The Active Female: Health Issues Throughout the Lifespan 2008th Edition

28. Nutritional Guidelines for Active Children

Shelby D. Kloiber  and Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez 

(1)

Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

(2)

Department of Funcational Biology (Physiology), University of Oviedo, C/Julian Claveria s/n, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain

Shelby D. Kloiber (Corresponding author)

Email: shelby.kloiber@ttu.edu

Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

Email: iglesiaseduardo@uniovi.es

Abstract

Nutrition is a large component of participating in a healthy lifestyle. Understanding the guidelines of proper nutrition set forth by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can help a person maintain adequate nutrition. Dietary recommendations have been set for adults as well as children. These recommendations, when met, can be beneficial to one’s health. Stemming away from dietary guidelines can result in nutrition-related chronic diseases including but not limited to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. Appropriate nutrition is vital for proper growth and development in children and adolescents. Creating a lifestyle with physical activity can also have many benefits. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the dietary reference intake offers recommendations of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins to consume on a daily basis. Recently the USDA has changed the icon to a serving plate that shows through visual cues how much of each food group you should consume. The MyPlate icon shows the five major food groups that are the building blocks of a healthy diet. Fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, and dairy are the food groups individuals should choose from, and the choosemyplate.gov website explains each group and shows healthy choices and the recommendations or serving sizes within each group. Teaching children the importance of eating proper nutrition can lead to a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that our daily meal consists of half of our plate full of fruits and vegetables, along with lean meats, whole grains, and fat-free and/or low-fat dairy products. Limiting our intake of saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, and simple sugars is important as well.

Keywords

ChildAdolescentNutritionPhysical activityRecommendationsMyplate

28.1 Learning Objectives

After completion of this chapter, you should understand the following:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

28.2 Introduction

Nutrition is a large component of participating in a healthy lifestyle. Understanding the guidelines of proper nutrition set forth by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) can help a person attain adequate nutrition. Dietary recommendations have been set for adults as well as children. These recommendations, when met, have been demonstrated to be beneficial to one’s health. Not following these dietary guidelines can result in nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCDs). NRCDs include but are not limited to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer [1]. Appropriate nutrition is vital for proper growth and development in children and adolescents. Improper nutrition may lead to permanent and irreversible impairments in brain development, behavior changes and delayed psychomotor development, altered immune function, decreased levels of physical activity, decreased social interaction and curiosity, and decreased cognitive functioning [2]. Portion sizes of processed and ready-to-eat foods and also the portions of junk food have increased over the years. This is one of the contributing factors leading to the increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. An increase in energy intake above the recommended amount and/or no physical activity can lead to changes in body composition. Although it is difficult to determine appropriate portion sizes for children, data suggests that reducing portion sizes may be an effective strategy for decreasing energy intake [3].

Another large component within a healthy lifestyle is physical activity. An increase in moderate physical activity is an important goal for reducing health problems [4]. Along with physiological and psychological benefits, engaging in physical activity at a young age can lead to continued activity into adulthood. For those children who participate, competitive sports and school-based physical education are good predictors of later physical activity. Creating a lifestyle with physical activity can have many benefits, and the recommendations for adults and children change to reflect the ever-changing culture and progressive research. Recommendations for children (aged 5–16) include 60 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per day, including vigorous-intensity aerobic activities that can improve bone density and muscle strength [4].

28.3 Research Findings

28.3.1 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

According to the US Department of Agriculture and the US Department of Health and Human Services (USHHS), the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans is based on the most up-to-date scientific evidence. The guidelines provide advice on choosing a healthy eating pattern and are intended to be used as educational material for policymakers, for the general public, and for specific audiences such as children [56]. Approximately 32 % of children and adolescents ages 2–19 years are overweight or obese. The prevalence of chronic diseases once found in adults are now being seen in younger ages [7]. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which focuses on health promotion and disease risk reduction, is reviewed and updated every 5 years. Every updated edition goes through three vital steps to ensure accurate information. Stage one brings about a scientific approach where scientists and researchers conduct analysis on new scientific information on health and fitness. The second stage targets policymakers, nutrition educators, health-care providers, etc. The final stage prepares information to be presented to the general public [4].

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the dietary reference intake offers recommendations of macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins to consume on a daily basis. Dietary reference intake (DRI) offers recommendations with considerations of life stage, gender, and activity level. An example of recommended macronutrient proportions by age are seen in Appendix 1.

Table 28.1

Daily fruit recommendations

Age

Serving size

Children 2–3 years old

1 cup

Children 4–8 years old

1–1½ cups

Girls 9–18 years old

1½ cups

Boys 9–13 years old

1½ cups

Boys 14–18 years old

2 cups

Referenced by [4]

Table 28.2

Weekly vegetable recommendations

Age

Dark greens

Red and orange

Beans and peas

Starchy

Other

Children 2–3 years old

½ cup

2½ cups

½ cups

2 cups

1½ cups

Children 4–8 years old

1 cup

3 cups

½ cup

3½ cups

2½ cups

Girls 9–13 years old

1½ cup

4 cups

1 cup

4 cups

3½ cups

Girls 14–18 years old

1½ cup

5½ cups

1½ cup

5 cups

4 cups

Boys 9–13 years old

1½ cup

5½ cups

1½ cups

5 cup

4 cups

Boys 14–18 years old

2 cups

6 cups

2 cups

6 cups

5 cups

Referenced by [4]

28.3.2 Macronutrients

The three macronutrients involved in a healthy diet include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for our body and are crucial for red blood cells and neurons. Carbohydrates contain 4 cal/1 g and include sugars, starches, and most of the compounds considered as fiber. The main food sources of carbohydrates include grains, beans and peas, vegetables, and fruits. For all children above ages 1 year old, it is recommended that 45–65 % of their daily calories come from carbohydrates. Those foods that contain functional fiber should be consumed as they have been found to have beneficial physiological effects in humans. Whole grains may reduce the risk for heart disease, reduce constipation, and help maintain with weight management. Over-consumption of those carbohydrates that are made up of simple sugars and have little nutritional value can lead to weight gain and should be avoided for those engaging in a healthy diet [6].

The second of the three macronutrients is protein. One gram of protein yields 4 cal of energy and is the major functional and structural component of all cells within the body. Protein, which is not a primary energy source, is composed of amino acids which are necessary for growth and repair of our body’s tissue. There are 21 amino acids that can form proteins in our body, eight of which (nine for young children) humans cannot synthesize to meet the needs of our body. It is important when choosing proteins that you consume those of high quality to acquire all of the necessary amino acids. High-quality proteins are those that provide all the amino acids that our body needs in the correct amount. They can be found mainly in animal foods like eggs and meat of fish, but also when combining other foods, like cereals and legumes or dairy products and cereals.

Recommended daily consumption of protein for children ages 1–3 years old is 5–20 % of total daily calories. Children ages 4–18 years old can increase their protein consumption to 10–30 % of their daily caloric intake. A variety of proteins is important for a healthy diet. Examples of foods with a high protein content include lean meats and poultry, seafood, beans and peas, soy products, nuts and seeds [68].

Fats, the third of the macronutrients, are categorized into monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and trans-fatty acids. One gram of fat yields 9 cal of energy and should make up 30–40 % of the daily calories consumed for children ages 1–3 years old. Children 4–18 years of age should consume 25–35 % of their total daily calories as fat. Although fats should be consumed in moderation, it is an important nutrient needed in an overall healthy diet. Fat provides structure to the body’s tissue, nerves, and cell membranes. During exercise, depending on its duration and intensity, your body also utilizes fat as energy source [69]. MUFAs can be found in foods such as nuts, olive oil, and some pork derivatives. PUFAs can be chemically classified into several groups. From a nutritional point of view, the two main subgroups are omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids cannot be synthesized in the body and can be found in foods such as liquid vegetable oils, flaxseed, and some fish and shellfish. It is recommended to replace saturated fatty acids with MUFAs and PUFAs. Saturated fats are found in palm and coconut oil and in animal products including meat and milk and also in fish. In fact, most fish containing high PUFA (much higher than meat) have even higher SFA content, similar to meat. A diet high in saturated fat can increase blood cholesterol level. As we said before, increased LDL due to a diet high in SFA and cholesterol and an elevated sedentarism may increase risk factors for certain diseases such as cardiovascular disease. It is recommended to consume less than 10 % of saturated fats in your daily fat intake and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. Trans-fatty acids, a form of unsaturated fatty acids, can be found in shortening, commercially prepared baked foods, fried foods, and snack foods. A diet high in trans-fatty acids may lead to an increase risk for heart disease. Most Americans consume too much saturated and trans-fatty acids and not enough unsaturated fatty acids [6].

28.3.3 Micronutrients

Vitamins do not provide energy, but are essential to at least one vital process within the human body. Vitamins can be divided into two groups: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body and are known as vitamin A, D, E, and K. Food sources for fat-soluble vitamins include dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, whole grains, legumes, fortified milk, and egg yolks. Eating fruits and vegetables with a variety of color can increase the availability of different vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins, including B vitamins and vitamin C, are involved in energy metabolism and maintenance of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue. Food sources that contain water-soluble vitamins include but are not limited to eggs, meat, poultry, milk products, beans, nuts, cereals, and vegetables. Vitamin recommendations for children are found in Appendix 1 [6].

Minerals are an important part of our daily diet. Some minerals are required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles as well as electrolytes. Appropriate levels of these minerals have shown to be required to maintain proper health. Recommendations for daily mineral consumption for children are listed in Appendix 1.

Examples of food sources rich in minerals include dairy products, green leafy vegetables, salmon, sardines, and spinach [6]. In this sense it should be taken into account that the bioavailability of some minerals in some of this foods is extremely low, which make them poor sources of minerals, although their content is high. This happens, for example, with calcium and spinach.

Including fiber into a diet can aid in digestion and other beneficial physiological functions. Dietary fiber cannot be digested so it passes through the small intestine into the colon where it helps maintain regularity and bowel health. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water so it helps move material through the colon. This is helpful for those children who suffer from constipation. Diets high in insoluble fiber may decrease the risk of diabetes and can be found in foods such as whole grains, nuts, wheat bran, and vegetables. Soluble fiber absorbs water and can help soften stool. Foods rich in soluble fiber include oats, apples, flaxseed, and legumes. Appendix 1 shows the daily recommendation for fiber consumption in children [6].

Water is approximately 50–70 % of an adult’s body weight, and as high as 79 % of children’s weight, and essential for life. Water helps regulate body temperature, lubrication, and transportation within the body. Dehydration can lead to heat injuries including cramps, heat exhaustion, and/or heat stroke. Hydration can be met with adequate fluid intake as well as fluid found in some foods. On average consuming 64 ounces per day is necessary for your body’s needs and will increase as your physical activity increases. There is not specific requirement level for water intake because it varies for each individual; however, the combination of thirst and drinking beverages with meals can provide your body with the fluid levels needed [6].

28.3.4 Nutritional Responsibility

As a parent or caregiver, it is important to provide a foundation of healthy eating patterns and regular physical activity for children. The lifestyle children engage in can influence their lifestyle as an adult. Studies show those who engage in an unhealthy lifestyle are more at risk for becoming obese as an adult [2] and suffer from many other metabolic diseases, like type 2 diabetes. Strategies that can create a healthy lifestyle include but are not limited to ensuring schools and childcare facilities are following Dietary Guidelines for all meals and snacks, providing the public with physical activity and nutrition education, encourage physical activity within the school system, reducing children’s time in front of the television and/or computer, and develop supportive marketing tactics on children’s food and beverages [1011]. In the early 1970s, prevalence of obesity in children was very low. In 2008, the prevalence of obesity in children ages 6–11 years rose to 20 %. Obesity levels rose to 18 % for those American’s ages 12–19. Reversing America’s obesity epidemic is important when considering the levels of overweight and obese children is higher than ever before. Health risks and diseases associated with obesity that were once diagnosed within the adult population are now being seen in the child and adolescent population [67].

28.4 Contemporary Understanding of the Issue

For almost 20 years, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) used the food pyramid to represent a healthy diet [12]. MyPlate recently replaced the MyPyramid, which the USDA found was too complex as a nutritional guide for American families [13]. Nutritionists, dietitians, economists, and policy experts at the USDA designed the MyPlate to help individuals understand portion sizes with a familiar image, a plate [14]. This design reminds the National Food Guide (commonly called “The Basic Seven”) published back in the 1940s, as well as food guides from countries all over the world, like Mexico, Portugal, Great Britain, or Spain, that have been using the same idea for several decades.

The MyPlate icon shows the five major food groups, fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, and dairy, that are the building blocks of a healthy diet. The information given to consumers about healthy eating choices is based on recommendations for Americans 2 years of age and older. Policy experts at the USDA wanted to not only provide nutrition information but to actively change the American eating behavior. The website allows individuals to gain knowledge of healthy eating recommendations and habits to live by as well as interactive games for children to learn what types of foods to eat and those they should avoid [15]. Thus, the MyPlate website, www.​choosemyplate.​gov, is a very interactive website that allows children to click on one of the five food groups to learn the best choices to build a healthy plate (USDA) [10], explains each group, and shows healthy choices and the recommendations or serving sizes within each group [10].

The purpose of this new icon is to encourage people to eat smaller portions and to fill at least half of your plate with fruits and vegetables.

Focusing on fruit consumptions is very important; any fruit or 100 % fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group. The fruit food gallery on the USDA website shows common fruits consumed and the amount of fruit needed every day. The daily fruit recommendation can be found on Table 28.1 for children. The amounts are appropriate for children who get less than 30 min per day of moderate physical activity. Those who are more physically active may be able to consume more while staying within calorie needs [16].

The vegetable group includes any vegetable or 100 % vegetable juice and is separated into five subgroups since this is a very diverse group considering the macronutrient content of the foods included. The MyPlate’s vegetable food gallery lists the groups as dark green vegetables, beans and peas, starchy vegetables, red and orange vegetables, and others. Recommended amounts of vegetables vary with age, sex, and level of physical activity. The vegetable recommendations for children for subgroups are listed as weekly consumption amounts (Table 28.2). Note that although you do not need to eat vegetables from each subgroup every day, it is important to eat from each subgroup on a weekly basis [17].

It is recommended to build your meal with fruits and vegetables filling up half your plate. It is important for children to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables that will provide the nutrients needed for proper health and maintenance of their body while growing and to reduce the risk for some chronic diseases. MyPlate not only offers food choices with recommended serving sizes but health benefits and nutrients found in fruit and vegetables as well. A diet including recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of certain hypokinetic diseases including heart attacks, stroke, and certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney stones, bone loss, and obesity [410].

Including grains into your diet is also important in reducing your risk for certain diseases. Certain grains may reduce the risk for heart disease, reduce constipation, help maintain with weight management, and when fortified with folate, can prevent neural tube defects in pregnant women. However, indiscriminate folate fortification is a very controversial topic. Excessive folate intake is not inert and could have serious consequences, especially for those populations with a misbalanced diet or with a deficient intake of other metabolically related vitamins. Grains are separated into two groups: whole grain and refined grain. Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel and include whole-wheat flour, bulgur, oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice. Although refined grains are milled to give the product a finer texture and longer shelf life, the process removes important dietary fiber, iron, and many B vitamins [18]. Examples of refined grains include white flour, degermed cornmeal, white bread, and white rice. A list of commonly eaten whole and refined grains can be found on the MyPlate website [18].

Most American adults and children consume enough grains, but few are whole grains. It is recommended that at least half of the grains in your diet are whole grains. Table 28.3 lists is the daily recommended amount of grains and the daily minimum amount of whole grains for children. Daily recommendations for grain are given in ounces. Examples of one ounce of grain include one slice of bread and 1/2 cup cooked pasta or cooked cereal. A list of common eaten foods and their equivalent to one ounce can be found on the MyPlate website [18].

Table 28.3

Daily grain recommendations

Age

Daily recommendations (ounce)

Daily minimum amount of whole grains (ounce)

Children 2–3 years old

3

Children 4–8 years old

5

Girls 9–13 years old

5

3

Girls 14–18 years old

6

3

Boys 9–13 years old

6

3

Boys 18–18 years old

8

4

Referenced by [4]

A healthy diet includes foods from the protein group. Any food made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, soy products, nuts, and seeds are all examples of the types of foods that should be consumed to meet the recommendations of the protein group. It is controversial including beans and peas and nuts in this group, since most of them have a high carbohydrate and even fat content, sometimes higher than their protein intake. Choosing a variety of foods with protein is important as well as those foods that are lean or low in fat. Certain seafood rich in omega-3 fatty acids is also important to include into a proper diet. Processed meats such as deli meats should be limited due to its high sodium content. Protein requirements are different depending on age, gender, and physical activity level. Table 28.4 contains the daily recommendations of protein consumption for children. Protein recommendations are given in ounces. Examples of one ounce of protein include one egg, one can of tuna, or approximately twelve almonds [8].

Table 28.4

Daily protein recommendations

Age

Daily amount of protein (ounce)

Children 2–3 years old

2

Children 4–8 years old

4

Girls 9–13 years old

5

Girls 14–18 years old

5

Boys 9–13 years old

5

Boys 14–18 years old

Referenced by [4]

The last food group included in the MyPlate is the dairy group. Most dairy that is consumed should be fat-free or low in fat. Commonly eaten dairy products are listed on the MyPlate website which includes milk, milk-based desserts, calcium-fortified soymilk, cheese, and yogurt. Age is a large determinant on the amount of dairy recommended. The daily recommended amount of dairy to consume (Table 28.5) [19]. A diet that includes dairy can provide many health benefits. Dairy products can improve bone health, especially during childhood and adolescence, when bone mass is being built. Dairy products can also reduce the risk of certain diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and may lower blood pressure [8].

Table 28.5

Daily dairy recommendations

Age

Daily amount of dairy

Children 2–3 years old

2 cups

Children 4–8 years old

2½ cups

Girls 9–13 years old

3 cups

Girls 14–18 years old

3 cups

Boys 9–13 years old

3 cups

Boys 14–18 years old

3 cups

Referenced by [4]

Although oil is not one of the five major food groups, it is important to state that although they can provide essential nutrients, oil should be consumed in moderation. A low intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and an adequate intake of unsaturated fatty acids (mono- and polyunsaturated, MUFA, and PUFA) have been largely associated with a healthier lipid profile (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL) and with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Most seed oils (sunflower, flax, corn, rapeseed, etc.) and fruit oils (olive oil) have a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. Most oils contain around 120 calories per tablespoon, and it is frequently recommended that they should be limited in a healthy diet [9]. However, it should also be taken into account that the paradigm of a healthy diet, as it is the Mediterranean diet, was originally a high-fat diet, including almost 40 % of calories from fat, especially MUFA and PUFA, based on the use of olive oil for cooking and avoiding other sources of SFA like butter. This means that more important than the amount of fat intake is the type of fatty acids included in our diet.

Along with the MyPlate guidelines, there are also helpful tips for children. On the website you can find resources for children such as the ten tips for making healthy foods more fun for children and ten tips to decrease added sugars. Being a healthy role model is very important in teaching children how to live a healthy lifestyle. Leading by example, eating at the dinner table together, shopping for healthy foods together, and participating in physical activity together are a few behaviors that can model a healthy lifestyle [20]. It is important to include foods from all of these food groups, but it is also just as important to not overeat. Daily caloric recommendations vary depending on age, gender, and activity level. A chart estimating the caloric daily needs for children based on their activity level can be viewed in Appendix 2 [621].

28.5 Future Directions

The relationship between diet, physical activity, and health in the short and long term has been extensively analyzed. However, due to the growing prevalence of diet-related chronic and degenerative diseases, further investigation is needed, especially on these directions:

·  Analyze the biological and psychosocial factors that determine the adherence (or not) to the dietary guidelines and to the recommendations on exercise in children.

·  The influence of gaining knowledge of which foods to eat for proper nutrition on the prevalence of diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes or on risk factors for these diseases in children and adults.

·  In this sense, determine the understanding and effectiveness of the new dietary guide MyPlate in promoting healthy eating choices in children.

·  The role of parents, caregivers, school systems, and policymakers on promoting healthy eating and exercise habits needs also to be analyzed, together with the influence in decreasing the obesity and diabetes epidemies.

28.6 Concluding Remarks

Teaching children the importance of eating proper nutrition can lead to a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that our daily meal consists of half of our plate full of fruits and vegetables, along with lean meats, whole grains, and fat-free and/or low-fat dairy products. Limiting our intake of saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, and simple sugars is important as well. During childhood, following these guidelines is vital for proper growth and development. Parents and caregivers can lead by example and eat well-balanced meals along with engaging in regular physical activity [22].

Appendix 1: Nutritional Goals for Age–Gender Groups, Based on Dietary Reference Intakes and Dietary Guidelines

Nutrient (units)

Source of goala

Child 1–3

Female 4–8

Male 4–8

Female 9–13

Male 9–13

Female 14–18

Male 14–18

Female 19–30

Male 19–30

Female 31–50

Male 31–50

Female 51+

Male 51+

Macronutrients

 

Protein (g)

RDAb

13

19

19

34

34

46

52

46

56

46

56

46

56

(% of calories)

AMDRc

5–20

10–30

10–30

10–30

10–30

10–30

10–30

10–35

10–35

10–35

10–35

10–35

10–35

Carbohydrate (g)

RDA

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

130

(% of calories)

AMDR

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

45–65

Total fiber (g)

IOMd

14

17

20

22

25

25

31

28

34

25

31

22

28

Total fat (% of calories)

AMDR

30–40

25–35

25–35

25–35

25–35

25–35

25–35

20–35

20–35

20–35

20–35

20–35

20–35

Saturated fat (% of calories)

DGe

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

<10 %

Linoleic acid (g)

AIf

7

10

10

10

12

11

16

12

17

12

17

11

14

(% of calories)

AMDR

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

5–10

Alpha-linolenic acid (g)

AI

0.7

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.1

1.6

1.1

1.6

1.1

1.6

1.1

1.6

(% of calories)

AMDR

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

Cholesterol (mg)

DG

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

<300

Minerals

 

Calcium (mg)

RDA

700

1,000

1,000

1,300

1,300

1,300

1,300

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,200

1,200

Iron (mg)

RDA

7

10

10

8

8

15

11

18

8

18

8

8

8

Magnesium (mg)

RDA

80

130

130

240

240

360

410

310

400

320

420

320

420

Phosphorus (mg)

RDA

460

500

500

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

700

700

700

700

700

700

Potassium (mg)

AI

3,000

3,800

3,800

4,500

4,500

4,700

4,700

4,700

4,700

4,700

4,700

4,700

4,700

Sodium (mg)

ULg

<1,500

<1,900

<1,900

<2,200

<2,200

<2,300

<2,300

<2,300

<2,300

<2,300

<2,300

<2,300

<2,300

Zinc (mg)

RDA

3

5

5

8

8

9

11

8

11

8

11

8

11

Copper (mcg)

RDA

340

440

440

700

700

890

890

900

900

900

900

900

900

Selenium (mcg)

RDA

20

30

30

40

40

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

Vitamins

 

Vitamin A (mcg RAE)

RDA

300

400

400

600

600

700

900

700

900

700

900

700

900

Vitamin Dh (mcg)

RDA

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

Vitamin E (mg AT)

RDA

6

7

7

11

11

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

Vitamin C (mg)

RDA

15

25

25

45

45

65

75

75

90

75

90

75

90

Thiamin (mg)

RDA

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.2

Riboflavin (mg)

RDA

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.3

1.1

1.3

1.1

1.3

1.1

1.3

Niacin (mg)

RDA

6

8

8

12

12

14

16

14

16

14

16

14

16

Folate (mcg)

RDA

150

200

200

300

300

400

400

400

400

400

400

400

400

Vitamin B6 (mg)

RDA

0.5

0.6

0.6

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.5

1.7

Vitamin B12 (mcg)

RDA

0.9

1.2

1.2

1.8

1.8

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

Choline (mg)

AI

200

250

250

375

375

400

550

425

550

425

550

425

550

Vitamin K (mcg)

AI

30

55

55

60

60

75

75

90

120

90

120

90

120

Sources: Britten P, Marcoe K, Yamini S, Davis C. Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. J Nutr Educ Behav 2006;38(6 Suppl):S78–S92. IOM. Dietary Reference Intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2006. IOM. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2010. http://​www.​cnpp.​usda.​gov/​Publications/​DietaryGuideline​s/​2010/​PolicyDoc/​PolicyDoc.​pdf

AT Alpha-tocopherol, DFE Dietary folate equivalents, RAE Retinol activity equivalents

aDietary guidelines recommendations are used when no quantitative dietary reference intake value is available; apply to ages 2 years and older

bRecommended dietary allowance, IOM

cAcceptable macronutrient distribution range, IOM

d14 g per 1,000 cal, IOM

eDietary guidelines recommendation

fAdequate intake, IOM

gUpper limit, IOM

h1 mcg of vitamin D is equivalent to 40 IU

Appendix 2: Estimated Calorie Needs Per Day by Age, Gender, and Physical Activity Level (Detailed)

Appendix 2 Estimated amounts of caloriesa needed to maintain calorie balance for various gender and age groups at three different levels of physical activity. The estimates are rounded to the nearest 200 cal. An individual’s calorie needs may be higher or lower than these averages

Gender/activity levelb

Male/sedentary

Male/moderately active

Male/active

Femalec/sedentary

Femalec/moderately active

Femalec/active

Age (years)

2

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

3

1,200

1,400

1,400

1,000

1,200

1,400

4

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,200

1,400

1,400

5

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,200

1,400

1,600

6

1,400

1,600

1,800

1,200

1,400

1,600

7

1,400

1,600

1,800

1,200

1,600

1,800

8

1,400

1,600

2,000

1,400

1,600

1,800

9

1,600

1,800

2,000

1,400

1,600

1,800

10

1,600

1,800

2,200

1,400

1,800

2,000

11

1,800

2,000

2,200

1,600

1,800

2,000

12

1,800

2,200

2,400

1,600

2,000

2,200

13

2,000

2,200

2,600

1,600

2,000

2,200

14

2,000

2,400

2,800

1,800

2,000

2,400

15

2,200

2,600

3,000

1,800

2,000

2,400

16

2,400

2,800

3,200

1,800

2,000

2,400

17

2,400

2,800

3,200

1,800

2,000

2,400

18

2,400

2,800

3,200

1,800

2,000

2,400

19–20

2,600

2,800

3,000

2,000

2,200

2,400

21–25

2,400

2,800

3,000

2,000

2,200

2,400

26–30

2,400

2,600

3,000

1,800

2,000

2,400

31–35

2,400

2,600

3,000

1,800

2,000

2,200

36–40

2,400

2,600

2,800

1,800

2,000

2,200

41–45

2,200

2,600

2,800

1,800

2,000

2,200

46–50

2,200

2,400

2,800

1,800

2,000

2,200

51–55

2,200

2,400

2,800

1,600

1,800

2,200

56–60

2,200

2,400

2,600

1,600

1,800

2,200

61–65

2,000

2,400

2,600

1,600

1,800

2,000

66–70

2,000

2,200

2,600

1,600

1,800

2,000

71–75

2,000

2,200

2,600

1,600

1,800

2,000

76+

2,000

2,200

2,400

1,600

1,800

2,000

Source: http://​www.​cnpp.​usda.​gov/​Publications/​DietaryGuideline​s/​2010/​PolicyDoc/​PolicyDoc.​pdf

aBased on Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) equations, using reference heights (average) and reference weights (healthy) for each age–gender group. For children and adolescents, reference height and weight vary. For adults, the reference man is 5 ft 10 in. tall and weighs 154 pounds. The reference woman is 5 ft 4 in. tall and weighs 126 pounds. EER equations are from the Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2002

bSedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Moderately active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking about 1.5–3 miles per day at 3–4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3–4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life

cEstimates for females do not include women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Source: Britten P, Marcoe K, Yamini S, Davis C. Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. J Nutr Educ Behav 2006;38(6 Suppl):S78–92

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