapter 19. Cardiovascular Infections

Akagi T., Kato H., Inoue 0 et al., et al. Valvular heart disease in Kawasaki syndrome: Incidence and natural history. Am Heart J. 1990;120:366–372.

Baddour L.M., Wilson W.R., Bayer A.S. et al. Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: Endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Circulation. 2005;111(23):e394–e433.

Dajani A.S., Taubert K.A., Wilson W. et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: Recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA. 1997;277:1794–1801.

Drucker N.A., Colan S.D., Lewis A.B. et al. γ Globulin treatment of acute myocarditis in the pediatric population. Circulation. 1994;89:251–257.

Durack D.T., Lukes A.S., Bright D.K. New criteria for diagnosis of infective endocarditis: utilization of specific enchocardiographic findings. Am J Med. 1994;96:200–209.

Ferrieri P., Gewitz M.H., Gerber M.A. et al. Unique features of infective endocarditis in childhood. Pediatrics. 2002;109:931–943.

Harada K., Yamaguchi H., Kato H. et al. Indication for intravenous gamma globulin treatment for Kawasaki disease. In: Takahashi M., Taubert K., eds. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Kawasaki Disease. Dallas: American Heart Association; 1993.

Ishii M., Ueno T., Ikeda H. et al. Sequential follow-up results of catheter intervention for coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease: Quantitative coronary artery angiography and intravascular ultrasound imaging study. Circulation. 2002;105(25):3004–3010.

Kato H., Ichinose E., Yoshioka F. et al. Fate of coronary aneurysms in Kawasaki disease: Serial coronary angiography and long-term follow-up study. Am J Cardiol. 1982;49:1758–1766.

Kurotobi S., Nagai T., Kawakami N., Sano T. Coronary diameter in normal infants, children and patients with Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Int. 2002;44:1–4.

Li J.S., Sexton D.J., Mick N. et al. Proposed modification to the Duke Criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:633–638.

Lipshultz S.E., Orav E.J., Sanders S.P., Colan S.D. Immunoglobulins and left ventricular structure and function in pediatric HIV infection. Circulation. 1995;92:2220–2225.

Melish M.E. Kawasaki syndrome. Pediatr Rev. 1996;17:153–162.

Newburger J.W., Takahashi M., Beiser A.S. et al. A single intravenous infusion of gamma globulin as compared with four infusions in the treatment of acute Kawasaki syndrome. N EngI J Med. 1991;324:1633–1639.

Newburger J.W., Fulton D.R. Kawasaki disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004;16:508–514.

Newburger J.W., Takahashi M., Gerber M.A. et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: A statement for health professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Pediatrics. 2004;114:1708–1733.

Nishimura R.A., Carabello B.A., Faxon D.P. et al. ACC/AHA 2008 guideline update on valvular heart disease; focused update on infective endocarditis. Circulation. 2008;118:887–896.

Okada Y., Shinohara M., Kobayashi T. et al. Gunma Kawasaki Disease Study Group. Effect of corticosteroids in addition to intravenous gamma globulin therapy on serum cytokine levels in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease in children. J Pediatr. 2003;143:363–367.

Shapiro E.D. Lyme disease. Pediatr Rev. 1998;19:147–154.

Son M.B.S., Gauvreau K., Ma L. et al. Treatment of Kawasaki disease: analysis of 27 US pediatric hospitals from 2001 to 2006. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1–8.

Starc T.J., Lipshultz S.E., Kaplan S. et al. Cardiac complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. 1999;104:14.

Williams R.V., Wilke V.M., Tani L.Y., Minich L.L. Does abciximab enhance regression of coronary aneurysms resulting from Kawasaki disease? Pediatrics. 2002;109(1):E4.

Wilson W., Taubert K.A., Gewitz M. et al. Prevention of infective endocarditis: Guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2007;116:1736–1754.

Chapter 20. Acute Rheumatic Fever

Dajani A.S., Ayoub E., Bierman F.Z. et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever: Jones criteria, updated 1992. JAMA. 1992;87:302–307.

Dajani A., Taubert K., Ferrieri P. et al. Treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis and prevention of rheumatic fever: A statement for health professionals. Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, the American Heart Association. Pediatrics. 1995;96:758–764.

Garvey M.A., Snider L.A., Leitman S.F., Werden R., Swedo S.E. Treatment of Sydenham’s chorea with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, or prednisone. J Child Neurol. 2005;20(5):424–429.

Taranta A., Markowitz M. Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Rheumatic Fever. Kluwer Academic; 1989.

Veasy L.G., Tani L.Y. A new look at acute rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Cardiol Young. 2005;15:568–577.

Vijayalakshmi I.B., Mathravinda J., Deva A.N.P. The role of echocardiography in diagnosing carditis in the setting of acute rheumatic fever. Cardiol Young. 2005;15:583–588.

Chapter 21. Valvular Heart Disease

ACC/AHA 2006, 2006 ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. Circulation. 2006;114:450–527.

Bisset III. G.S., Schwartz D.C., Meyer R.A. et al. Clinical spectrum and long-term follow-up of isolated mitral valve prolapse in 119 children. Circulation. 1980;62:423–429.

Levine R.A., Stathogiannis E., Newell J.B. et al. Reconsideration of echocardiographic standards for mitral valve prolapse: Lack of association between leaflet displacement isolated to the apical four chamber view and independent echocardiographic evidence of abnormality. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;11:1010–1019.

Levine R.A., Triulzi M.O., Harrigan P. et al. The relationship of mitral annular shape to the diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Circulation. 1987;75:756–767.

Lock J.E., Khalilullah M., Shrivastava S. et al. Percutaneous catheter commissurotomy in rheumatic mitral stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:1515–1518.

Smith M.S., Doroshow C., Womack W.M. et al. Symptomatic mitral valve prolapse in children and adolescents: Catecholamines, anxiety, and biofeedback. Pediatrics. 1989;84:290–298.

Warth D.C., King M.E., Cohen J.M. et al. Prevalence of mitral valve prolapse in normal children. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985;5:1173–1177.

Chapter 22. Cardiac Tumors

Becker A.E. Primary heart tumors in the pediatric age group: A review of salient pathologic features relevant for clinicians. Pediatr Cardiol. 2000;21:317–323.

Bielefeld K.J., Moller J.H. Cardiac tumors in infants and children: Study of 120 operated patients. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013;34(1):125–128.

Ludomirsky A. Cardiac tumors. In: Garson Jr. A., Bricker J.T., McNamara D.G., eds. The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1990.

Nir A., Tajik A.J., Freeman W.K. et al. Tuberous sclerosis and cardiac rhabdomyoma. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76:419–421.

Chapter 23. Cardiac Involvement in Systemic Diseases

Bhakta D., Lowe M.R., Groh W.J. Prevalence of structural cardiac abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy type I. Am Heart J. 2004;147:224–227.

Bondy C.A. Care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: A guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:10–25.

Caddell J.L. Metabolic and nutritional diseases. In: Adams F.H., Emmanouilides G.C., Riemenschneider T.A., eds. Moss’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ed 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

Dangel J.H. Cardiovascular change in children with mucopolysaccharide storage diseases and related disorders—clinical and echocardiographic findings in 64 patients. Eur J Pediatr. 1998;157:534–538.

Duboc D., Meune C., Lerebours G., Devaux J.Y., Vaksmann G., Becane H.M. Effect of perindopril on the onset and progression of left ventricular dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45(6):757–855.

Gott V.L., Greene P.S., Alejo D.E. et al. Replacement of the aortic root in patients with Marfan’s syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(17):1307–1313.

Jefferies J.L., Eidem B.W., Belmont J.W. et al. Genetic predictors and remodeling of dilated cardiomyopathy in muscular dystrophy. Circulation. 2005;112:2799–2804.

Kajimoto H., Ishigaki K., Okumura K. et al. Beta blocker therapy for cardiac dysfunction in patients with muscular dystrophy. Circulation J. 2006;20:991–994.

Kim S.Y., Martin N., Hsia E.C., Pyeritz R.E., Albert D.A. Management of aortic disease in Marfan Syndrome: A decision analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(7):749–755.

Mohan U.R., Hay A.A., Cleary M.A., Wraith J.E., Patel R.G. Cardiovascular changes in children with mucopolysaccharide disorders. Act Paediatr. 2002;91:799–804.

Pierpoint M.E.M., Moller J.H. Cardiac manifestations of systemic disease. In: Adams F.H., Emmanouilides G.C., Riemenschneider T.A., eds. Moss’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ed 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

Romano A.A., Allanson J.E., Dahlgren J. et al. Noonan syndrome: Clinical features, diagnosis, and management guidelines. Pediatrics. 2010;126:746–759.

Shores J., Berger K.R., Murphy E.A. et al. Progression of aortic and the benefit of long-term β-adrenergic blockade in Marfan’s syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1335–1341.

Tweddell J.S., Earing M.G., Bartz P.J. et al. Valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction in children, teenagers, and young adults. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;94:587–591.

Viollet L., Thrush P.T., Flanigan et al., et al. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or beta blockers on the cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110:98–102.

Weidemann F., Rummey C., Bijnens B. et al. The heart in Friedreich ataxia. Definition of cardiomyopathy, disease severity, and correlation with neurological symptoms. Circulation. 2012;125:1626–1634.

Yetman A.T., Bornemeier R.A., McCrindle B.W. Usefulness of enalapril versus propranolol or atenolol for prevention of aortic dilation in patients with the Marfan syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:1125–1127.

Chapter 24. Cardiac Arrhythmias

Ackerman M.J. The long QT syndrome. Pediatr Rev. 1998;19:232–238.

Alexander M.E. Ventricular arrhythmias in children and young adults. In: Walsh E.P., Saul J.P., Triedman J.K., eds. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:201–234.

Berul C.I., Sweeten T.L., Dubin A.M. et al. Use of the rate-corrected JT interval for prediction of repolarization abnormalities in children. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74:1254–1257.

Collins K.K., Van Hare G.F. Advances in congenital long QT syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006;18(5):497–502.

Garson Jr. A. How to measure the QT interval: What is normal? Am J Cardiol. 1993;72(suppl):14B–16B.

Goel A.K., Berger S., Pelech A., Dhala A. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in children with long QT syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol. 2004;25:370–378.

Goldberg I., Moss A.J., Zareba W. QT interval: How to measure it and what is “normal,”. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17:333–336.

Lerman B.B., Belardinelli L. Cardiac electrophysiology of adenosine: Basic and clinical concepts. Circulation. 1991;83:1499–1509.

Martin A.B., Perry J.C., Robinson J.L., Zareba W., Moss A.J., Garson Jr. A. Calculation of QTc duration and variability in the presence of sinus arrhythmia. Am J Cardiol. 1995;75:950–952.

Pent J.C., Fenrich A.L., Hulse J.E. et al. Pediatric use of intravenous amiodarone: Efficacy and safety in critically ill patients from a multicenter protocol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996;27:1246–1250.

Probst V., Denjoy I., Mercegalli P. et al. Clinical aspect and prognosis of Brugada syndrome in children. Circulation. 2007;115:2042–2048.

Reynolds J.L., Pickoff A.S. Accelerated ventricular rhythm in children: A review and report of a case. Pediatr Cardiol. 2001;22:23–28.

Schwartz P.J., Montemerlo M., Facchini M. et al. The QT interval throughout the first 6 months of life: A prospective study. Circulation. 1982;66:496–501.

Schwartz P.J., Moss A.J., Vincent G.M., Crampton R.S. Diagnostic criteria for the long QT syndrome: an update. Circulation. 1993;88:782–784.

Towbin J.A., Friedman R.A. Long QT syndrome. In: Walsh E.P., Seal J.P., Triedman J.K., eds. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:235–270.

Chapter 25. Disturbances of Atrioventricular Conduction

Eronen M., Siren M.-K., Ekblad H. et al. Short- and long-term outcome of children with congenital complete heart block diagnosed in utero or as a newborn. Pediatrics. 2000;106:86–91.

Ross B.A., Gillette P.C. Atrioventricular block and bundle branch block. In: Gillette P.C., Garson Jr. A., eds. Clinical Pediatric Arrhythmias. ed 2. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999:63–77.

Chapter 26. Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Children

Epstein A.E., DiMarco J.P., Ellenbogen K.A. et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: Executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 Guideline Update for Implantation of Cardiac Pacemakers and Antiarrhythmia Devices). Circulation. 2008;117:2820–2840.

Friedman R.A. Pacemakers in children: Medical and surgical aspects. Tex Heart Inst J. 1992;19:178–184.

Gillette P.C., Heinle J.S., Zeigler V.L. Cardiac pacing. In: Gillette P.C., Garson Jr. A., eds. Clinical Pediatric Arrhythmias. ed 2. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1999:190–220.

Chapter 27. Congestive Heart Failure

Amman M., Graham Jr. T.P. Guidelines for vasodilator therapy of congestive heart failure in infants and children. Am J Cardiol. 1987;113:994–1005.

Berman Jr. W., Yabek S.M., Dillon T. et al. Effects of digoxin in infants with congested circulatory state due to a ventricular septal defect. N Engl J Med. 1983;308:363–366.

Braunwald E. Effects of digitalis on the normal and the failing heart. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985;5(5 suppl A):51A–59A.

Bruns L.A., Chrsitant M.K., Lamour J.M. et al. Carvedilol as therapy in pediatric heart failure: An initial multicenter experience. J Pediatr. 2001;138:505–511.

Buchhorn R., Bartmus D., Siekmeyer W. et al. Beta-blocker therapy of severe congestive heart failure in infants with left to right shunts. Am J Cardiol. 1998;98:1366–1368.

Foerster S.R., Canter C.E. Pediatric heart failure therapy with β-adrenoceptor antagonist. Review Article. Pediatr Drugs. 2008;10:125–134.

Friedman W.F. New concepts and drugs in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1984;31:1197–1227.

Helton E., Darragh R., Francis P. et al. Metabolic aspects of myocardial disease and a role for L-carnitine in the treatment of childhood cardiomyopathy. Pediatrics. 2000;105:1260–1270.

Montigny M., Davignon A., Fouron J.-C. et al. Captopril in infants for congestive heart failure secondary to a large ventricular left-to-right shunt. Am J Cardiol. 1989;63:631–633.

Nir A., Nasser N. Clinical value of NT-ProBNT and BNT in pediatric cardiology. J Card Fail. 2005;11(suppl):S76–S80.

Park M.K. The use of digoxin in infants and children with specific emphasis on dosage. J Pediatr. 1986;108:871–877.

Shaddy R.E., Boucek M.M., Hsu D.T. et al. Pediatric carvedilol study group. Carvedilol for children and adolescents with heart failure: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;198:1171–1179.

Shaddy R.E., Tani L.Y., Gidding S.S. et al. Beta-blocker treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure in children: A multi-institutional experience. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1999;18:269–274.

Chapter 28. Systemic Hypertension

Chobanian A.V., Bakris G.L., Black H.R. et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;21:2560–2572.

Daniels S.R., Meyer R.A., Liang Y.C., Bove K.E. Echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass index in normal children, adolescents, and young adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;12:703–708.

Dart R.A., Gollub S., Lazar J. et al. Treatment of systemic hypertension in patients with pulmonary disease, COPD and asthma. Chest. 2003;123:222–243.

Feig D.I., Johnson R.J. Hyperuricemia in childhood primary hypertension. Hypertension. 2003;42:247–252.

Flynn J.T., Newburger J.W., Daniels S.R. et al. PATH-1 Investigators A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of amlodipine in children with hypertension. J Pediatr. 2004;145:288–290.

Frolich E.D., Labarth D.R., Maxwell M.H. et al. Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometers: Report of a Special Task Force appointed by the Steering Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1988;77(suppl A):501A–514A.

The Fourth Report on the Diagnosis. Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;111:555–576.

Ham S.W., Kumar S.R., Wang B.R. et al. Late outcomes of endovascular and open revascularization of non-atherosclerotic renal artery disease. Arch Surg. 2010;145(9):832–839.

Hammond I.W., Urbina E.M., Wattigney W.A. et al. Comparison of fourth and fifth Korotkoff diastolic blood pressures in 5 to 30 year old individuals. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8:1083–1089.

Jago R., Harrell J.S., McMurray R.G. et al. Prevalence of abnormal lipid and blood pressure values among an ethnically diverse population of eighth grade adolescents and screening implications. Pediatrics. 2006;117:2065–2073.

Kaelber D.C., Pickett F. Simple table to identify children and adolescents needing further evaluation of blood pressure. Pediatrics. 2009;123(6):e972.

Khoury P.R., Matsnefes M., Daniels S.R., Kimball T.R. Age-specific reference intervals for indexed left ventricular mass in children. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009;22:709–714.

Park M.K., Guntheroth W.G. Accurate blood pressure measurement in children: A review. Am J Noninvas Cardiol. 1989;3:297–309.

Sorof J.M., Cardwell G., Franco K., Portman R.J. Ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular mass index in hypertensive children. Hypertension. 2002;39:903–908.

Urbina E., Alpert B., Flynn J., Hayman L. et al. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: Recommendations for standard assessment: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension. 2008;52:433–451.

Wühl E., Witte K., Soergel M., Mehls O. et al. Distribution of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children: Normalized reference values and role of body dimensions. J Hypertens. 2002;20:1995–2007.

Chapter 29. Pulmonary Hypertension

Albersheim S.G., Solimanu A.J., Sharma A.K. et al. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of long-term diuretic therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 1989;115:615–620.

Barst R.J., Maislin G., Fishman A.F. Vasodilator therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension in children. Circulation. 1999;99:1197–1208.

Barst R.J., Ivy D., Dingemanse J. et al. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of bosentan in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;73:372–382.

Barst R.J., Langleben D., Badesch D. et al. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension with the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist sitaxsentan. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:2049–2056.

Dillon P.W., Cilley R.E., Mauger D. et al. The relationship of pulmonary artery pressure and survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:307–312.

Din-Xuan A.T. Disorders of endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary disease. Circulation. 1993;38(suppl V):V-81–V-87.

Game S. Pulmonary hypertension (grand rounds). JAMA. 2000;284:3160–3168.

Gorenflo M., Nelle M., Schnabel P.A., Ullmann M.V. Pulmonary hypertension in infancy and childhood. Cardiol Young. 2003;13:219–227.

Humpl T., Reyes J.T., Holtby H. et al. Beneficial effect of oral sildenafil therapy on childhood pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twelve-month clinical trial of a single-drug, open-label, pilot study. Circulation. 2005;111:3274–3280.

King M.E., Braun H., Goldblatt A. et al. Interventricular septal configuration as a predictor of right ventricular systolic hypertension in children: A cross-sectional echocardiographic study. Circulation. 1983;68:68–75.

Maiya S., Hislop A.A., Flynn Y., Haworth S.G. Response to bosentan in children with pulmonary hypertension. Heart. 2006;92:664–670.

McQuillan B.M., Picard M.H., Leavitt M., Weyman A.E. Clinical correlates and reference intervals for pulmonary artery systolic pressure among echocardiographically normal subjects. Circulation. 2001;104:2797–2802.

Oishi P., Datar S.A., Fineman J.R. Advances in the management of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. Respiratory Care. 2001;56:1314–1340.

Richardi M.K., Knight B.P., Martinet F.J. et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in primary pulmonary hypertension: A safe and effective agent for predicting response to nifedipine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;32:1068–1073.

Rosenzweig E.B., Ivy D.D., Widlitz A. et al. Effects of long-term bosentan in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(4):697–704.

Steinhorn R.H. Pharmacotherapy for pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2012;59:1129–1146.

Stevenson J.G. Comparison of several noninvasive methods for estimation of pulmonary artery pressure. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1989;2:157–171.

Tissot C., Dunbar D., Beghetti M. Medical therapy for pediatric pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr. 2010;157:528–532.

Chapter 30. Child with Chest Pain

Driscoll D.J., Glichlich L.B., Gallen W.J. Chest pain in children: A prospective study. Pediatrics. 1976;57:648–651.

Kocis K.C. Chest pain in pediatrics. Pediatr Clin North Amer. 1999;46:189–203.

Klone R.A., Hale S., Alker K., Rezkalla S. The effects of acute and chronic cocaine use on the heart. Circulation. 1992;85:407–418.

Massin M.M., Bourguignont A., Coremans C. et al. Chest pain in pediatric patients presenting to an emergency department or to a cardiac clinic. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004;43(3):231–238.

McCord J., Ineid J., Hollander J.E. et al. Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association acute cardiac care committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008;117:1897–1907.

Rowe B.H., Dulburg C.S., Peterson R.G. et al. Characteristics of children presenting with chest pain to a pediatric emergency department. Can Med Assoc J. 1990;143:388–394.

Selbst S.M. Approach to the child with chest pain. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2010;57(6):1221–1234.

Thull-Freedman J. Evaluation of chest pain in the pediatric patients. Med Clin North Am. 2010;94:327–347.

Chapter 31. Syncope

Blanc J.J., Mansourati J., Maheu B. et al. Reproducibility of a positive passive upright tilt test at a seven-day interval in patients with syncope. Am J Cardiol. 1993;72:467–471.

Connolly S.J., Sheldon R., Thorpe K.E. et al. Pacemaker therapy for prevention of syncope in patients with recurrent severe vasovagal syncope: Second Vasovagal Pacemaker Study (VPS II): a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289:2224–2229.

Grubb B.P., Kosinski D. Tilt table testing: Concepts and limitations. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1997;20(pt II):781–787.

O’Marcaigh A.S., MacLellan-Tobert S.G., Perter C.P. Tilt-table testing and oral metoprolol therapy in young patients with unexplained syncope. Pediatrics. 1994;93:278–283.

Ross B.A., Saul J.P. Management of vasovagal syncope: pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, or pacing. In: Walsh E.P., Saul J.P., Triedman J.K., eds. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

Salim M.A., Ware L.E., Barnard M. et al. Syncope recurrence in children: Relation to tilt-test results. Pediatrics. 1998;102:924–926.

Scott W.A. Syncope and the assessment of the autonomic nervous system. In: Allen H.D., Gutgesell H.P., Clark E.B., Driscoll D.J., eds. Moss and Adams’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ed 6. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:443–452.

Sra J.S., Jazayeri M.R., Avitall B. et al. Comparison of cardiac pacing with drug therapy in the treatment of neurocardiogenic (vasovagal) syncope with bradycardia or asystole. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1117–1121.

Steiper M.J., Campbell R.M. Efficacy of alpha-adrenergic agonist therapy for prevention of pediatric neurocardiogenic syncope. J Am Coil Cardiol. 1993;22:594–597.

Strickberger S.A., Benson W., Biaggioni I. et al. AHA/ACCF Scientific Statement on the Evaluation of Syncope. From the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology, Cardiovascular Nursing, Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and Stroke, and the Quality of Care and Outcome Research Interdisciplinary Working Group; and the American College of Cardiology Foundation in Collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2006;113:316–327.

Zhang F., Li X., Ochs T. et al. Midregional pro-adrenomedullin as a predictor for therapeutic response to midodrine hydrochloride in children with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:315–320.

Chapter 32. Palpitation

Giala F., Raviele A. Diagnostic management of patients with palpitation of unknown origin. Ital Heart J. 2004;5:581–586.

Chapter 33. Dyslipidemia and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome

Berenson G.S., Srinivasan S.R., Bao W. et al. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:1650–1656.

Cook S., Weizman M., Auinger P., Nguyen M., Dietz W.H. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:821–827.

Fernandez J.R., Redden D.T., Pietrobelli A., Allison D.B. Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2004;145:439–444.

Gundy S.M. Editorial: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2002;105 2696–2698.

Grundy S.M., Hansen B., Smith Jr. S.C. et al. Clinical management of metabolic syndrome. Report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Diabetes Association Conference on Scientific Issues Related to Management. Circulation. 2004;109:551–556.

Hubert H.B., Fenileib M., McNamara P.M. et al. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1983;67:968–977.

Jago R., Harrell J.S., McMurray R.G. et al. Prevalence of abnormal lipid and blood pressure values among an ethnically diverse population of eighth grade adolescents and screening implications. Pediatrics. 2006;117:2065–2073.

Kavey R.W., Daniels S.R., Lauer R.M., Atkins D.L., Hayman L.L., Taubert K. American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Circulation. 2003;107:1562–1566.

Lauer RM. Pediatric Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. Oxford University Press; 2006.

McGill Jr. H.C., McMahan C.A., Herderick E.E. et al. Obesity accelerates the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in young men. Circulation. 2002;105:2712–2718.

Singh G.K. Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2006;8(5):403–413.

Strong J.P., Malcom G.T., Oalman M.C. Environmental and genetic risk factors in early human atherogenesis: lessons from the PDAY study. Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth. Pathol Int. 1995;45(6):403–408.

Yanovski J.A., Krakoff J., Salaita C.G. et al. Effects of metformin on body weight and body composition in obese insulin-resistant children: A randomized clinical trial. Diabetes. 2011;60(2):477–485.

Zimmet P., Alberti G., Kaufman F. et al. International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention of Diabetes. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Lancet. 2007;369(9579):2059–2061.

Dyslipidemia

Ashen M.D., Blumenthal R.S. Clinical practice. Low HDL levels. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(12):1252–1260.

Daniels S.R., Greer F.R., the Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics. 2008;122(1):198–208.

Dennison B.A., Kikuchi D.A., Srinivasan R.S. et al. Parental history of cardiovascular disease as an indication for screening for lipoprotein abnormalities in children. J Pediatr. 1989;115:186–194.

Egan A., Colman E. Weighing the benefits of high-dose simvastatin against the risk of myopathy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:285–287.

Gidding S.S., Dennison B.A., Birch L.L. et al. American Heart Association; American Academy of Pediatrics: Dietary recommendations for children and adolescents: A guide for practitioners. Pediatrics. 2006;117:544–559.

Goldfine A.B., Kaul S., Hiatt W.R. Fibrates in the treatment of dyslipidemia: Time for a reassessment. N Engl J Med. 2011;356:481–484.

Hellerstein M.K. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia: modifying factors and implications for cardiovascular risk. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002;13:33–40.

Harris W.S. N-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl):1645S–1654S.

Holmes K.W., Kwiterovich Jr. P.O. Treatment of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2005;7:445–456.

Jolliffe C.J., Jansen I. Distribution of lipoproteins by age and gender and adolescents. Circulation. 2006;114:1056–1062.

Kwiterovich Jr. P.O., Claus S., McCrindle B.W. Dyslipidemia in children and adolescents. In: Kwiterovich Jr. P.O., ed. The Johns Hopkins Textbook of Dyslipidemia. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:143–156.

Lambert M., Lupien P.-J., Gagne C. et al. Treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents: Effect of lovastatin. Pediatrics. 1996;97:619–628.

McCrindle B.W., Urbina E.M., Dennison B.A. et al. Drug therapy of high-risk lipid abnormalities in children and adolescents. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in Youth Committee, Council of Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, with the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. Circulation. 2007;115:1948–1967.

National Cholesterol Education Program. Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. US Department of Health and Human Services. NIH Publication No. 91-2732. September 1991.

National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection. Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Education, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143–3421.

Ritchie S.K., Murphy E.C.S., Ice C. et al. Universal versus targeted blood cholesterol screening among youth: The CARDIAC Project. Pediatrics. 2010;126:260–265.

Rohs H.J., Schatz D., Winter W.E. et al. Pediatric lipid disorders in clinical practice treatment and management. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1825087-treatment2010.

Srinivasan S.R., Myers L., Berenson G.S. Distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in children. Pediatrics. 2002;110(3):e20.

Stein E.A., Illingworth D.R., Kwiterovich Jr. P.O. et al. Efficacy and safety of lovastatin in adolescent males with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. JAMA. 1999;281:137–144.

Steiner M.J., Skinner A.C., Perrin E.M. Fasting might not be necessary before lipid screening: A nationally representative cross-sectional study. Pediatrics. 2011;128:463–470.

Wiegman A., Hutten B.A., de Groot E. et al. Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. JAMA. 2004;292:331–337.

Winter W., Schatz D. Pediatric lipid disorders in clinical practice. http://www.emedicine.com/ped/cardiology.htm2005.

Obesity

Dietz W.H. Health consequences of obesity in youth: Childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics. 1998;101:518–525.

Gortmaker S.L., Must A., Sobol A.M., Peterson K., Colditz G.A., Dietz W.H. Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:356–362.

Hannan W.J., Wrate R.M., Cowen S.J., Freeman C.P. Body mass index as an estimate of body fat. Int J Eat Disord. 1995;18:91–97.

Hedley A.A., Ogden C.L., Johnson C.L. et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA. 2004;291:2847–2850.

Krebs N.F., Baker R.D., Greer F.R. et al. Policy statement. Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Committee on Nutrition. Pediatrics. 2003;112:424–430.

Ogden C.L., Carroll M.D., Curtin L.S. et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA. 2006;295:1549–1555.

Smoking

Lu J.T., Creager M.A. The relationship of cigarette smoking to peripheral arterial disease. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2004;5(4):189–193.

Marshall L., Schooley M., Ryan H. et al. Youth tobacco surveillance, United States, 2001–2002. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2006;55(3):1–56.

Rogotti N.A., Lee J.E., Wechsler H. US college students’ use of tobacco products: Results of a national survey. JAMA. 2000;284(6):699–705.

Williams C.L., Hayman L.L., Daniels S.R. et al. Cardiovascular Health in Childhood: A statement for health professionals from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation. 2002;106:143–160.

Chapter 34. Athletes with Cardiac Problems

: 36th Bethesda Conference. Eligibility Recommendations for Competitive Athletes with Cardiovascular Abnormalities. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45(8):1313–1375.

Bonow R.O., Cheitlin M.D. Bethesda Conference Report. Task Force 3. Valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1334–1340.

Kaplan N.M., Deveraux R.B., Miller Jr. H.S. 26th Bethesda conference: recommendations for determining eligibility for competition in athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. Task Force 4: systemic hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;24:885–888.

Kaplan N.M., Gidding S.S., Pickering T.G., Wright Jr. J.T. Task Force 5: Systemic hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1346–1348.

Maron B.J. Sudden cardiac death in the young athlete and the preparticipation cardiovascular evaluation. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

Maron B.J., Ackerman M.J., Nishimura R.A., Pyeritz R.E., Towbin J.A., Udelson J.E. Bethesda Conference Report. Task Force 4: HCM and other cardiomyopathies, mitral valve prolapse, myocarditis, and Marfan syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1340–1345.

Maron B.J., Doerer J.J., Haas T.S. Sudden deaths in young competitive athletes: analysis of 1866 deaths in the United States. Circulation. 2009;119:1085–1092.

Maron B.J., Shirani J., Poline L.C., Mathenge R., Roberts W.C., Mueller F.O. Sudden death in young competitive athletes: Clinical, demographic and pathological profiles. JAMA. 1996;276:199–208.

Maron B.J., Thompson P.D., Puffer J.C. et al. Cardiovascular preparticipation screening of competitive athletes: a statement for health professionals from the Sudden Death Committee (clinical cardiology) and Congenital Cardiac Defects Committee (cardiovascular disease in the young), American Heart Association. Circulation. 1996;94:850–856.

Mitchel J.H., Haskel W., Snell P., Van Camp S.P. Task Force 8: Classification of sports. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1364–1367.

Pelliccia A., Maron B.J., Spataro A., Proschan M.A., Spirito P. The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:295–301.

Risser W.L., Anderson S.J., Bolduc S.P. et al. Athletic participation by children and adolescent who have systemic hypertension. Pediatrics. 1997;99:637–638.

Risser W.L., Anderson S.J., Bolduc S.P. et al. Cardiac dysrhythmias and sports. Pediatrics. 1995;95:786–788.

Washington R.L., Bernhardt D.T., Brenner J.S. et al. Promotion of healthy weight-control practices in young athletes. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1557–1564.

Zipes D.P., Ackerman M.J., Estes M.A.M. et al. Task Force 7: 36th Bethesda Conference: Eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1354–1363.

Chapter 35. Cardiac Transplantation

Bailey L., Concepcion W., Shattuck H. et al. Method of heart transplantation for treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1986;92:1–5.

Bailey L.L., Gundry S.R., Razzouk A.J. et al. Bless the babies: One hundred fifteen late survivors of heart transplantation during the first year of life. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1993;105:805–815.

Boucek M.M., Mathis C.M., Boucek R.J. et al. Prospective evaluation of echocardiography for primary rejection surveillance after infant heart transplantation: Comparison with endomyocardial biopsy. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994;13:66–73.

Canter C.E. Pediatric cardiac transplantation. In: Moller J.H., Hoffman R.E., eds. Pediatric Cardiovascular Medicine. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:942–952.

Gabrys C.A. Pediatric cardiac transplants: A clinical update. J Pediatr Nurs. 2005;20:139–143.

Kuhn M.A., Jutzy K.R., Derming D.D. et al. The medium-term findings in coronary arteries by intravascular ultrasound in infants and children after heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:250–254.

Pahl E., Fricker F.J., Armitage J. et al. Coronary arteriosclerosis in pediatric heart transplant survivors: Limitation of long-term survival. J Pediatr. 1990;116:177–183.

Perlroch M.G., Reitz B.A. Heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Braunwald E., ed. Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. ed 5. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1997:515–533.

Seipelt I.M., Crawford S.E., Rodgers S. et al. Hypercholesterolemia is common after pediatric heart transplantation: initial experience with pravastatin. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(3):317–322.

Stewart S., Winters G.L., Fishbein M.C. et al. Revision of the 1990 working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of heart rejection. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24:1710–1720.


Previous
Page
Next
Page