The Active Female: Health Issues Throughout the Lifespan 2008th Edition

27. Estimating Energy Requirements

Jacalyn J. Robert-McComb Elvis Álvarez Carnero2 and Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez3

(1)

Department of Health, Exercise, and Sports, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA

(2)

Biodynamic and Body Composition Laboratory, University of Malaga, Málaga, Spain

(3)

Department of Functional Biology (Physiology), University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain

Jacalyn J. Robert-McComb

Email: jacalyn.mccomb@ttu.edu

Abstract

Women energy requirements need be balance with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Hence, meeting of energy needs for all components of TDEE must be the most important concern for active females. Resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are the most important components of TDEE; where the most variable is the PAEE. The quantification of each component implies time consuming and expensive techniques, which are unviable in field and clinical settings. However, indirect methods have been developed to allow coaches, physicians, and nutritionists estimate TDEE. In this chapter, we cover the physiological relevance of RMR, TEF, and PAEE, and the indirect ways to obtain estimations of their values. On the other hand, other variables factors affecting TDEE as adaptive thermogenesis and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are highlighted. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to introduce basic metabolic calculations and physical activity level (PAL) concept.

Keywords

EnergyMETCalorieBasal metabolic rateResting metabolic rate

27.1 Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of:

1.

2.

3.

4.

27.2 Introduction

Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Energy requirements are based on the energy needs for optimal growth and development for each individual at their stage in life in order to maximize long-term good health. Energy requirements for humans are not the same as nutritional requirements (nutritional requirements are discussed in Chaps. 2829 and 3132 of this book). Even though we do discuss the difference between nutritional requirements and energy requirements briefly, the focus of this chapter is on the estimation of energy requirements. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation’s (FAO) report, FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series 1 define energy requirements as:

the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body size, body composition and a level of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health. This includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy, and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of mother and child [1].

27.3 Research Findings and Nutritional Terminology

It can be confusing for the novice reader when terms are readily exchanged from one source to another when discussing energy. The terms Caloriecalorieand kcal are often used when discussing energy. Other interchangeably used terms when discussing TEE are basal metabolic rate (BMR) rather than BEE, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) rather than REE. In the next section that follows, we will clarify some of the terms used when discussing energy requirements.

27.3.1 Terms Used When Discussing Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)

27.3.1.1 Calorie (Capital C or Uppercase C), Calories (Lowercase c), and Kilocalorie

The difference in expressing heat energy with an uppercase CCalorie, or a lowercase c, calorie, can be a source of confusion. The calorie (lowercase c) is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 ml or 1 g of water at 15 °C by 1 °C, or from 14.5 to 15.5 °C. In the context of foods and nutrition, “large calorie” (i.e., Calorie) with an uppercase C has been used traditionally [2]. When an uppercase C is used to express “Calorie” it is 1,000 cal and is referred to as a kilocalorie (abbreviated as kcal). A Calorie or kcal expresses the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg (1 L) of water 1 °C (specifically from 14.5 to 15.5 °C). The term kcal is used in the context of food and nutrition because the amount of energy involved in metabolism of food is fairly large.

27.3.1.2 Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Most simply stated, the BMR describes the rate of energy expenditure that occurs in the postabsorptive state (after an overnight fast with no food consumption for 12–14 h), resting comfortably, supine, awake, and motionless in a thermoneutral environment. In this state, food and physical activity have minimal influence on metabolism. The BMR thus reflects the energy needed to sustain the metabolic activities of cells and tissues, plus the energy needed to maintain blood circulation, respiration, and gastrointestinal and renal processing (i.e., the basal cost of living). BMR thus includes the energy cost associated with remaining awake (the cost of arousal). The sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) during the morning is 5–10 % lower than BMR during the morning hours [3]. The verbatim definition for BMR that appears in the FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series 1 is as follows:

The amount of energy used for basal metabolism in a period of time is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR), and is measured under standard conditions that include being awake in the supine position after ten to 12 hrs of fasting and eight hrs of physical rest, and being in a state of mental relaxation in an ambient environmental temperature that does not elicit heat-generating or heat-dissipating processes [1].

From a physiological point of view, the concept of BMR is:

… the amount of energy in basal (humans) or standard (animals) state, when no work is done and all energy is dissipated ….

the steady-state rate of heat production by a whole organism under a set of “standard” conditions … these conditions are that the individual is an adult and is awake but resting, stress free, not digesting food, and maintained at a temperature that elicits no thermoregulatory effect on heat production … BMR is measured either as heat production, or indirectly as oxygen consumption from which it can be accurately predicted [4].

27.3.1.3 Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE)

The BMR is commonly extrapolated to 24 h to be more meaningful, and it is then referred to as basal energy expenditure (BEE), expressed as kcal/24 h. It is most simply defined as the minimal amount of energy in kcal that is compatible with life over a 24 h period. All of the conditions associated with BMR (no food consumption for 12–14 h, resting comfortably, supine, awake, and motionless in a thermoneutral environment) must be met for BEE [2].

27.3.1.4 Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

RMR has traditionally been proposed to be a surrogate of BMR. If any of the conditions for BMR have not been met (early morning assessment following a 12–14 h fast, no physical exercise following awakening, remaining awake but motionless, supine, comfortable and in a thermoneutral environment) then energy expenditure is referred to as RMR. Resting metabolic rate energy expenditure under resting conditions tends to be somewhat higher (10–20 %) than under basal conditions due to increases in energy expenditure caused by recent food intake (i.e., by the “thermic effect of food”) or by the delayed effect of recently completed physical activity [2].

27.3.1.5 Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)

When RMR is extrapolated to 24 h, then it is then referred to as resting energy expenditure (REE), expressed as kcal/24 h. It is most simply defined as resting energy expenditure expressed in kcal over a 24 h period [5]. This term is used when all of the standard conditions required for BMR have not been met.

27.3.1.6 Thermic Effect of Food

The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the energy we spend to digest, absorb, distribute and store the nutrients ingested [2]. The type of food that you eat will have an effect on TEF, for example, spicy foods increase TEF.

27.3.1.7 Energy Balance

Daily energy balance fluctuates considerably, yet over the long term, energy balance is very precise. Positive and negative energy balances result in weight gain and weight loss, accordingly, mainly in the form of fat. The amount of fat stored in an adult of normal weight commonly ranges from 13.2 to 44 lb (6–20 kg). Body fat energy reserves range from approximately 50,000–200,000 kcal since 1 g of fat provides 9.4 kcal. This vast store of energy reserves provides a large buffer capacity as well as the ability to provide energy to survive for several months of severe food deprivation. Large deviations of energy balance, both positive and negative, occur daily by several hundred kcal/day in both normal and overweight subjects. Yet over the long term, energy balance is maintained implying that the cumulative error in adjusting energy intake to expenditure amounts to less than 2 % of energy expenditure [2].

27.3.1.8 Estimated Energy Requirement

According to the Dietary Reference Intakes [2], the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is defined as “the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy, adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health.”

27.3.1.9 Metabolic Equivalent

The Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference metabolic rate, set by convention to 3.5 ml O2 kg−1 min−1 or equivalently, 1 MET = 1 kcal kg−1 h−1 [6]. MET is used as a means of expressing the intensity and energy expenditure of activities in a way comparable among persons of different weight. If someone is working at 10 METs, it is implied that they are working ten times above their resting rate.

27.3.1.10 Compendium of Physical Activities

The Compendium of Physical Activities was developed for use in epidemiologic studies to standardize the assignment of MET intensities in physical activity questionnaires. Compendium activities are classified by a 5-digit code that identifies the category (heading) as the first two digits and type (description) of activity as the last three digits. Metabolic equivalents are listed for each activity. The calculation from METs to calories is very easy since 1 MET = 1 kcal kg−1 h−1. For example if an activity has a MET value of 7 METs then 7 METs = 7 kcal kg−1 h−1. The compendium has been used in studies worldwide to assign intensity units to physical activity questionnaires and to develop innovative ways to assess energy expenditure in physical activity studies. The compendium was published in 1993 and updated in 2000 and 2011 [6]. Appendix 1 has the updated version published in 2011: You can also find the compendium and modified versions of the compendium at https://​sites.​google.​com/​site/​compendiumofphys​icalactivities/​[7].

27.3.2 Energy Requirements Versus Nutrient Requirements

Recommendations for nutrient intakes are generally set to provide an ample supply of the various nutrients needed for all healthy individuals in a given life stage and gender group. Recommended intakes are thus set to correspond to the median amounts sufficient to meet a specific criterion of adequacy plus two standard deviations to meet the needs of nearly all healthy individuals.

However, this is not the case with energy. Excess energy cannot be eliminated, and this energy is eventually deposited in the form of body fat. This reserve provides a means to maintain metabolism during periods of limited food intake, but it can also result in obesity.

An excellent reference text entitled, Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients) [2] details the nutrient and energy needs of individuals at all stages of life. This project was funded in part by the United States Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. A free PDF copy can be downloaded at http://​www.​nap.​edu/​catalog.​php?​record_​id =​ 10490.

27.3.3 Energy Requirements

Energy requirements are directly related to the components of energy expenditure. In 1985, The World Health Organization stated that “as a matter of principle, we believe the estimates of energy requirements should, as far as possible, be based on estimates of energy expenditure.” [8] Several modifications are proposed in the updated FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series 1 published in 2004 from the former report published in 1985 [18]. The 2004 report is a result of an expert consultation held in Rome, October 17–24 in 2001. Representing agencies included The United Nations University, World Health Organization and The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This report can be downloaded free of charge at http://​www.​fao.​org/​docrep/​007/​y5686e/​y5686e00.​htm.

27.3.4 The Components of Energy Expenditure

In the human body, TEE is the sum of: (1) BEE, which includes a small component associated with arousal, as compared to sleeping; (2) TEF which is the energy we spend to digest, absorb, distribute and store the nutrients ingested; (3) EEPA which is the energy expended in physical activity; and (4) the energy expended in depositing new tissues and in producing milk. Figure 27.1 depicts the components of TEE using the doubly labeled water technique method. Total energy expenditure from doubly labeled water does not include the energy content of tissue development during normal growth and pregnancy or the milk produced during lactation,.

A145875_2_En_27_Fig1_HTML.gif

Fig. 27.1

Components of total energy expenditure from the doubly labeled water method (DLW). Note: TEE from DWL does not include the energy content of the maturing tissue constituents during normal growth and pregnancy or the milk produced during lactation

Some sources may state that TEE is composed of: (1) resting energy expenditure (REE); (2) TEF; and (3) EEPA [5]. If all of the conditions required for BEE have not been met then the term REE is used.

Regardless of the term used, the resting or basal component of energy expenditure constitutes the largest portion (60–75 %) of the TEE [9]. The only exception to this would be in extremely active individuals. The TEF represents approximately 10 % of the total daily energy expenditure, although it depends on the macronutrient content of the food ingested. The most variable component of TEE is the contribution of physical activity (EEPA) which varies from approximately 15–30 % depending on the activity level of the individual [2].

There are many factors that affect the components that make up TEE (BEE:TEF:EEPA) whether or not that refers to BEE, REE, BMR, or RMR. From a practical point of view, RMR is usually used in equations to estimate TEE, therefore our discussion will center on the factors that affect REE (RMR extrapolated to a 24 h period) or RMR rather than BEE or BMR. We will also discuss the factors that affect TEF and EEPA.

27.3.4.1 Factors Affecting Resting Energy Expenditure

Numerous factors cause the REE to vary among individuals. Interestingly, three factors, age, sex and fat free mass (FFM), account for about 80 % of the variability in REE [10]. Additional contributing variables include: (1) body size and weight [body surface area (BSA)]; (2) hormonal status [25];(3) age; (4) sex; and (5) fat mass. Age, sex, and FFM are highly correlated and these three factors combined together account for about 80 % of the variability in REE [10].

Body surface area is computed from height and weight, taller individuals who weigh more will have the greatest surface area. Individuals with greater surface area will have the greatest metabolic rate. Various body surface formulas have been developed over the years. There is debate about which is the best formula to use since there is no standardization of formulas at this time. The Mosteller formula is gaining support as a common standard because it is much simpler and can be easily calculated with a handheld calculator. A Web site that can be used to estimate BSA is http://​www.​halls.​md/​body-surface-area/​bsa.​htm. Table 27.1 lists formulas to determine BSA.

Table 27.1

Equations to estimate body surface area

Name of formula

Formula

Boyd

 

Haycock

BSA (m2) = 0.024265 × Height (cm)0.3964 × Weight (kg)0.5378

DuBois and DuBois

BSA (m2) = 0.20247 × Height (m)0.725 × Weight (kg)0.425

Gehan and George

BSA (m2) = 0.0235 × Height (cm)0.42246 × Weight (kg)0.51456

Mosteller

BSA (m2) = ([Height (cm) × Weight (kg)]/3,600)½

or in inches and pounds: BSA (m2) = ([Height (in.) × Weight (lb.)]/3,131)½

Adapted from Body Surface Area Calculator for medication doses at http://​www.​halls.​md/​body-surface-area/​bsa.​htm

As stated previously, one of the main determinants of REE is fat-free mass (FFM) or lean body mass (LBM). Because of their greater FFM, athletes or individuals who are extremely fit have approximately a 5 % higher BMR than nonathletic individuals. The effect of age has on REE is highly correlated with FFM. Resting energy expenditure is highest during periods of rapid growth, chiefly during the first and second years of life, and peaks throughout adolescence and puberty [11]. As a child becomes older, the caloric requirement for growth is reduced to about 1 % of the total energy expended. Resting energy expenditure continues to decline with increasing age in adulthood. The loss of FFM with aging can be attenuated with exercise; however, exercise cannot completely negate the effects of age. There is approximately a 2–3 % decline in REE after early adulthood largely due to loss of FFM [11]. Some authors also account for the reduction in brain weight with age on REE or basal metabolism, since it is an extremely metabolically active organ. In fact, the brain is more metabolically active than muscle tissue during rest [12]. Henry [12] also states that “the fall in BMR with ageing may be less dramatic than previously perceived. Indeed, some subjects may show an increase in BMR with ageing.”

Sex differences in metabolic rates are primarily contributed to differences in body size and composition. Women have approximately 5–10 % lower REE than men primarily due to differences in LBM [5].

Hormonal status also has an effect on the metabolic rate. The hormones associated with the sympathetic nervous system or those involved in the fight or flight response such as epinephrine and norepinephrine increase metabolic rate. Probably the hormones most closely aligned with REE are the thyroid hormones since these hormones are considered to be the permissive hormones and allow other hormones to exert their full effect. Also the metabolic rate of women fluctuates with the menstrual cycle. An average of 359 kcal/day difference in the BMR has been measured from 1 week before ovulation and just before the onset of menstruation. The average increase in energy expenditure is about 150 kcal/day during the second half of the menstrual cycle [13].

27.3.4.2 Factors Affecting the Thermic Effect of Food

The TEF accounts for approximately 10 % of the TEE. The TEF varies with the composition of the diet and is greater after the consumption of and proteins than after carbohydrates and fat. Spicy foods enhance and prolong the effect of TEF. Caffeine and nicotine also stimulate the TEF [5].

27.3.4.3 Factors Affecting the Energy Expended in Physical Activity and Exercise

Before we begin our discussion of energy during physical activity and exercise, we need to define and differentiate the terms physical activity and exercise. According to CaspersenPowell, and Christenson[14]:

Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness.

In this chapter, when we speak of physical activity, we include the subset exercise. The energy expended in physical activity (EEPA) is the most variable component of TEE. To illustrate this point think of this, the basal oxygen (O2) consumption rate of adults is approximately 250 mL/min while elite athletes, such as marathon runners, can sustain O2 consumption rates of 5,000 mL/min [2]. So you can see quite easily that the scale of metabolic responses to exercise varies over a 20-fold range. The EEPA not only includes the energy cost of the movement but also includes energy during these activities such as shivering and maintaining postural control [25].

Energy cost of physical activity is related to intensity, duration, skill level, and FFM. As the intensity of the physical activity and or duration of the activity increases, so does the energy expenditure. All else being equal, individuals with less skill in performing an activity will expend more energy in performing the motion. Also, individuals with greater FFM will expend more energy at the same intensity and or duration of the exercise. In order to estimate the energy cost associated with activity or exercise, we will refer to the Compendium of Physical Activity [7] that can be found in Appendix 1. The MET value for each activity is listed. These values can then be converted to kcal by using the formula 1 MET = 1 kcal kg−1 h−1. We also have a more generalized version of activity categories in Table 27.2 for the sake of simplicity.

Table 27.2

MET values for physical activity levels

Physical activity intensity

MET

Light intensity activities

<3

Sleeping

Watching television

Writing, desk work, typing

Walking, 1.7 mph (2.7 km/h), level ground, strolling, very slow

Walking, 2.5 mph (4 km/h)

0.9

1.0

1.8

2.3

2.9

Moderate intensity activities

3–6

Bicycling, stationary, 50 W, very light effort

Walking 3.0 mph (4.8 km/h)

Calisthenics, home exercise, light or moderate effort, general

Walking 3.4 mph (5.5 km/h)

Bicycling, <10 mph (16 km/h), leisure, to work or for pleasure

Bicycling, stationary, 100 W, light effort

3.0

3.3

3.5

3.6

4.0

5.5

Vigorous intensity activities

>6

Jogging, general

Calisthenics (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, jumping jacks), heavy, vigorous effort

Running jogging, in place

Rope jumping

7.0

8.0

8.0

10.0

From compendium of Physical Activity found at https://​sites.​google.​com/​site/​compendiumofphys​icalactivities/​home. Project supported by University of Arizona and the National Cancer Institute

27.4 Contemporary Understanding of the Issues

27.4.1 Methods of Measuring Energy Expenditure

The Doubly Labeled Water Technique (DLW) is currently considered the most accurate technique for measuring TEE in free-living individuals. The Doubly Labeled Water Technique (DLW) for measuring TEE in free-living people uses two stable isotopes of water (deuterium [2H2O] and oxygen-18 [H2 18O]); the difference in the turnover rates of the two isotopes measures the carbon dioxide production rate, from which total energy expenditure can be calculated [15]. The premise of the method is that the O2 atoms in expired CO2 have isotopically equilibrated atoms. Thus, after a loading dose of water labeled with 2H and 18O, the 2H is eliminated from the body as water, whereas the 18O is eliminated from the body as water and CO2. The difference between the elimination rates is therefore proportional to CO2production and hence energy expenditure can be estimated using calculated O2 from the equation of respiratory quotient (RQ = VCO2/VO2); RQ is estimated from respiratory quotient of diet or assumed to be 0.85 (Western diet). The primary advantage of this technique is its accuracy (2–8 % precision) and that it provides a measure of energy expenditure that incorporates all the components of TEE [515]. Also it can be used to measure free-living energy expenditure, while subjects engage in normal daily activities. It is for these reasons, that the DLW technique has been used for validation studies and to generate data to develop prediction equations [2]. Normally, estimates of EEPA using different techniques are validated against the DLW technique. However, the expense of the technique makes it impractical for routine use by clinicians.

Direct calorimetry is a method for measuring the amount of energy expended by monitoring the rate at which a person loses heat from the body using a structure called a whole-room calorimeter. Direct calorimetry provides a measure of energy expended in the form of heat but does not provide information on the type of fuel being oxidized.

Indirect calorimetry is a method of estimating energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide utilizing a respirator gas-exchange canopy or ventilation hood. The amount of heat produced by oxidation of a nutrient is proportional to the consumed O2 and the CO2 produced. The energy per liter of oxygen will be converted to kilocalories of heat produced and extrapolated to energy expenditure in 24 h. Data obtained from indirect calorimetry permit the calculation of the respiratory quotient (RQ), which is calculated as the ratio moles CO2 expired/moles O2 consumed. The volume of O2 used and CO2 produced and the amount of heat released in the oxidative process, depend on the type of nutrient being oxidized. This allows determine the proportion of each substrate being used, ranging normally from 1 (only carbohydrates) to 0.7. It is assumed that all the O2consumed is used to oxidize substrates, that all the CO2 produced can be recovered, and that the proteins are not involved primarily in energy production.

Accelerometers detect body displacement electronically, using piezo-resistive or piezo-electric sensors, with varying degrees of sensitivity; the triaxial monitor uses three different planes to measure movement rather than a single vertical plane, as in the uniaxial monitor, and has been found to be more accurate than the uniaxial monitor [16]. Portable uniaxial accelerometer units have been widely used to detect physical activity, but these instruments are not sufficiently sensitive to quantify the physical activity of a given free-living subject, although they are valuable for comparing activity levels between groups of subjects [1719].

Minute-by-minute heart rate monitors have been found to be valid in estimating habitual TEE in certain populations but not in individuals, at least in the absence of exercise [11]. Variance in other factors that also affect heart rate, such as emotion, also impact this relationship. According to Levine [19]:

In humans, there is a significant relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure, at least in the absence of exercise. The conceptual limitation is that energy expenditure and heart rate are not linearly related for an individual in part because cardiac stroke volume changes with changing heart rate and even posture.

Many questionnaires have been developed to measure physical activity in adults. Currently, the most widely used are the different versions of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Van Poppel et al. [20] reviewed the validity, reliability and responsiveness of 85 PA (physical activity) questionnaires, including the IPAQ. In light of their results, these authors conclude that, no questionnaire or type of questionnaire for assessing PA was superior and therefore could not be strongly recommended above others. Furthermore, they observed that there is a clear lack of standardization of PA questionnaires, resulting in many variations not well described and validated. Thus, researchers should decide which questionnaire best fit their purposes considering the content of the questionnaire, the nature of the sample and the available validation studies [2021].

More recently, Bonn et al. [22] developed the Web-based questionnaire, Active-Q. The authors validate their questionnaire against DLW and conclude that Active-Q is a valid method for estimating total energy expenditure, and is also reproducible and user-friendly method. However, many methodological limitations make this conclusion perhaps too audacious.

27.4.2 Estimated Energy Expenditure Prediction Equations

The Harris–Benedict formula published in 1919 [23] is one of the most widely used formulas to determine RMR. Results of the accuracy of the prediction equation are mixed. Daly et al. [24] suggested that it overestimates RMR by 7–24 % in many contemporary populations. However, Hasson et al. [25] compared predicted RMR derived from commonly used prediction regression equations to measured RMR in a diverse group of individuals and found that the Harris–Benedict equation was the most likely to predict RMR to within 10 % of measured RMR. In addition, the Harris–Benedict equation accurately predicted RMR in both sexes, all body mass index (BMI) categories, individuals aged 30–60 years and all racial/ethnic groups. Table 27.3 includes the original Harris–Benedict prediction equation published in 1919 and a 1984 Harris–Benedict equations revised by Roza and Shizgal [26].

Table 27.3

Harris–Benedict prediction equations

Step 1calculating the BMR

The original Harris–Benedict equations published in 1918 and 1919

Men

BMR = 66.4730 + (13.7516 × weight in kg) + (5.0033 × height in cm) − (6.7550 × age in years)

Women

BMR = 655.0955 + (9.5634 × weight in kg) + (1.8496 × height in cm) − (4.6756 × age in years)

The Harris–Benedict equations revised by Roza and Shizgal in 1984

Men

BMR = 88.362 + (13.397 × weight in kg) + (4.799 × height in cm) − (5.677 × age in years)

Women

BMR = 447.593 + (9.247 × weight in kg) + (3.098 × height in cm) − (4.330 × age in years)

Step 2applying the HarrisBenedict Principle

The following table enables calculation of an individual’s recommended daily calorie intake to maintain current weight

Little to no exercise

Daily calories needed = BMR × 1.2

Light exercise (1–3 days/week)

Daily calories needed = BMR × 1.375

Moderate exercise (3–5 days/week)

Daily calories needed = BMR × 1.55

Heavy exercise (6–7 days/week)

Daily calories needed = BMR × 1.725

Very heavy exercise (twice per day, extra heavy workouts)

Daily calories needed = BMR × 1.9

From Wikipedia at http://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Harris-Benedict_​equation

The 1985 predictive equations included in the Technical Report Series 724 [8] were developed from a meta-analysis of about 100 studies conducted over a long time period (1914–1980), including the subjects studied by Harris and Benedict. The current predictive equations published in 2004 can be found in the FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series [1]. The full report can be downloaded free of charge at the World Health Organization Web site (seehttp://​www.​who.​int/​nutrition/​publications/​nutrientrequirem​ents/​9251052123/​en/​index.​html). However, Henry et al. [27] found that the equations published in the FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Seriesoverestimated REE.

Frankenfield et al. [28] examined the validity of RMR prediction equations applied to the general public and concluded that the Mifflin–St Jeor equation is the most likely to estimate RMR within 10 % of that measured: However, noteworthy limitations exist when it is generalized to certain age and ethnic groups. This equation is presented in Table 27.4 [29].

Table 27.4

An estimated energy expenditure prediction equation using the Mifflin–St Jeor equation to determine resting metabolic rate

Step 1Estimate resting metabolic rate (RMRusing the Mifflin–St Jeor equation

RMR = 9.99 × weight (kg) + 6.25 × height (cm) − 4.92 × age (year) + 166 × sex (males, 1; females, 0) − 161.

Step 2Determine additional caloric requirements based on level of activity

Physical activity level

Percentage above resting level

Bed rest

10

Quiet rest

30

Light activity

40–60

Moderate activity

60–80

Heavy activity

100

Additional caloric requirements = RMR × Percentage above resting level

Step 3Determine predicted total energy expenditure (TEE)

TEE = RMR + Additional caloric requirements based on activity

Adapted from Physiology of Fitness (3rd ed.) (p. 359) by B. J. Sharkey, 1990, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Hasson et al. [25] highlighted that one limitation of the Frankenfield et al. [28] systematic review of predictive equations for RMR was the absence of a direct comparison of these regression equations to a criterion measure. Results from Hasson’s study [25] suggest the Mifflin–St Jeor equation is primarily useful in overweight/obese groups, whereas the equations in the FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series 1 may be optimal in younger adults aged 18–49 years.

A considerable number of prediction equations have been developed since 1990. Most of the equations have not been adequately validated and the equations have a poor predictive value for individuals. The basis of several prediction methods is an estimation of REE to which is added a “stress” or “injury” factor [27]. The main advantage of these “newly” developed prediction equations to estimate energy expenditure (EE) is that they are easy to use and inexpensive [30].

The Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, and the National Academies, in collaboration with Health Canada developed prediction equations to estimate energy requirements (EER) for people according to their life-stage group [2]. The EER incorporates age, weight, height, gender, and level of physical activity for individuals in various life-stages. The equations for girls and women published in the 2005 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids can be found in Table 27.5. Equations for both genders can be downloaded free of charge on line at The National Academies Press at http://​www.​nap.​edu/​catalog.​php?​record_​id =​ 10490.

Table 27.5

Physical activity level index (PAL) and physical activity coefficient (PA) used to derive estimated energy requirements (EER) for women

PAL

Sedentary

Low active

Active

Very active

(1.0–1.39)

(1.4–1.59)

(1.6–1.89)

(1.9–2.5)

 

Typical daily living activities (e.g., household tasks, walking to the bus)

Typical daily living activities PLUS 30–60 min of daily moderate activities (e.g., walking at 5–7 km/h)

Typical daily living activities PLUS at least 60 min of daily moderate activities

Typical daily living activities PLUS at least 60 min of daily moderate activities an additional 60 min of vigorous activity or 120 min of moderate activity

PA

PA (level 1)

PA (level 2)

PA (level 3)

PA (level 4)

Girls 3–18 year

1.00

1.16

1.31

1.56

Women 19 year+

1.00

1.12

1.27

1.45

Equations to estimate energy requirement using the PA

Infants and young children

Estimated energy requirement (kcal/day) = Total energy expenditure + Energy deposition

0–3 months

EER = (89 × weight [kg] − 100) + 175

4–6 months

EER = (89 × weight [kg] − 100) + 56

7–12 months

EER = (89 × weight [kg] − 100) + 22

13–35 months

EER = (89 × weight [kg] − 100) + 20

Children and adolescents 3–18 years

Estimated energy requirement (kcal/day) = Total energy expenditure + Energy deposition

Girls

3–8 years

EER = 135.3 − (30.8 × age [year]) + PA × [(10.0 × weight [kg]) + (934 × height [m])] + 20

9–18 years

EER = 135.3 − (30.8 × age [year]) + PA × [(10.0 × weight [kg]) + (934 × height [m])] + 25

Adults 19 years and older

Estimated energy requirement (kcal/day) = Total energy expenditure

Women

EER = 354 − (6.91 × age [year]) + PA × [(9.36 × weight [kg]) + (726 × height [m])]

Pregnancy

Estimated Energy Requirement (kcal/day) = Nonpregnant EER + Pregnancy Energy Deposition

First trimester

EER = Nonpregnant EER + 0

Second trimester

EER = Nonpregnant EER + 340

Third trimester

EER = Nonpregnant EER + 452

Lactation

Estimated energy requirement (kcal/day) = Nonpregnant EER + Milk energy output − Weight loss

0–6 months postpartum

EER = Nonpregnant EER + 500 − 170

7–12 months postpartum

EER = Nonpregnant EER + 400 − 0

Note: These equations provide an estimate of energy requirement. Relative body weight (i.e., loss, stable, gain) is the preferred indicator of energy adequacy

Adapted from A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes for energy carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2005

Complete report can be viewed and downloaded at http://​fnic.​nal.​usda.​gov/​dietary-guidance/​dietary-reference-intakes/​dri-reports

A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes for energy carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2005

PAL = Physical activity level or physical activity index

PA = Physical activity coefficient

EER = Estimated energy requirement

27.5 Future Directions

Recommendations for energy expenditure used by exercise physiologists incorporate a thermic constant in exercise physiology. One of the most commonly used thermic constants of exercise physiology is the MET [6]. TEE can be estimated after quantifying daily common activities (sleeping, home activities, etc.) and multiplying by a specific MET-activity value (see an example in the case study at end of the chapter). MET-activity values can also be found in Table 27.2 and Appendix 1. You can also find the compendium and modified versions of the compendium at https://​sites.​google.​com/​site/​compendiumofphys​icalactivities/​. A noteworthy comment about the compendium taken directly from their Web site is as follows:

When using the Compendium to estimate the energy cost of activities, investigators should remind participants to recall only the time spent in movement. The Compendium was not developed to determine the precise energy cost of physical activity within individuals, but rather to provide a classification system that standardizes the MET intensities of physical activities used in survey research. The values in the Compendium do not estimate the energy cost of physical activity in individuals in ways that account for differences in body mass, adiposity, age, sex, efficiency of movement, geographic and environmental conditions in which the activities are performed. Thus, individual differences in energy expenditure for the same activity can be large and the true energy cost for an individual may or may not be close to the stated mean MET level as presented in the Compendium [7].

When estimating energy requirements using the compendium, individuals must take into account factors that affect the RMR as well as a concept called adaptive thermogenesis. In the information that ensues, these factors are discussed as well as a relatively new concept called the non-exercise activity thermogenesis. Formulas and examples of how to estimate energy using the compendium are also presented.

27.5.1 Resting Metabolic Rate and Adaptive Thermogenesis

RMR represents at least 60 % of TEE [31]. Measurements of RMR have been performed extensively on animals and humans using traditional calorimeters [32]. Several definitions of RMR have been reported in animals [4] and humans [33]. As discussed in this chapter equations to estimate RMR are in widespread use. Since the first models created by Harris and Benedict [23] several equations have been created using anthropometric variables [34], body composition models [35], or VO2max [36] as predictors of RMR. Nevertheless, FFM continue to be the most important predictor in large heterogeneous samples [37].

FFM is composed of skeletal muscle mass, bone, internal organs, and residual mass, and each one has specific metabolic rates [38]. The latter presents a high variability between subjects with different height, age, and weight body [39]. Indeed, one kg of FFM must have a different RMR between individuals with the same FFM but different height, age, or gender [40], and particularly in obese adults [39]. Moreover, FFM has not been reported to be the principal determinant of RMR in overweight in obese women [41]. In order to resolve this conundrum, new models, which estimate individual masses of internal organs and tissues, have been developed to apply specific-organ metabolic rates to predict RMR [37], whereas older equations, which used anthropometric and two-compartment body composition models, have shown poor validity in predicting RMR in several populations, mainly among overweight and obese people [283439]. Since 1918, when Harris and Benedict proposed their classical equation to estimate RMR [23], new models have been developed to estimate RMR, some of them specific for women, ages, and ethnics. Although body composition-based equations should be the best approach, we propose several solutions for different assessment context (see Table 27.6)

Table 27.6

Equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women using body composition variables as paradigm

Author

Equation (kcal/day)

Schofield [34]a

<3 years: RMR = 16.252 W + 1,023.2 H − 413.5

310 years: RMR = 16.969 W + 161.8 H + 371.2

1018 years: RMR = 8.365 W + 465.6 H + 200.0

1830 years: RMR = 13.623 W + 283.0 H + 98.2

3065 years: RMR = 8.126 W + 1.43 H + 843.7

>65 years: RMR = 7.887 W + 458.2 H − 17.7

Arciero et al. [36]

RMR = 13.7 FFM + 3.3 FM + 74 VO2max − 50 + 596

Smith et al. [63]

RMR = 3.39 FFM + 0.45 VO2max + 77.41 (kJ/dia)b

Wang et al. [35]

RMR = 24.6 FFM + 175

Bosy-Westphal et al. [64]c

%FM between >10 and 30: RMR = 11.8 FFM + 14.4 FM + 629.2

%FM between >30 and 40: RMR = 5.5 FFM + 19.3 FM + 926.3

%FM between >40 and 50: RMR = 12.0 FFM + 10.4 FM + 886

%FM >50: RMR = 11.5 FFM + 7.1 FM + 1,097.2

W weight (kg), H height (m), FFM fat free mass (kg), FM fat mass (%), VO2max maximal oxygen uptake (L min−1)

aA specific model for each person must be selected after classifying women inside of age grade

bTo convert kJ to kcal, divide by 4.18

cA specific model for each person must be selected after classifying women inside of %FM grade

27.5.1.1 Adaptive Thermogenesis

Equations developed to estimate RMR have been validated from cross-sectional studies, so those must not always fit to apply in longitudinal interventions, where qualitative and quantitative changes of FFM may result. Alterations in all components of energy expenditure may occurs following weight loss programs with either energy restriction alone, exercise alone or a combination of both [42]. When these alterations are above or below the predictions we can say that an “adaptive thermogenesis” (AT) has occurred. The operational definition of adaptive thermogenesis is: “heat production in response to environmental temperature or diet, and serves the purpose of protecting the organism from cold exposure or regulating energy balance after changes in diet.” [43] Adaptive thermogenesis has been considered to be the result of adaptation to diet and temperature. Adaptive thermogenesis is thought to occur principally in human brown adipose tissue. Since studies have shown that exercise training can modify the energy efficiency of skeletal muscle mass [44], it may be possible that exercise training promotes adaptive thermogenesis in skeletal muscle. While brown adipose tissue is scarce in adult humans, we cannot completely forget the contribution of skeletal muscle to adaptive thermogenesis. Even, the influence of brown adipose tissue deposits have recently been effectively demonstrated in humans also [45]. So greater brown adipose tissue content is related to higher RMR [46], which may have important implications for energy expenditure regulation [47].

Although by definition AT is a concept principally related to RMR, AT could also affect other components of TDEE. Thus, the term “improved energy efficiency” (reduction of the ratio; kJ or kcal of work output/kJ or kcal of internal work) has been coined in the past to explain the phenomenon of reduced EE after physical activity or exercise interventions. However, changes in energy efficiency are conceptually different to the changes of adaptive thermogenesis [see (27.1)].

In this chapter, we only use the term “adaptive thermogenesis” in connection with RMR; even though reductions in walking EE after exercise training may be a form of adaptive thermogenesis. Considering previous paragraphs, AT can be result of increased or decreased EE. Herein, our interest is focused on suppressed adaptive thermogenesis. The importance of adaptive thermogenesis has generated some controversies in the field of the physiology of energy expenditure regulation. Some authors have postulated that alterations on RMR are explained by changes on FFM [42]; moreover, some have proposed that after exercise training RMR is conserved [48]. Since that the concept of AT is governed by reductions in RMR, which are not explained by changes on body composition [49], an AT must not be expected after exercise training, and so RMR will have not any impact on weight control [48]. On the other hand, small alterations in any component of TEE can lead to a substantial impact on daily energy balance [50], other researchers have demonstrated that AT has a clinically significant impact on TEE [47]. Furthermore, adaptive thermogenesis has been confirmed in a number of reports [51]. However, the assessment of AT is difficult and requires good experimental control, large sample size and high accuracy, as small differences can be clinically important in the long-term [50].

Traditionally, a reduction in RMR after weight loss has been associated with a parallel reduction in FFM. Nonetheless, several studies have shown that this adaptation is mostly dependent on FM [52] and distribution of FM and FFM [53], since the reductions in FFM-adjusted RMR present a close relationship either with reductions of FM and FFM after interventions with energy intake restriction [54]. Also, in several studies where exercise and diet were used, a reduction on RMR was confirmed even though FFM was conserved [55], therefore AT must trade on some component of FFM possibly skeletal muscle.

Several molecular mechanism have been suggested to explain an uncoupling between heat produced and synthesized ATP, which may be responsible for AT at skeletal muscle mass level. The proposed molecular mechanisms include: leakage of protons back across the mitochondrial inner membrane which is catalyzed by uncoupling proteins (UCPs [47]); decreased proton pumping by cytochrome oxidase by complex IV [53]; contribution of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ion leaks, and substrate cycles like protein turnover which consume ATP [43]. Considering the previous arguments the study of AT is turning into a new and exciting research area; however, the effect of exercise training has not been fully explored yet.

The estimation of AT requires the assessment of changes in RMR and body composition (FM and FFM) following interventions, and statistical procedures must be performed to create equations to estimate RMR of studied sample from data at baseline, where physiological conditions must be in steady-state. In this way, the changes in RMR can be predicted using simple linear regression models, which were created using body composition variables at baseline as independent variables (FM and FFM). AT can be calculated as proposed by Doucet et al. [56]:

 $$ \begin{array}{l} AT={\left[E{E}_{measured}-E{E}_{estimated}\right]}_{after\; intervention}\\ {}\kern1.8em -{\left[E{E}_{measured}-E{E}_{estimated}\right]}_{baseline\; vlues}\end{array} $$

(27.1)

Where, AT, adaptive thermogenesis; EE was energy expenditure either during resting; EEestimated was calculated by stepwise simple linear regression, using FFM and/or FM.

AT has also been explained using the starvation paradigm [56]; however, some questions remain unanswered. The exclusive effects of exercise or the influence of specific protocols of training remains to be determined.

27.5.2 NEAT Definition

Another concept that the reader may come across when discussing TEE is the term non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). When used in the equations to estimate TEE, NEAT is a highly variable component of TEE, ranging from about 15 % in sedentary population to >50 % in highly active people [57]. NEAT is composed of spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is included and lifestyle physical activities. So NEAT includes the energy expenditure of occupation, leisure, sitting, standing, walking, talking, toe tapping, shopping, household activities, etc. There is a close relationship between change in NEAT and fat mass gain. Since the EE of different activities which are included in NEAT can change after stimuli such as overfeeding or exercise, a theory whereby an improved energetic efficiency after weight loss interventions has been postulated [57], and several neuroendocrine mechanisms have been described to track this resistance to loss fat and weight [5859].

Although the concept of NEAT is interesting, its assessment requires measurement of TEE which only can be measured directly by the isotopic technique of doubly labeled water which is highly expensive to apply in large cohorts (see previous sections). Nonetheless, changes estimations of NEAT it would be performed using some devices as accelerometers or pedometers.

Physical activity recalls and pedometer can also be used to perform estimations of NEAT assuming the next paradigm:

·               EEPA = ExEE + MVEE + NEAT.

·               ExEE = EE from exercise training physical activities.

·               MVEE = physical activities which are performed commonly all days, as a job or compulsory transportation, but with moderate/vigorous EE.

Now, we need to quantify total daily movement (using a well-calibrated pedometer) and how we used it. Additionally, a record of ExEE and MVEE hours must be carried out, also steps during both need to be registered. So an estimation of NEAT change can be obtained from the difference between total daily movement (steps) and ExEE + MVEE (steps). A similar approach could be done using accelerometers although more expertise is needed to manage the data.

On the other hand, NEAT can be calculated by a tight recall of daily activities to calculated TDEE, afterwards the EE of EEPA components can be obtained in order to estimate NEAT (see case study).

27.5.3 Estimating TEE Using the Compendium of PA

When estimating TEE using these steps, the reader can use the MET values from Table 27.2 or can refer to Appendix 1 for a more detailed list. The MET values listed are from the Compendium of Physical Activities which can be found in Appendix 1 or at https://​sites.​google.​com/​site/​compendiumofphys​icalactivities/​.

27.5.3.1 Estimating TEE: A Case Study

Alice is a 37-year-old woman, weight 64 kg, 12 % of fat mass (FM). She wants to know what is her TEE and PAL, in order to know if her TEE is enough to maintain the energy balance. Using a recall of one typical day. Calculate total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) of a woman who does not perform any exercise training. Follow the next steps of our example:

·               First step. Calculate RMR/24 h = kcal/h.

·               Second step. To count hours sleeping.

·               Third step. To count hours sitting. Check different activities.

·               Fourth step. To count hours with house activities.

·               Fifth step. To count hours with physical activities.

Note: The sum of total Hours must be equal to 24 h (Table 27.7).

Table 27.7

Summary of daily activities from the case study

Hours

Code

kcal

24

PA

450 kcal/day

23

PA

22

PA

21

HA

563 kcal/day

20

HA

19

HA

18

ST

1,418 kcal/day

17

ST

16

ST

15

ST

14

ST

13

ST

12

ST

11

ST

10

ST

9

ST

8

ST

7

ST

6

ST

5

S

328 kcal/day

4

S

3

S

2

S

1

S

S sleeping, ST sitting, HA home activities, PA habitual physical activity

·               First step. To calculate RMR by hour (it will be useful in order to calculate EE of sleeping):

o               RMR (kcal/day) = 24.6 × FFM + 175.

o               FFM = BW − (%FM × BW).

o               FFM = 75 − (0.12 × 75) = 75 − (9) = 64 kg.

o               RMR = 24.6 × (64 kg) + 175 = 1,749 kcal/day.

o               RMR (kcal/h) = 1,749/24 = 72.9 kcal/h.

·               Second step. EE of sleeping:

1.

2.

3.

Total EE of sleeping = 65.6 × 5 = 328 kcal/day.

·               Third step. EE of sitting hours:

1.

2.

3.

Total = 13 h/day.

o               Use the compendium of PA METs in Appendix 1 to calculate EE:

1.

2.

3.

o               Calculations:  $$ \begin{array}{l} General\; Equation: EE= Hours\times METs\kern0.24em \left( kcal/ kg/ hr\right)\kern0.24em \\ {}\kern7.08em \times BW\left( body\; weight\right)\end{array} $$

1.

2.

3.

Total daily EE of sitting hours = 1,418 kcal/day.

·               Fourth step. EE of home activities:

1.

2.

3.

Total = 3 h/day.

o               Use the compendium of PA METs in Appendix 1 to calculate EE:

1.

2.

3.

o               Calculations:

1.

2.

3.

Total Daily EE of Home activities = 563 kcal/day.

·               Fifth step. EE of other physical, leisure, or transportation activities:

1.

2.

3.

Total = 3 h/day.

o               Use the compendium of PA METs in Appendix 1 to calculate EE:

1.

2.

3.

o               Calculations:

1.

2.

3.

Total Daily EE of PA or transportation = 450 kcal/day.

·               Sixth step. TEE and PAL Calculations:

Final results  $$ \begin{array}{l} TEE=2759 kcal/ day\;\\ {} PAL=2759\left( kcal/ day\right)/1749\Big( kcal/ day\Big)=1.5\end{array} $$

As suggested in the literature her PAL is equivalent with a sedentary lifestyle, moreover in order to prevent herself from weight gain, a minimum PAL of 1.70 has been reported (Table 27.8) [60].

Table 27.8

Table of physical activity levels

Classification

PAL range

Sedentary or light active lifestyle

1.40–1.69

Active or moderately active lifestyle

1.70–1.99

Highly active lifestyle

2.00–2.40

Adapted from FAO/WHO/UNU 2001. Human energy requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation Rome, 17–24 October 2001

27.5.4 Estimating NEAT

27.5.5 NEAT Estimation

Components of PAEE:

·               EEPA = ExEE + MVEE + NEAT

·               NEAT = EEPA − (ExEE + MVEE)

Where:

·               ExEE = 0 kcal/day (she does not perform any exercise training).

·               MVEE = 0 kcal/day (she is not involved at moderate or vigorous physical activity, which is mandatory).

·               NEAT = 1,418 kcal/day (sitting activities) + 563 kcal/day (home activities) ± 450 kcal/day (other activities) = 2,431 kcal/day.

Since MET units include RMR we need to subtract the latter factor in order to obtain the final net EEPA. All together NEAT physical activities lasted 13 h, and RMR was 72.9 kcal/h. So we need to multiply 13 h × 72.9 kcal/h in order to calculate kcal that were expended for resting during NEAT activities, which were 948 kcal. So final net NEAT was 1,483 kcal during a day.

 $$\fbox{ $\begin{array}{l} \text{Final} \,\text{NEAT}\, \text{Results}\, 2,431\, \text{kcal/day} -948 \,\text{kcal/day}=1,483\,\text{kcal/day}\end{array} $}$$

27.6 Concluding Remarks

The equations presented in this chapter should only be used as a guide to promote optimal energy balance; the individual should be monitored closely to adjust caloric intake based on target goals and changes in body mass. As in all prediction equations, standard errors are inherent [242861]. Most of the equations have been developed to maintain current body weight for the participant’s current activity level; these equations have not been developed to promote weight loss.

The equations discussed in this chapter should be used only as a guide in maintaining energy balance. Even though numerous energy prediction equations to promote energy balance are widely cited in the literature, there are limitations in the use of these equations. Prediction errors are inherent when using any estimated equations. Further validation studies of predictive equations are needed to minimize prediction error in certain age and ethnic groups. Older adults and US residing ethnic minorities have been underrepresented both in the development of predictive equations and in validation studies [28].

Another methodological problem in measuring energy balance, in particular energy intake, is the phenomena of subjects reporting lower energy intake than physiologically required, noted as underreporting. Under reporting of energy intake is expressed as a ratio of reported energy intake to estimated BMR [61]. Underreporting is especially problematic in the obese, but also occurs in the relatively lean population also [62].

A clinical decision of whether an accurate metabolic rate by measurement is required to provide nutritional care and counseling should be made on a case-by-case basis. If the target goals are not being met, the client should be monitored closely utilizing any dietary intake records, energy expenditure logs, and physiological measurements of body mass and or weight change. Indirect calorimetry may be an important tool when, in the judgment of the clinician, the predictive methods fail an individual in a clinically relevant way [15].

Appendix 1: 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities

Code

METs

Major heading

Specific activities

01003

14.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, mountain, uphill, vigorous

01004

16.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, mountain, competitive, racing

01008

8.5

Bicycling

Bicycling, BMX

01009

8.5

Bicycling

Bicycling, mountain, general

01010

4.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, <10 mph, leisure, to work or for pleasure (Taylor Code 115)

01011

6.8

Bicycling

Bicycling, to/from work, self selected pace

01013

5.8

Bicycling

Bicycling, on dirt or farm road, moderate pace

01015

7.5

Bicycling

Bicycling, general

01018

3.5

Bicycling

Bicycling, leisure, 5.5 mph

01019

5.8

Bicycling

Bicycling, leisure, 9.4 mph

01020

6.8

Bicycling

Bicycling, 10–11.9 mph, leisure, slow, light effort

01030

8.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, 12–13.9 mph, leisure, moderate effort

01040

10.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, 14–15.9 mph, racing or leisure, fast, vigorous effort

01050

12.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, 16–19 mph, racing/not drafting or >19 mph drafting, very fast, racing general

01060

15.8

Bicycling

Bicycling, >20 mph, racing, not drafting

01065

8.5

Bicycling

Bicycling, 12 mph, seated, hands on brake hoods or bar drops, 80 rpm

01066

9.0

Bicycling

Bicycling, 12 mph, standing, hands on brake hoods, 60 rpm

01070

5.0

Bicycling

Unicycling

02001

2.3

Conditioning exercise

Activity promoting video game (e.g., Wii Fit), light effort (e.g., balance, yoga)

02003

3.8

Conditioning exercise

Activity promoting video game (e.g., Wii Fit), moderate effort (e.g., aerobic, resistance)

02005

7.2

Conditioning exercise

Activity promoting video/arcade game (e.g., Exergaming, Dance Dance Revolution), vigorous effort

02008

5.0

Conditioning exercise

Army-type obstacle course exercise, boot camp training program

02010

7.0

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, general

02011

3.5

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, 30–50 W, very light to light effort

02012

6.8

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, 90–100 W, moderate to vigorous effort

02013

8.8

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, 101–160 W, vigorous effort

02014

11.0

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, 161–200 W, vigorous effort

02015

14.0

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, 201–270 W, very vigorous effort

02017

4.8

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, 51–89 W, light-to-moderate effort

02019

8.5

Conditioning exercise

Bicycling, stationary, RPM/Spin bike class

02020

8.0

Conditioning exercise

Calisthenics (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, jumping jacks), vigorous effort

02022

3.8

Conditioning exercise

Calisthenics (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, lunges), moderate effort

02024

2.8

Conditioning exercise

Calisthenics (e.g., sit-ups, abdominal crunches), light effort

02030

3.5

Conditioning exercise

Calisthenics, light or moderate effort, general (e.g., back exercises), going up and down from floor (Taylor Code 150)

02035

4.3

Conditioning exercise

Circuit training, moderate effort

02040

8.0

Conditioning exercise

Circuit training, including kettle bells, some aerobic movement with minimal rest, general, vigorous intensity

02045

3.5

Conditioning exercise

Curves TM exercise routines in women

02048

5.0

Conditioning exercise

Elliptical trainer, moderate effort

02050

6.0

Conditioning exercise

Resistance training (weightlifting, free weight, nautilus or universal), power lifting or body building, vigorous effort (Taylor Code 210)

02052

5.0

Conditioning exercise

Resistance (weight) training, squats, slow or explosive effort

02054

3.5

Conditioning exercise

Resistance (weight) training, multiple exercises, 8–15 repetitions at varied resistance

02060

5.5

Conditioning exercise

Health club exercise, general (Taylor Code 160)

02061

5.0

Conditioning exercise

Health club exercise classes, general, gym/weight training combined in one visit

02062

7.8

Conditioning exercise

Health club exercise, conditioning classes

02064

3.8

Conditioning exercise

Home exercise, general

02065

9.0

Conditioning exercise

Stair-treadmill ergometer, general

02068

12.3

Conditioning exercise

Rope skipping, general

02070

6.0

Conditioning exercise

Rowing, stationary ergometer, general, vigorous effort

02071

4.8

Conditioning exercise

Rowing, stationary, general, moderate effort

02072

7.0

Conditioning exercise

Rowing, stationary, 100 W, moderate effort

02073

8.5

Conditioning exercise

Rowing, stationary, 150 W, vigorous effort

02074

12.0

Conditioning exercise

Rowing, stationary, 200 W, very vigorous effort

02080

6.8

Conditioning exercise

Ski machine, general

02085

11.0

Conditioning exercise

Slide board exercise, general

02090

6.0

Conditioning exercise

Slimnastics, jazzercise

02101

2.3

Conditioning exercise

Stretching, mild

02105

3.0

Conditioning exercise

Pilates, general

02110

6.8

Conditioning exercise

Teaching exercise class (e.g., aerobic, water)

02112

2.8

Conditioning exercise

Therapeutic exercise ball, Fit ball exercise

02115

2.8

Conditioning exercise

Upper body exercise, arm ergometer

02117

4.3

Conditioning exercise

Upper body exercise, Stationary bicycle—Air dyne (arms only) 40 rpm, moderate

02120

5.3

Conditioning exercise

Water aerobics, water calisthenics, water exercise

02135

1.3

Conditioning exercise

Whirlpool, sitting

02140

2.3

Conditioning exercise

Video exercise workouts, TV conditioning programs (e.g., yoga, stretching), light effort

02143

4.0

Conditioning exercise

Video exercise workouts, TV conditioning programs (e.g., cardio-resistance), moderate effort

02146

6.0

Conditioning exercise

Video exercise workouts, TV conditioning programs (e.g., cardio-resistance), vigorous effort

02150

2.5

Conditioning exercise

Yoga, Hatha

02160

4.0

Conditioning exercise

Yoga, Power

02170

2.0

Conditioning exercise

Yoga, Nadi sodhana

02180

3.3

Conditioning exercise

Yoga, Surya Namaskar

02200

5.3

Conditioning exercise

Native New Zealander physical activities (e.g., Haka Powhiri, Moteatea, Waiata Tira, Whakawatea), general, moderate effort

02205

6.8

Conditioning exercise

Native New Zealander physical activities (e.g., Haka, Taiahab), general, vigorous effort

03010

5.0

Dancing

Ballet, modern, or jazz, general, rehearsal or class

03012

6.8

Dancing

Ballet, modern, or jazz, performance, vigorous effort

03014

4.8

Dancing

Tap

03015

7.3

Dancing

Aerobic, general

03016

7.5

Dancing

Aerobic, step, with 6–8 in. step

03017

9.5

Dancing

Aerobic, step, with 10–12 in. step

03018

5.5

Dancing

Aerobic, step, with 4-in. step

03019

8.5

Dancing

Bench step class, general

03020

5.0

Dancing

Aerobic, low impact

03021

7.3

Dancing

Aerobic, high impact

03022

10.0

Dancing

Aerobic dance wearing 10–15 lb weights

03025

4.5

Dancing

Ethnic or cultural dancing (e.g., Greek, Middle Eastern, hula, salsa, merengue, bomba y plena, flamenco, belly, and swing)

03030

5.5

Dancing

Ballroom, fast (Taylor Code 125)

03031

7.8

Dancing

General dancing (e.g., disco, folk, Irish step dancing, line dancing, polka, contra, country)

03038

11.3

Dancing

Ballroom dancing, competitive, general

03040

3.0

Dancing

Ballroom, slow (e.g., waltz, foxtrot, slow dancing, samba, tango, nineteenth century dance, mambo, cha-cha)

03050

5.5

Dancing

Anishinaabe Jingle Dancing

03060

3.5

Dancing

Caribbean dance (Abakua, Beguine, Bellair, Bongo, Brukin’s, Caribbean Quadrills, Dinki Mini, Gere, Gumbay, Ibo, Jonkonnu, Kumina, Oreisha, Jambu)

04001

3.5

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, general

04005

4.5

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, crab fishing

04007

4.0

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, catching fish with hands

04010

4.3

Fishing and hunting

Fishing related, digging worms, with shovel

04020

4.0

Fishing and hunting

Fishing from river bank and walking

04030

2.0

Fishing and hunting

Fishing from boat or canoe, sitting

04040

3.5

Fishing and hunting

Fishing from river bank, standing (Taylor Code 660)

04050

6.0

Fishing and hunting

Fishing in stream, in waders (Taylor Code 670)

04060

2.0

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, ice, sitting

04061

1.8

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, jog or line, standing, general

04062

3.5

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, dip net, setting net and retrieving fish, general

04063

3.8

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, set net, setting net and retrieving fish, general

04064

3.0

Fishing and hunting

Fishing, fishing wheel, setting net and retrieving fish, general

04065

2.3

Fishing and hunting

Fishing with a spear, standing

04070

2.5

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, bow and arrow, or crossbow

04080

6.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, deer, elk, large game (Taylor Code 170)

04081

11.3

Fishing and hunting

Hunting large game, dragging carcass

04083

4.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting large marine animals

04085

2.5

Fishing and hunting

Hunting large game, from a hunting stand, limited walking

04086

2.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting large game from a car, plane, or boat

04090

2.5

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, duck, wading

04095

3.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, flying fox, squirrel

04100

5.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, general

04110

6.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, pheasants or grouse (Taylor Code 680)

04115

3.3

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, birds

04120

5.0

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, rabbit, squirrel, prairie chick, raccoon, small game (Taylor Code 690)

04123

3.3

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, pigs, wild

04124

2.0

Fishing and hunting

Trapping game, general

04125

9.5

Fishing and hunting

Hunting, hiking with hunting gear

04130

2.5

Fishing and hunting

Pistol shooting or trap shooting, standing

04140

2.3

Fishing and hunting

Rifle exercises, shooting, lying down

04145

2.5

Fishing and hunting

Rifle exercises, shooting, kneeling or standing

05010

3.3

Home activities

Cleaning, sweeping carpet or floors, general

05011

2.3

Home activities

Cleaning, sweeping, slow, light effort

05012

3.8

Home activities

Cleaning, sweeping, slow, moderate effort

05020

3.5

Home activities

Cleaning, heavy or major (e.g., wash car, wash windows, clean garage), moderate effort

05021

3.5

Home activities

Cleaning, mopping, standing, moderate effort

05022

3.2

Home activities

Cleaning windows, washing windows, general

05023

2.5

Home activities

Mopping, standing, light effort

05024

4.5

Home activities

Polishing floors, standing, walking slowly, using electric polishing machine

05025

2.8

Home activities

Multiple household tasks all at once, light effort

05026

3.5

Home activities

Multiple household tasks all at once, moderate effort

05027

4.3

Home activities

Multiple household tasks all at once, vigorous effort

05030

3.3

Home activities

Cleaning, house or cabin, general, moderate effort

05032

2.3

Home activities

Dusting or polishing furniture, general

05035

3.3

Home activities

Kitchen activity, general (e.g., cooking, washing dishes, cleaning up), moderate effort

05040

2.5

Home activities

Cleaning, general (straightening up, changing linen, carrying out trash), light effort

05041

1.8

Home activities

Wash dishes, standing or in general (not broken into stand/walk components)

05042

2.5

Home activities

Wash dishes, clearing dishes from table, walking, light effort

05043

3.3

Home activities

Vacuuming, general, moderate effort

05044

3.0

Home activities

Butchering animals, small

05045

6.0

Home activities

Butchering animal, large, vigorous effort

05046

2.3

Home activities

Cutting and smoking fish, drying fish or meat

05048

4.0

Home activities

Tanning hides, general

05049

3.5

Home activities

Cooking or food preparation, moderate effort

05050

2.0

Home activities

Cooking or food preparation—standing or sitting or in general (not broken into stand/walk components), manual appliances, light effort

05051

2.5

Home activities

Serving food, setting table, implied walking or standing

05052

2.5

Home activities

Cooking or food preparation, walking

05053

2.5

Home activities

Feeding household animals

05055

2.5

Home activities

Putting away groceries (e.g., carrying groceries, shopping without a grocery cart), carrying packages

05056

7.5

Home activities

Carrying groceries upstairs

05057

3.0

Home activities

Cooking Indian bread on an outside stove

05060

2.3

Home activities

Food shopping with or without a grocery cart, standing or walking

05065

2.3

Home activities

Non-food shopping, with or without a cart, standing or walking

05070

1.8

Home activities

Ironing

05080

1.3

Home activities

Knitting, sewing, light effort, wrapping presents, sitting

05082

2.8

Home activities

Sewing with a machine

05090

2.0

Home activities

Laundry, fold or hang clothes, put clothes in washer or dryer, packing suitcase, washing clothes by hand, implied standing, light effort

05092

4.0

Home activities

Laundry, hanging wash, washing clothes by hand, moderate effort

05095

2.3

Home activities

Laundry, putting away clothes, gathering clothes to pack, putting away laundry, implied walking

05100

3.3

Home activities

Making bed, changing linens

05110

5.0

Home activities

Maple syruping/sugar bushing (including carrying buckets, carrying wood)

05120

5.8

Home activities

Moving furniture, household items, carrying boxes

05121

5.0

Home activities

Moving, lifting light loads

05125

4.8

Home activities

Organizing room

05130

3.5

Home activities

Scrubbing floors, on hands and knees, scrubbing bathroom, bathtub, moderate effort

05131

2.0

Home activities

Scrubbing floors, on hands and knees, scrubbing bathroom, bathtub, light effort

05132

6.5

Home activities

Scrubbing floors, on hands and knees, scrubbing bathroom, bathtub, vigorous effort

05140

4.0

Home activities

Sweeping garage, side walk or outside of house

05146

3.5

Home activities

Standing, packing/unpacking boxes, occasional lifting of light weight household items, loading or unloading items in car, moderate effort

05147

3.0

Home activities

Implied walking, putting away household items, moderate effort

05148

2.5

Home activities

Watering plants

05149

2.5

Home activities

Building a fire inside

05150

9.0

Home activities

Moving household items upstairs, carrying boxes or furniture

05160

2.0

Home activities

Standing, light effort tasks (pump gas, change light bulb, etc.)

05165

3.5

Home activities

Walking, moderate effort tasks, non-cleaning (readying to leave, shut/lock doors, close windows, etc.)

05170

2.2

Home activities

Sitting, playing with child(ren), light effort, only active periods

05171

2.8

Home activities

Standing, playing with child(ren) light effort, only active periods

05175

3.5

Home activities

Walking/running, playing with child(ren), moderate effort, only active periods

05180

5.8

Home activities

Walking/running, playing with child(ren), vigorous effort, only active periods

05181

3.0

Home activities

Walking and carrying small child, child weighing 15 lb or more

05182

2.3

Home activities

Walking and carrying small child, child weighing less than 15 lb

05183

2.0

Home activities

Standing, holding child

05184

2.5

Home activities

Child care, infant, general

05185

2.0

Home activities

Child care, sitting/kneeling (e.g., dressing, bathing, grooming, feeding, occasional lifting of child), light effort, general

05186

3.0

Home activities

Child care, standing (e.g., dressing, bathing, grooming, feeding, occasional lifting of child), moderate effort

05188

1.5

Home activities

Reclining with baby

05189

2.0

Home activities

Breastfeeding, sitting or reclining

05190

2.5

Home activities

Sit, playing with animals, light effort, only active periods

05191

2.8

Home activities

Stand, playing with animals, light effort, only active periods

05192

3.0

Home activities

Walk/run, playing with animals, general, light effort, only active periods

05193

4.0

Home activities

Walk/run, playing with animals, moderate effort, only active periods

05194

5.0

Home activities

Walk/run, playing with animals, vigorous effort, only active periods

05195

3.5

Home activities

Standing, bathing dog

05197

2.3

Home activities

Animal care, household animals, general

05200

4.0

Home activities

Elder care, disabled adult, bathing, dressing, moving into and out of bed, only active periods

05205

2.3

Home activities

Elder care, disabled adult, feeding, combing hair, light effort, only active periods

06010

3.0

Home repair

Airplane repair

06020

4.0

Home repair

Automobile body work

06030

3.3

Home repair

Automobile repair, light or moderate effort

06040

3.0

Home repair

Carpentry, general, workshop (Taylor Code 620)

06050

6.0

Home repair

Carpentry, outside house, installing rain gutters (Taylor Code 640), carpentry, outside house, building a fence

06052

3.8

Home repair

Carpentry, outside house, building a fence

06060

3.3

Home repair

Carpentry, finishing or refinishing cabinets or furniture

06070

6.0

Home repair

Carpentry, sawing hardwood

06072

4.0

Home repair

Carpentry, home remodeling tasks, moderate effort

06074

2.3

Home repair

Carpentry, home remodeling tasks, light effort

06080

5.0

Home repair

Caulking, chinking log cabin

06090

4.5

Home repair

Caulking, except log cabin

06100

5.0

Home repair

Cleaning gutters

06110

5.0

Home repair

Excavating garage

06120

5.0

Home repair

Hanging storm windows

06122

5.0

Home repair

Hanging sheetrock inside house

06124

3.0

Home repair

Hammering nails

06126

2.5

Home repair

Home repair, general, light effort

06127

4.5

Home repair

Home repair, general, moderate effort

06128

6.0

Home repair

Home repair, general, vigorous effort

06130

4.5

Home repair

Laying or removing carpet

06140

3.8

Home repair

Laying tile or linoleum, repairing appliances

06144

3.0

Home repair

Repairing appliances

06150

5.0

Home repair

Painting, outside home (Taylor Code 650)

06160

3.3

Home repair

Painting inside house, wallpapering, scraping paint

06165

4.5

Home repair

Painting (Taylor Code 630)

06167

3.0

Home repair

Plumbing, general

06170

3.0

Home repair

Put on and removal of tarp—sailboat

06180

6.0

Home repair

Roofing

06190

4.5

Home repair

Sanding floors with a power sander

06200

4.5

Home repair

Scraping and painting sailboat or powerboat

06205

2.0

Home repair

Sharpening tools

06210

5.0

Home repair

Spreading dirt with a shovel

06220

4.5

Home repair

Washing and waxing hull of sailboat or airplane

06225

2.0

Home repair

Washing and waxing car

06230

4.5

Home repair

Washing fence, painting fence, moderate effort

06240

3.3

Home repair

Wiring, tapping-splicing

07010

1.0

Inactivity quiet/light

Lying quietly and watching television

07011

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Lying quietly, doing nothing, lying in bed awake, listening to music (not talking or reading)

07020

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting quietly and watching television

07021

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting quietly, general

07022

1.5

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting quietly, fidgeting, general, fidgeting hands

07023

1.8

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting, fidgeting feet

07024

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting, smoking

07025

1.5

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting, listening to music (not talking or reading) or watching a movie in a theater

07026

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Sitting at a desk, resting head in hands

07030

0.95

Inactivity quiet/light

Sleeping

07040

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Standing quietly, standing in a line

07041

1.8

Inactivity quiet/light

Standing, fidgeting

07050

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Reclining, writing

07060

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Reclining, talking or talking on phone

07070

1.3

Inactivity quiet/light

Reclining, reading

07075

1.0

Inactivity quiet/light

Meditating

08009

3.3

Lawn and garden

Carrying, loading or stacking wood, loading/unloading or carrying lumber, light-to-moderate effort

08010

5.5

Lawn and garden

Carrying, loading or stacking wood, loading/unloading or carrying lumber

08019

4.5

Lawn and garden

Chopping wood, splitting logs, moderate effort

08020

6.3

Lawn and garden

Chopping wood, splitting logs, vigorous effort

08025

3.5

Lawn and garden

Clearing light brush, thinning garden, moderate effort

08030

6.3

Lawn and garden

Clearing brush/land, undergrowth, or ground, hauling branches, wheelbarrow chores, vigorous effort

08040

5.0

Lawn and garden

Digging sandbox, shoveling sand

08045

3.5

Lawn and garden

Digging, spading, filling garden, composting, light-to-moderate effort

08050

5.0

Lawn and garden

Digging, spading, filling garden, compositing (Taylor Code 590)

08052

7.8

Lawn and garden

Digging, spading, filling garden, composting, vigorous effort

08055

2.8

Lawn and garden

Driving tractor

08057

8.3

Lawn and garden

Felling trees, large size

08058

5.3

Lawn and garden

Felling trees, small-medium size

08060

5.8

Lawn and garden

Gardening with heavy power tools, tilling a garden, chain saw

08065

2.3

Lawn and garden

Gardening, using containers, older adults >60 years

08070

4.0

Lawn and garden

Irrigation channels, opening and closing ports

08080

6.3

Lawn and garden

Laying crushed rock

08090

5.0

Lawn and garden

Laying sod

08095

5.5

Lawn and garden

Mowing lawn, general

08100

2.5

Lawn and garden

Mowing lawn, riding mower (Taylor Code 550)

08110

6.0

Lawn and garden

Mowing lawn, walk, hand mower (Taylor Code 570)

08120

5.0

Lawn and garden

Mowing lawn, walk, power mower, moderate or vigorous effort

08125

4.5

Lawn and garden

Mowing lawn, power mower, light or moderate effort (Taylor Code 590)

08130

2.5

Lawn and garden

Operating snow blower, walking

08135

2.0

Lawn and garden

Planting, potting, transplanting seedlings or plants, light effort

08140

4.3

Lawn and garden

Planting seedlings, shrub, stooping, moderate effort

08145

4.3

Lawn and garden

Planting crops or garden, stooping, moderate effort

08150

4.5

Lawn and garden

Planting trees

08160

3.8

Lawn and garden

Raking lawn or leaves, moderate effort

08165

4.0

Lawn and garden

Raking lawn (Taylor Code 600)

08170

4.0

Lawn and garden

Raking roof with snow rake

08180

3.0

Lawn and garden

Riding snow blower

08190

4.0

Lawn and garden

Sacking grass, leaves

08192

5.5

Lawn and garden

Shoveling dirt or mud

08195

5.3

Lawn and garden

Shoveling snow, by hand, moderate effort

08200

6.0

Lawn and garden

Shoveling snow, by hand (Taylor Code 610)

08202

7.5

Lawn and garden

Shoveling snow, by hand, vigorous effort

08210

4.0

Lawn and garden

Trimming shrubs or trees, manual cutter

08215

3.5

Lawn and garden

Trimming shrubs or trees, power cutter, using leaf blower, edge, moderate effort

08220

3.0

Lawn and garden

Walking, applying fertilizer or seeding a lawn, push applicator

08230

1.5

Lawn and garden

Watering lawn or garden, standing or walking

08239

3.5

Lawn and garden

Weeding, cultivating garden, light-to-moderate effort

08240

4.5

Lawn and garden

Weeding, cultivating garden (Taylor Code 580)

08241

5.0

Lawn and garden

Weeding, cultivating garden, using a hoe, moderate-to-vigorous effort

08245

3.8

Lawn and garden

Gardening, general, moderate effort

08246

3.5

Lawn and garden

Picking fruit off trees, picking fruits/vegetables, moderate effort

08248

4.5

Lawn and garden

Picking fruit off trees, gleaning fruits, picking fruits/vegetables, climbing ladder to pick fruit, vigorous effort

08250

3.3

Lawn and garden

Implied walking/standing—picking up yard, light, picking flowers or vegetables

08251

3.0

Lawn and garden

Walking, gathering gardening tools

08255

5.5

Lawn and garden

Wheelbarrow, pushing garden cart or wheelbarrow

08260

3.0

Lawn and garden

Yard work, general, light effort

08261

4.0

Lawn and garden

Yard work, general, moderate effort

08262

6.0

Lawn and garden

Yard work, general, vigorous effort

09000

1.5

Miscellaneous

Board game playing, sitting

09005

2.5

Miscellaneous

Casino gambling, standing

09010

1.5

Miscellaneous

Card playing, sitting

09013

1.5

Miscellaneous

Chess game, sitting

09015

1.5

Miscellaneous

Copying documents, standing

09020

1.8

Miscellaneous

Drawing, writing, painting, standing

09025

1.0

Miscellaneous

Laughing, sitting

09030

1.3

Miscellaneous

Sitting, reading, book, newspaper, etc.

09040

1.3

Miscellaneous

Sitting, writing, deskwork, typing

09045

1.0

Miscellaneous

Sitting, playing traditional video game, computer game

09050

1.8

Miscellaneous

Standing, talking in person, on the phone, computer, or text messaging, light effort

09055

1.5

Miscellaneous

Sitting, talking in person, on the phone, computer, or text messaging, light effort

09060

1.3

Miscellaneous

Sitting, studying, general, including reading and/or writing, light effort

09065

1.8

Miscellaneous

Sitting, in class, general, including note-taking or class discussion

09070

1.8

Miscellaneous

Standing, reading

09071

2.5

Miscellaneous

Standing, miscellaneous

09075

1.8

Miscellaneous

Sitting, arts and crafts, carving wood, weaving, spinning wool, light effort

09080

3.0

Miscellaneous

Sitting, arts and crafts, carving wood, weaving, spinning wool, moderate effort

09085

2.5

Miscellaneous

Standing, arts and crafts, sand painting, carving, weaving, light effort

09090

3.3

Miscellaneous

Standing, arts and crafts, sand painting, carving, weaving, moderate effort

09095

3.5

Miscellaneous

Standing, arts and crafts, sand painting, carving, weaving, vigorous effort

09100

1.8

Miscellaneous

Retreat/family reunion activities involving sitting, relaxing, talking, eating

09101

3.0

Miscellaneous

Retreat/family reunion activities involving playing games with children

09105

2.0

Miscellaneous

Touring/traveling/vacation involving riding in a vehicle

09106

3.5

Miscellaneous

Touring/traveling/vacation involving walking

09110

2.5

Miscellaneous

Camping involving standing, walking, sitting, light-to-moderate effort

09115

1.5

Miscellaneous

Sitting at a sporting event, spectator

10010

1.8

Music playing

Accordion, sitting

10020

2.3

Music playing

Cello, sitting

10030

2.3

Music playing

Conducting orchestra, standing

10035

2.5

Music playing

Double bass, standing

10040

3.8

Music playing

Drums, sitting

10045

3.0

Music playing

Drumming (e.g., bongo, conga, bembe), moderate, sitting

10050

2.0

music playing

Flute, sitting

10060

1.8

Music playing

Horn, standing

10070

2.3

Music playing

Piano, sitting

10074

2.0

Music playing

Playing musical instruments, general

10077

2.0

Music playing

Organ, sitting

10080

3.5

Music playing

Trombone, standing

10090

1.8

Music playing

Trumpet, standing

10100

2.5

Music playing

Violin, sitting

10110

1.8

Music playing

Woodwind, sitting

10120

2.0

Music playing

Guitar, classical, folk, sitting

10125

3.0

Music playing

Guitar, rock and roll band, standing

10130

4.0

Music playing

Marching band, baton twirling, walking, moderate pace, general

10131

5.5

Music playing

Marching band, playing an instrument, walking, brisk pace, general

10135

3.5

Music playing

Marching band, drum major, walking

11003

2.3

Occupation

Active workstation, treadmill desk, walking

11006

3.0

Occupation

Airline flight attendant

11010

4.0

Occupation

Bakery, general, moderate effort

11015

2.0

Occupation

Bakery, light effort

11020

2.3

Occupation

Bookbinding

11030

6.0

Occupation

Building road, driving heavy machinery

11035

2.0

Occupation

Building road, directing traffic, standing

11038

2.5

Occupation

Carpentry, general, light effort

11040

4.3

Occupation

Carpentry, general, moderate effort

11042

7.0

Occupation

Carpentry, general, heavy or vigorous effort

11050

8.0

Occupation

Carrying heavy loads (e.g., bricks, tools)

11060

8.0

Occupation

Carrying moderate loads up stairs, moving boxes 25–49 lb

11070

4.0

Occupation

Chambermaid, hotel housekeeper, making bed, cleaning bathroom, pushing cart

11080

5.3

Occupation

Coalmining, drilling coal, rock

11090

5.0

Occupation

Coalmining, erecting supports

11100

5.5

Occupation

Coalmining, general

11110

6.3

Occupation

Coalmining, shoveling coal

11115

2.5

Occupation

Cook, chef

11120

4.0

Occupation

Construction, outside, remodeling, new structures (e.g., roof repair, miscellaneous)

11125

2.3

Occupation

Custodial work, light effort (e.g., cleaning sink and toilet, dusting, vacuuming, light cleaning)

11126

3.8

Occupation

Custodial work, moderate effort (e.g., electric buffer, feathering arena floors, mopping, taking out trash, vacuuming)

11128

2.0

Occupation

Driving delivery truck, taxi, shuttle bus, school bus

11130

3.3

Occupation

Electrical work (e.g., hookup wire, tapping-splicing)

11135

1.8

Occupation

Engineer (e.g., mechanical or electrical)

11145

7.8

Occupation

Farming, vigorous effort (e.g., baling hay, cleaning barn)

11146

4.8

Occupation

Farming, moderate effort (e.g., feeding animals, chasing cattle by walking and/or horseback, spreading manure, harvesting crops)

11147

2.0

Occupation

Farming, light effort (e.g., cleaning animal sheds, preparing animal feed)

11170

2.8

Occupation

Farming, driving tasks (e.g., driving tractor or harvester)

11180

3.5

Occupation

Farming, feeding small animals

11190

4.3

Occupation

Farming, feeding cattle, horses

11191

4.3

Occupation

Farming, hauling water for animals, general hauling water, farming, general hauling water

11192

4.5

Occupation

Farming, taking care of animals (e.g., grooming, brushing, shearing sheep, assisting with birthing, medical care, branding), general

11195

3.8

Occupation

Farming, rice, planting, grain milling activities

11210

3.5

Occupation

Farming, milking by hand, cleaning pails, moderate effort

11220

1.3

Occupation

Farming, milking by machine, light effort

11240

8.0

Occupation

Fire fighter, general

11244

6.8

Occupation

Fire fighter, rescue victim, automobile accident, using pike pole

11245

8.0

Occupation

Fire fighter, raising and climbing ladder with full gear, simulated fire suppression

11246

9.0

Occupation

Fire fighter, hauling hoses on ground, carrying/hoisting equipment, breaking down walls etc., wearing full gear

11247

3.5

Occupation

Fishing, commercial, light effort

11248

5.0

Occupation

Fishing, commercial, moderate effort

11249

7.0

Occupation

Fishing, commercial, vigorous effort

11250

17.5

Occupation

Forestry, ax chopping, very fast, 1.25 kg ax, 51 blows/min, extremely vigorous effort

11260

5.0

Occupation

Forestry, ax chopping, slow, 1.25 kg ax, 19 blows/min, moderate effort

11262

8.0

Occupation

Forestry, ax chopping, fast, 1.25 kg ax, 35 blows/min, vigorous effort

11264

4.5

Occupation

Forestry, moderate effort (e.g., sawing wood with power saw, weeding, hoeing)

11266

8.0

Occupation

Forestry, vigorous effort (e.g., barking, felling, or trimming trees, carrying or stacking logs, planting seeds, sawing lumber by hand)

11370

4.5

Occupation

Furriery

11375

4.0

Occupation

Garbage collector, walking, dumping bins into truck

11378

1.8

Occupation

Hairstylist (e.g., plaiting hair, manicure, make-up artist)

11380

7.3

Occupation

Horse grooming, including feeding, cleaning stalls, bathing, brushing, clipping, lunging, and exercising horses

11381

4.3

Occupation

Horse, feeding, watering, cleaning stalls, implied walking and lifting loads

11390

7.3

Occupation

Horse racing, galloping

11400

5.8

Occupation

Horse racing, trotting

11410

3.8

Occupation

Horse racing, walking

11413

3.0

Occupation

Kitchen maid

11415

4.0

Occupation

Lawn keeper, yard work, general

11418

3.3

Occupation

Laundry worker

11420

3.0

Occupation

Locksmith

11430

3.0

Occupation

Machine tooling (e.g., machining, working sheet metal, machine fitter, operating lathe, welding) light-to-moderate effort

11450

5.0

Occupation

Machine tooling, operating punch press, moderate effort

11472

1.8

Occupation

Manager, property

11475

2.8

Occupation

Manual or unskilled labor, general, light effort

11476

4.5

Occupation

Manual or unskilled labor, general, moderate effort

11477

6.5

Occupation

Manual or unskilled labor, general, vigorous effort

11480

4.3

Occupation

Masonry, concrete, moderate effort

11482

2.5

Occupation

Masonry, concrete, light effort

11485

4.0

Occupation

Massage therapist, standing

11490

7.5

Occupation

Moving, carrying or pushing heavy objects, 75 lb or more, only active time (e.g., desks, moving van work)

11495

12.0

Occupation

Skin diving or SCUBA diving as a frogman, Navy Seal

11500

2.5

Occupation

Operating heavy duty equipment, automated, not driving

11510

4.5

Occupation

Orange grove work, picking fruit

11514

3.3

Occupation

Painting, house, furniture, moderate effort

11516

3.0

Occupation

Plumbing activities

11520

2.0

Occupation

Printing, paper industry worker, standing

11525

2.5

Occupation

Police, directing traffic, standing

11526

2.5

Occupation

Police, driving a squad car, sitting

11527

1.3

Occupation

Police, riding in a squad car, sitting

11528

4.0

Occupation

Police, making an arrest, standing

11529

2.3

Occupation

Postal carrier, walking to deliver mail

11530

2.0

Occupation

Shoe repair, general

11540

7.8

Occupation

Shoveling, digging ditches

11550

8.8

Occupation

Shoveling, more than 16 lb/min, deep digging, vigorous effort

11560

5.0

Occupation

Shoveling, less than 10 lb/min, moderate effort

11570

6.5

Occupation

Shoveling, 10–15 lb/min, vigorous effort

11580

1.5

Occupation

Sitting tasks, light effort (e.g., office work, chemistry lab work, computer work, light assembly repair, watch repair, reading, deskwork)

11585

1.5

Occupation

Sitting meetings, light effort, general, and/or with talking involved (e.g., eating at a business meeting)

11590

2.5

Occupation

Sitting tasks, moderate effort (e.g., pushing heavy levers, riding mower/forklift, crane operation)

11593

2.8

Occupation

Sitting, teaching stretching or yoga, or light effort exercise class

11600

3.0

Occupation

Standing tasks, light effort (e.g., bartending, store clerk, assembling, filing, duplicating, librarian, putting up a Christmas tree, standing and talking at work, changing clothes when teaching physical education, standing)

11610

3.0

Occupation

Standing, light/moderate effort (e.g., assemble/repair heavy parts, welding, stocking parts, auto repair, standing, packing boxes, nursing patient care)

11615

4.5

Occupation

Standing, moderate effort, lifting items continuously, 10–20 lb, with limited walking or resting

11620

3.5

Occupation

Standing, moderate effort, intermittent lifting 50 lb, hitch/twisting ropes

11630

4.5

Occupation

Standing, moderate/heavy tasks (e.g., lifting more than 50 lb, masonry, painting, paper hanging)

11708

5.3

Occupation

Steel mill, moderate effort (e.g., fettling, forging, tipping molds)

11710

8.3

Occupation

Steel mill, vigorous effort (e.g., hand rolling, merchant mill rolling, removing slag, tending furnace)

11720

2.3

Occupation

Tailoring, cutting fabric

11730

2.5

Occupation

Tailoring, general

11740

1.8

Occupation

Tailoring, hand sewing

11750

2.5

Occupation

Tailoring, machine sewing

11760

3.5

Occupation

Tailoring, pressing

11763

2.0

Occupation

Tailoring, weaving, light effort (e.g., finishing operations, washing, dyeing, inspecting cloth, counting yards, paperwork)

11765

4.0

Occupation

Tailoring, weaving, moderate effort (e.g., spinning and weaving operations, delivering boxes of yam to spinners, loading of warp bean, pin winding, cone winding, warping, cloth cutting)

11766

6.5

Occupation

Truck driving, loading and unloading truck, tying down load, standing, walking and carrying heavy loads

11767

2.0

Occupation

Truck, driving delivery truck, taxi, shuttle bus, school bus

11770

1.3

Occupation

Typing, electric, manual or computer

11780

6.3

Occupation

Using heavy power tools such as pneumatic tools (e.g., jackhammers, drills)

11790

8.0

Occupation

Using heavy tools (not power) such as shovel, pick, tunnel bar, spade

11791

2.0

Occupation

Walking on job, less than 2.0 mph, very slow speed, in office or lab area

11792

3.5

Occupation

Walking on job, 3.0 mph, in office, moderate speed, not carrying anything

11793

4.3

Occupation

Walking on job, 3.5 mph, in office, brisk speed, not carrying anything

11795

3.5

Occupation

Walking on job, 2.5 mph, slow speed and carrying light objects less than 25 lb

11796

3.0

Occupation

Walking, gathering things at work, ready to leave

11797

3.8

Occupation

Walking, 2.5 mph, slows peed, carrying heavy objects more than 25 lb

11800

4.5

Occupation

Walking, 3.0 mph, moderately and carrying light objects less than 25 lb

11805

3.5

Occupation

Walking, pushing a wheelchair

11810

4.8

Occupation

Walking, 3.5 mph, briskly and carrying objects less than 25 lb

11820

5.0

Occupation

Walking or walk downstairs or standing, carrying objects about 25 to 49 lb

11830

6.5

Occupation

Walking or walk downstairs or standing, carrying objects about 50–74 lb

11840

7.5

Occupation

Walking or walk downstairs or standing, carrying objects about 75–99 lb

11850

8.5

Occupation

Walking or walk downstairs or standing, carrying objects about 100 lb or more

11870

3.0

Occupation

Working in scene shop, theater actor, backstage employee

12010

6.0

Running

Jog/walk combination (jogging component of less than 10 min) (Taylor Code 180)

12020

7.0

Running

Jogging, general

12025

8.0

Running

Jogging, in place

12027

4.5

Running

Jogging, on a mini-tramp

12029

6.0

Running

Running, 4 mph (13 min/mile)

12030

8.3

Running

Running, 5 mph (12 min/mile)

12040

9.0

Running

Running, 5.2 mph (11.5 min/mile)

12050

9.8

Running

Running, 6 mph (10 min/mile)

12060

10.5

Running

Running, 6.7 mph (9 min/mile)

12070

11.0

Running

Running, 7 mph (8.5 min/mile)

12080

11.5

Running

Running, 7.5 mph (8 min/mile)

12090

11.8

Running

Running, 8 mph (7.5 min/mile)

12100

12.3

Running

Running, 8.6 mph (7 min/mile)

12110

12.8

Running

Running, 9 mph (6.5 min/mile)

12120

14.5

Running

Running, 10 mph (6 min/mile)

12130

16.0

Running

Running, 11 mph (5.5 min/mile)

12132

19.0

Running

Running, 12 mph (5 min/mile)

12134

19.8

Running

Running, 13 mph (4.6 min/mile)

12135

23.0

Running

Running, 14 mph (4.3 min/mile)

12140

9.0

Running

Running, cross country

12150

8.0

Running

Running (Taylor code 200)

12170

15.0

Running

Running, stairs, up

12180

10.0

Running

Running, on a track, team practice

12190

8.0

Running

Running, training, pushing a wheelchair or baby carrier

12200

13.3

Running

Running, marathon

13000

2.3

Self care

Getting ready for bed, general, standing

13009

1.8

Self care

Sitting on toilet, eliminating while standing or squatting

13010

1.5

Self care

Bathing, sitting

13020

2.5

Self care

Dressing, undressing, standing or sitting

13030

1.5

Self care

Eating, sitting

13035

2.0

Self care

Talking and eating or eating only, standing

13036

1.5

Self care

Taking medication, sitting or standing

13040

2.0

Self care

Grooming, washing hands, shaving, brushing teeth, putting on make-up, sitting or standing

13045

2.5

Self care

Hairstyling, standing

13046

1.3

Self care

having Hair or nails done by someone else, sitting

13050

2.0

Self care

Showering, toweling off, standing

14010

2.8

Sexual activity

Active, vigorous effort

14020

1.8

Sexual activity

General, moderate effort

14030

1.3

Sexual activity

Passive, light effort, kissing, hugging

15000

5.5

Sports

Alaska Native Games, Eskimo Olympics, general

15010

4.3

Sports

Archery, non-hunting

15020

7.0

Sports

Badminton, competitive (Taylor Code 450)

15030

5.5

Sports

Badminton, social singles and doubles, general

15040

8.0

Sports

Basketball, game (Taylor Code 490)

15050

6.0

Sports

Basketball, non-game, general (Taylor Code 480)

15055

6.5

Sports

Basketball, general

15060

7.0

Sports

Basketball, officiating (Taylor Code 500)

15070

4.5

Sports

Basketball, shooting baskets

15072

9.3

Sports

Basketball, drills, practice

15075

7.8

Sports

Basketball, wheelchair

15080

2.5

Sports

Billiards

15090

3.0

Sports

Bowling (Taylor Code 390)

15092

3.8

Sports

Bowling, indoor, bowling alley

15100

12.8

Sports

Boxing, in ring, general

15110

5.5

Sports

Boxing, punching bag

15120

7.8

Sports

Boxing, sparring

15130

7.0

Sports

Broomball

15135

5.8

Sports

Children’s games, adults playing (e.g., hopscotch, 4-square, dodge ball, playground apparatus, t-ball, tetherball, marbles, arcade games), moderate effort

15138

6.0

Sports

Cheerleading, gymnastic moves, competitive

15140

4.0

Sports

Coaching, football, soccer, basketball, baseball, swimming, etc.

15142

8.0

Sports

Coaching, actively playing sport with players

15150

4.8

Sports

Cricket, batting, bowling, fielding

15160

3.3

Sports

Croquet

15170

4.0

Sports

Curling

15180

2.5

Sports

Darts, wall or lawn

15190

6.0

Sports

Drag racing, pushing or driving a car

15192

8.5

Sports

Auto racing, open wheel

15200

6.0

Sports

Fencing

15210

8.0

Sports

Football, competitive

15230

8.0

Sports

Football, touch, flag, general (Taylor Code 510)

15232

4.0

Sports

Football, touch, flag, light effort

15235

2.5

Sports

Football or baseball, playing catch

15240

3.0

Sports

Frisbee playing, general

15250

8.0

Sports

Frisbee, ultimate

15255

4.8

Sports

Golf, general

15265

4.3

Sports

Golf, walking, carrying clubs

15270

3.0

Sports

Golf, miniature, driving range

15285

5.3

Sports

Golf, walking, pulling clubs

15290

3.5

Sports

Golf, using power cart (Taylor Code 070)

15300

3.8

Sports

Gymnastics, general

15310

4.0

Sports

Hacky sack

15320

12.0

Sports

Handball, general (Taylor Code 520)

15330

8.0

Sports

Handball, team

15335

4.0

Sports

High ropes course, multiple elements

15340

3.5

Sports

Hang gliding

15350

7.8

Sports

Hockey, field

15360

8.0

Sports

Hockey, ice, general

15362

10.0

Sports

Hockey, ice, competitive

15370

5.5

Sports

Horseback riding, general

15375

4.3

Sports

Horse chores, feeding, watering, cleaning stalls, implied walking and lifting loads

15380

4.5

Sports

Saddling, cleaning, grooming, harnessing and unharnessing horse

15390

5.8

Sports

Horseback riding, trotting

15395

7.3

Sports

Horseback riding, canter or gallop

15400

3.8

Sports

Horseback riding, walking

15402

9.0

Sports

Horseback riding, jumping

15408

1.8

Sports

Horse cart, driving, standing or sitting

15410

3.0

Sports

Horseshoe pitching, quoits

15420

12.0

Sports

Jai alai

15425

5.3

Sports

Martial arts, different types, slower pace, novice performers, practice

15430

10.3

Sports

Martial arts, different types, moderate pace (e.g., judo, jujitsu, karate, kickboxing, taekwondo, Tae Bo, Muay Thai boxing)

15440

4.0

Sports

Juggling

15450

7.0

Sports

Kickball

15460

8.0

Sports

Lacrosse

15465

3.3

Sports

Lawn bowling, bocce ball, outdoor

15470

4.0

Sports

Moto-cross, off-road motor sports, all-terrain vehicle, general

15480

9.0

Sports

Orienteering

15490

10.0

Sports

Paddleball, competitive

15500

6.0

Sports

Paddleball, casual, general (Taylor Code 460)

15510

8.0

Sports

Polo, on horseback

15520

10.0

Sports

Racquetball, competitive

15530

7.0

Sports

Racquetball, general (Taylor Code 470)

15533

8.0

Sports

Rock or mountain climbing (Taylor Code 470)(Formerly code = 17120)

15535

7.5

Sports

Rock climbing, ascending rock, high difficulty

15537

5.8

Sports

Rock climbing, ascending or traversing rock, low-to-moderate difficulty

15540

5.0

Sports

Rock climbing, rappelling

15542

4.0

Sports

Rodeo sports, general, light effort

15544

5.5

Sports

Rodeo sports, general, moderate effort

15546

7.0

Sports

Rodeo sports, general, vigorous effort

15550

12.3

Sports

Rope jumping, fast pace, 120–160 skips/min

15551

11.8

Sports

Rope jumping, moderate pace, 100–120 skips/min, general, 2 foot skip, plain bounce

15552

8.8

Sports

Rope jumping, slow pace, <100 skips/min, 2 foot skip, rhythm bounce

15560

8.3

Sports

Rugby, union, team, competitive

15562

6.3

Sports

Rugby, touch, non-competitive

15570

3.0

Sports

Shuffleboard

15580

5.0

Sports

Skateboarding, general, moderate effort

15582

6.0

Sports

Skateboarding, competitive, vigorous effort

15590

7.0

Sports

Skating, roller (Taylor Code 360)

15591

7.5

Sports

Rollerblading, in-line skating, 14.4 km/h (9.0 mph), recreational pace

15592

9.8

Sports

Rollerblading, in-line skating, 17.7 km/h (11.0 mph), moderate pace, exercise training

15593

12.3

Sports

Rollerblading, in-line skating, 21.0–21.7 km/h (13.0–13.6 mph), fast pace, exercise training

15594

14.0

Sports

Rollerblading, in-line skating, 24.0 km/h (15.0 mph), maximal effort

15600

3.5

Sports

Skydiving, base jumping, bungee jumping

15605

10.0

Sports

Soccer, competitive

15610

7.0

Sports

Soccer, casual, general (Taylor Code 540)

15620

5.0

Sports

Softball or baseball, fast or slow pitch, general (Taylor Code 440)

15625

4.0

Sports

Softball, practice

15630

4.0

Sports

Softball, officiating

15640

6.0

Sports

Softball, pitching

15645

3.3

Sports

Sports spectator, very excited, emotional, physically moving

15650

12.0

Sports

Squash (Taylor Code 530)

15652

7.3

Sports

Squash, general

15660

4.0

Sports

Table tennis, ping pong (Taylor Code 410)

15670

3.0

Sports

Tai chi, qigong, general

15672

1.5

Sports

Tai chi, qigong, sitting, light effort

15675

7.3

Sports

Tennis, general

15680

6.0

Sports

Tennis, doubles (Taylor Code 430)

15685

4.5

Sports

Tennis, doubles

15690

8.0

Sports

Tennis, singles (Taylor Code 420)

15695

5.0

Sports

Tennis, hitting balls, non-game play, moderate effort

15700

3.5

Sports

Trampoline, recreational

15702

4.5

Sports

Trampoline, competitive

15710

4.0

Sports

Volleyball (Taylor Code 400)

15711

6.0

Sports

Volleyball, competitive, in gymnasium

15720

3.0

Sports

Volleyball, non-competitive, 6–9 member team, general

15725

8.0

Sports

Volleyball, beach, in sand

15730

6.0

Sports

Wrestling (one match = 5 min)

15731

7.0

Sports

Wallyball, general

15732

4.0

Sports

Track and field (e.g., shot, discus, hammer throw)

15733

6.0

Sports

Track and field (e.g., high jump, long jump, triple jump, javelin, pole vault)

15734

10.0

Sports

Track and field (e.g., steeplechase, hurdles)

16010

2.5

Transportation

Automobile or light truck (nota semi) driving

16015

1.3

Transportation

Riding in a car or truck

16016

1.3

Transportation

Riding in a bus or train

16020

1.8

Transportation

Flying airplane or helicopter

16030

3.5

Transportation

Motor scooter, motorcycle

16035

6.3

Transportation

Pulling rickshaw

16040

6.0

Transportation

Pushing plane in and out of hangar

16050

2.5

Transportation

Truck, semi, tractor, >1 ton, or bus, driving

16060

3.5

Transportation

Walking for transportation, 2.8–3.2 mph, level, moderate pace, firm surface

17010

7.0

Walking

Backpacking (Taylor Code 050)

17012

7.8

Walking

Backpacking, hiking or organized walking with a daypack

17020

5.0

Walking

Carrying 15 lb load (e.g., suitcase), level ground or downstairs

17021

2.3

Walking

Carrying 15 lb child, slow walking

17025

8.3

Walking

Carrying load upstairs, general

17026

5.0

Walking

Carrying 1–15 lb load, upstairs

17027

6.0

Walking

Carrying 16–24 lb load, upstairs

17028

8.0

Walking

Carrying 25–49 lb load, upstairs

17029

10.0

Walking

Carrying 50–74 lb load, upstairs

17030

12.0

Walking

Carrying >74 lb load, upstairs

17031

3.5

Walking

Loading/unloading a car, implied walking

17033

6.3

Walking

Climbing hills, no load

17035

6.5

Walking

Climbing hills with 0–9 lb load

17040

7.3

Walking

Climbing hills with 10–20 lb load

17050

8.3

Walking

Climbing hills with 21–42 lb load

17060

9.0

Walking

Climbing hills with 42+ lb load

17070

3.5

Walking

Descending stairs

17080

6.0

Walking

Hiking, cross country (Taylor Code 040)

17082

5.3

Walking

Hiking or walking at a normal pace through fields and hillsides

17085

2.5

Walking

Bird watching, slow walk

17088

4.5

Walking

Marching, moderate speed, military, no pack

17090

8.0

Walking

Marching rapidly, military, no pack

17100

4.0

Walking

Pushing or pulling stroller with child or walking with children, 2.5–3.1 mph

17105

3.8

Walking

Pushing a wheelchair, non-occupational

17110

6.5

Walking

Race walking

17130

8.0

Walking

Stair climbing, using or climbing up ladder (Taylor Code 030)

17133

4.0

Walking

Stair climbing, slow pace

17134

8.8

Walking

Stair climbing, fast pace

17140

5.0

Walking

Using crutches

17150

2.0

Walking

Walking, household

17151

2.0

Walking

Walking, less than 2.0 mph, level, strolling, very slow

17152

2.8

Walking

Walking, 2.0 mph, level, slow pace, firm surface

17160

3.5

Walking

Walking for pleasure (Taylor Code 010)

17161

2.5

Walking

Walking from house to car or bus, from car or bus to go places, from car or bus to and from the worksite

17162

2.5

Walking

Walking to neighbor’s house or family’s house for social reasons

17165

3.0

Walking

Walking the dog

17170

3.0

Walking

Walking, 2.5 mph, level, firm surface

17180

3.3

Walking

Walking, 2.5 mph, downhill

17190

3.5

Walking

Walking, 2.8–3.2 mph, level, moderate pace, firm surface

17200

4.3

Walking

Walking, 3.5 mph, level, brisk, firm surface, walking for exercise

17210

5.3

Walking

Walking, 2.9–3.5 mph, uphill, 1–5 % grade

17211

8.0

Walking

Walking, 2.9–3.5 mph, uphill, 6–15 % grade

17220

5.0

Walking

Walking, 4.0 mph, level, firm surface, very brisk pace

17230

7.0

Walking

Walking, 4.5 mph, level, firm surface, very, very brisk

17231

8.3

Walking

Walking, 5.0 mph, level, firm surface

17235

9.8

Walking

Walking, 5.0 mph, uphill, 3 % grade

17250

3.5

Walking

Walking, for pleasure, work break

17260

4.8

Walking

Walking, grass track

17262

4.5

Walking

Walking, normal pace, plowed field or sand

17270

4.0

Walking

Walking, to work or class (Taylor Code 015)

17280

2.5

Walking

Walking, to and from an outhouse

17302

4.8

Walking

Walking, for exercise, 3.5–4 mph, with ski poles, Nordic walking, level, moderate pace

17305

9.5

Walking

Walking, for exercise, 5.0 mph, with ski poles, Nordic walking, level, fast pace

17310

6.8

Walking

Walking, for exercise, with ski poles, Nordic walking, uphill

17320

6.0

Walking

Walking, backwards, 3.5 mph, level

17325

8.0

Walking

Walking, backwards, 3.5 mph, uphill, 5 % grade

18010

2.5

Water activities

Boating, power, driving

18012

1.3

Water activities

Boating, power, passenger, light

18020

4.0

Water activities

Canoeing, on camping trip (Taylor Code 270)

18025

3.3

Water activities

Canoeing, harvesting wild rice, knocking rice off the stalks

18030

7.0

Water activities

Canoeing, portaging

18040

2.8

Water activities

Canoeing, rowing, 2.0–3.9 mph, light effort

18050

5.8

Water activities

Canoeing, rowing, 4.0–5.9 mph, moderate effort

18060

12.5

Water activities

Canoeing, rowing, kayaking, competition, >6 mph, vigorous effort

18070

3.5

Water activities

Canoeing, rowing, for pleasure, general (Taylor Code 250)

18080

12.0

Water activities

Canoeing, rowing, in competition, or crew or sculling (Taylor Code 260)

18090

3.0

Water activities

Diving, springboard or platform

18100

5.0

Water activities

Kayaking, moderate effort

18110

4.0

Water activities

Paddleboat

18120

3.0

Water activities

Sailing, boat and board sailing, windsurfing, ice sailing, general (Taylor Code 235)

18130

4.5

Water activities

Sailing, in competition

18140

3.3

Water activities

Sailing, Sunfish/Laser/Hobby Cat, Keelboats, ocean sailing, yachting, leisure

18150

6.0

Water activities

Skiing, water or wakeboarding (Taylor Code 220)

18160

7.0

Water activities

Jet skiing, driving, in water

18180

15.8

Water activities

Skin diving, fast

18190

11.8

Water activities

Skin diving, moderate

18200

7.0

Water activities

Skin diving, scuba diving, general (Taylor Code 310)

18210

5.0

Water activities

Snorkeling (Taylor Code 310)

18220

3.0

Water activities

Surfing, body or board, general

18222

5.0

Water activities

Surfing, body or board, competitive

18225

6.0

Water activities

Paddle boarding, standing

18230

9.8

Water activities

Swimming laps, freestyle, fast, vigorous effort

18240

5.8

Water activities

Swimming laps, freestyle, front crawl, slow, light or moderate effort

18250

9.5

Water activities

Swimming, backstroke, general, training or competition

18255

4.8

Water activities

Swimming, backstroke, recreational

18260

10.3

Water activities

Swimming, breaststroke, general, training or competition

18265

5.3

Water activities

Swimming, breaststroke, recreational

18270

13.8

Water activities

Swimming, butterfly, general

18280

10.0

Water activities

Swimming, crawl, fast speed, ~75 yards/min, vigorous effort

18290

8.3

Water activities

Swimming, crawl, medium speed, ~50 yards/min, vigorous effort

18300

6.0

Water activities

Swimming, lake, ocean, river (Taylor Codes 280, 295)

18310

6.0

Water activities

Swimming, leisurely, not lap swimming, general

18320

7.0

Water activities

Swimming, sidestroke, general

18330

8.0

Water activities

Swimming, synchronized

18340

9.8

Water activities

Swimming, treading water, fast, vigorous effort

18350

3.5

Water activities

Swimming, treading water, moderate effort, general

18352

2.3

Water activities

Tubing, floating on a river, general

18355

5.5

Water activities

Water aerobics, water calisthenics

18360

10.0

Water activities

Water polo

18365

3.0

Water activities

Water volleyball

18366

9.8

Water activities

Water jogging

18367

2.5

Water activities

Water walking, light effort, slow pace

18368

4.5

Water activities

Water walking, moderate effort, moderate pace

18369

6.8

Water activities

Water walking, vigorous effort, brisk pace

18370

5.0

Water activities

Whitewater rafting, kayaking, or canoeing

18380

5.0

Water activities

Windsurfing, not pumping for speed

18385

11.0

Water activities

Windsurfing or kite surfing, crossing trial

18390

13.5

Water activities

Windsurfing, competition, pumping for speed

19005

7.5

Winter activities

Dog sledding, mushing

19006

2.5

Winter activities

Dog sledding, passenger

19010

6.0

Winter activities

Moving ice house, set up/drill holes

19011

2.0

Winter activities

Ice fishing, sitting

19018

14.0

Winter activities

Skating, ice dancing

19020

5.5

Winter activities

Skating, ice, 9 mph or less

19030

7.0

Winter activities

Skating, ice, general (Taylor Code 360)

19040

9.0

Winter activities

Skating, ice, rapidly, more than 9 mph, not competitive

19050

13.3

Winter activities

Skating, speed, competitive

19060

7.0

Winter activities

Ski jumping, climb up carrying skis

19075

7.0

Winter activities

Skiing, general

19080

6.8

Winter activities

Skiing, cross country, 2.5 mph, slow or light effort, ski walking

19090

9.0

Winter activities

Skiing, cross country, 4.0–4.9 mph, moderate speed and effort, general

19100

12.5

Winter activities

Skiing, cross country, 5.0–7.9 mph, brisk speed, vigorous effort

19110

15.0

Winter activities

Skiing, cross country, >8.0 mph, elite skier, racing

19130

15.5

Winter activities

Skiing, cross country, hard snow, uphill, maximum, snow mountaineering

19135

13.3

Winter activities

Skiing, cross-country, skating

19140

13.5

Winter activities

Skiing, cross-country, biathlon, skating technique

19150

4.3

Winter activities

Skiing, downhill, alpine or snowboarding, light effort, active time only

19160

5.3

Winter activities

Skiing, downhill, alpine or snowboarding, moderate effort, general, active time only

19170

8.0

Winter activities

Skiing, downhill, vigorous effort, racing

19175

12.5

Winter activities

Skiing, roller, elite racers

19180

7.0

Winter activities

Sledding, tobogganing, bobsledding, luge (Taylor Code 370)

19190

5.3

Winter activities

Snowshoeing, moderate effort

19192

10.0

Winter activities

Snowshoeing, vigorous effort

19200

3.5

Winter activities

Snowmobiling, driving, moderate

19202

2.0

Winter activities

Snowmobiling, passenger

19252

5.3

Winter activities

Snow shoveling, by hand, moderate effort

19254

7.5

Winter activities

Snow shoveling, by hand, vigorous effort

19260

2.5

Winter activities

Snow blower, walking and pushing

20000

1.3

Religious activities

Sitting in church, in service, attending a ceremony, sitting quietly

20001

2.0

Religious activities

Sitting, playing an instrument at church

20005

1.8

Religious activities

Sitting in church, talking or singing, attending a ceremony, sitting, active participation

20010

1.3

Religious activities

Sitting, reading religious materials at home

20015

1.3

Religious activities

Standing quietly in church, attending a ceremony

20020

2.0

Religious activities

Standing, singing in church, attending a ceremony, standing, active participation

20025

1.3

Religious activities

Kneeling in church or at home, praying

20030

1.8

Religious activities

Standing, talking in church

20035

2.0

Religious activities

Walking in church

20036

2.0

Religious activities

Walking, less than 2.0 mph, very slow

20037

3.5

Religious activities

Walking, 3.0 mph, moderate speed, not carrying anything

20038

4.3

Religious activities

Walking, 3.5 mph, brisk speed, not carrying anything

20039

2.0

Religious activities

Walk–stand combination for religious purposes, usher

20040

5.0

Religious activities

Praise with dance or run, spiritual dancing in church

20045

2.5

Religious activities

Serving food at church

20046

2.0

Religious activities

Preparing food at church

20047

3.3

Religious activities

Washing dishes, cleaning kitchen at church

20050

1.5

Religious activities

Eating at church

20055

2.0

Religious activities

Eating/talking at church or standing eating, American Indian Feast days

20060

3.3

Religious activities

Cleaning church

20061

4.0

Religious activities

General yard work at church

20065

3.5

Religious activities

Standing, moderate effort (e.g., lifting heavy objects, assembling at fast rate)

20095

4.5

Religious activities

Standing, moderate-to-heavy effort, manual labor, lifting ≥50 lb, heavy maintenance

20100

1.3

Religious activities

Typing, electric, manual, or computer

21000

1.5

Volunteer activities

Sitting, meeting, general, and/or with talking involved

21005

1.5

Volunteer activities

Sitting, light office work, in general

21010

2.5

Volunteer activities

Sitting, moderate work

21015

2.3

Volunteer activities

Standing, light work (filing, talking, assembling)

21016

2.0

Volunteer activities

Sitting, child care, only active periods

21017

3.0

Volunteer activities

Standing, child care, only active periods

21018

3.5

Volunteer activities

Walk/run play with children, moderate, only active periods

21019

5.8

Volunteer activities

Walk/run play with children, vigorous, only active periods

21020

3.0

Volunteer activities

Standing, light/moderate work (e.g., pack boxes, assemble/repair, setup chairs/furniture)

21025

3.5

Volunteer activities

Standing, moderate (lifting 50 lb., assembling at fast rate)

21030

4.5

Volunteer activities

Standing, moderate/heavy work

21035

1.3

Volunteer activities

Typing, electric, manual, or computer

21040

2.0

Volunteer activities

Walking, less than 2.0 mph, very slow

21045

3.5

Volunteer activities

Walking, 3.0 mph, moderate speed, not carrying anything

21050

4.3

Volunteer activities

Walking, 3.5 mph, brisk speed, not carrying anything

21055

3.5

Volunteer activities

Walking, 2.5 mph slowly and carrying objects less than 25 lb

21060

4.5

Volunteer activities

Walking, 3.0 mph moderately and carrying objects less than 25 lb, pushing something

21065

4.8

Volunteer activities

Walking, 3.5 mph, briskly and carrying objects less than 25 lb

21070

3.0

Volunteer activities

Walk–stand combination, for volunteer purposes

Italicized codes and METs are estimated values

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