The Active Female: Health Issues Throughout the Lifespan 2008th Edition

Appendix 1: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

The Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) is a leader in online global nutrition information. Located at the National Agricultural Library (NAL) of USDA, the FNIC Web site contains over 2,500 links to current and reliable nutrition information.

FNIC provides links to the DRI Tables, developed by the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board. To view these tables or download these tables in a PDF file, please go to: http://​fnic.​nal.​usda.​gov/​dietary-guidance/​dietary-reference-intakes/​dri-tables

Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Comprehensive DRI tables for vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients; organized by age and gender. Includes the 2010 updated recommendations for calcium and vitamin D.

Dietary Reference Intakes: RDA and AI for Vitamins and Elements (PDF | 28 kB )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

DRI tables for recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and adequate intakes (AI) of vitamins and elements, including the 2010 updated recommendations for calcium and vitamin D.

Dietary Reference Intakes: UL for Vitamins and Elements (PDF | 19 kB )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

DRI table for tolerable upper intake levels (UL) of vitamins and elements, including the 2010 updated recommendations for calcium and vitamin D.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

DRI table for carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, and protein.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Estimated Average Requirements (PDF | 15 kB )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

DRI table for nutrients that have an estimated average requirement (EAR), the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Electrolytes and Water

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

DRI table for sodium, chloride, potassium, inorganic sulfate, and water.

Note: You can access these tables at: http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/dietary-guidance/dietary-reference-intakes/dri-tables.

Appendix 2: Dietary Reports

The Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) is a leader in online global nutrition information. Located at the National Agricultural Library (NAL) of USDA, the FNIC Web site contains over 2,500 links to current and reliable nutrition information.

FNIC provides links and PDF downloads to the DRI reports, developed by the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board. To distribute or reprint these reports, please visit The National Academies Press Web site to secure all necessary permissions.

http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/dietary-guidance/dietary-reference-intakes/dri-reports

UPDATED—Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2010) (PDF | 355 kB )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Report brief on new DRIs for calcium and vitamin D, revised in November 2010. Read the pre-publication report at the National Academies Press Web site.

Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

All eight volumes of the DRIs are summarized in one reference volume, organized by nutrient, which reviews function in the body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

For the 2010 updated recommendations for calcium and vitamin D, refer to the pre-publication report at the National Academies Press Web site.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients) (2005 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary Fiber (2001 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2004 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification (2003 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning (2003 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment (2000 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis Workshop Summary (2006 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition and Plan for Review of Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds (1998 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients (1998 )

National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board.

Appendix 3: USDA Food Patterns—Food Groups and Subgroups

Food group

Subgroups and examples

Vegetables

Dark-green vegetables: All fresh, frozen, and canned dark-green leafy vegetables and broccoli, cooked or raw: for example, broccoli; spinach; romaine; collard, turnip, and mustard greens.

Red and orange vegetables: All fresh, frozen, and canned red and orange vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, tomatoes, red peppers, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, and pumpkin.

Beans and peas: All cooked and canned beans and peas: for example, kidney beans, lentils, chickpeas, and pinto beans. Does not include green beans or green peas. (See additional comment under protein foods group.)

Starchy vegetables: All fresh, frozen, and canned starchy vegetables: for example, white potatoes, corn, and green peas.

Other vegetables: All fresh, frozen, and canned other vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, iceberg lettuce, green beans, and onions.

Fruits

All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices: for example, oranges and orange juice, apples and apple juice, bananas, grapes, melons, berries, and raisins.

Grains

Whole grains: All whole-grain products and whole grains used as ingredients: for example, whole-wheat bread, whole-grain cereals and crackers, oatmeal, and brown rice.

Enriched grains: All enriched refined-grain products and enriched refined grains used as ingredients: for example, white breads, enriched grain cereals and crackers, enriched pasta, and white rice.

Dairy products

All milks, including lactose-free and lactose-reduced products and fortified soy beverages; yogurts; frozen yogurts; dairy desserts; and cheeses. Most choices should be fat-free or low-fat. Cream, sour cream, and cream cheese are not included due to their low calcium content.

Protein foods

All meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, nuts, seeds, and processed soy products. Meat and poultry should be lean or low-fat. Beans and peas are considered part of this group, as well as the vegetable group, but should be counted in one group only.

Source: USDA and HHS, US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC. Complete report can be viewed and downloaded at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/

Appendix 4: USDA Foods Patterns

For each food group or subgroupa, recommended average daily intake amountsb at all calorie levels. Recommended intakes from vegetable and protein foods subgroups are per week.

Calorie level of patternc

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

2,000

2,200

2,400

2,600

2,800

3,000

3,200

Fruits

1 c

1 c

1½ c

1½ c

1½ c

2 c

2 c

2 c

2 c

2½ c

2½ c

2½ c

Vegetablesd

1 c

1½ c

1½ c

2 c

2½ c

2½ c

3 c

3 c

3½ c

3½ c

4 c

4 c

Dark-green vegetables

½ c/week

1 c/week

1 c/week

1½ c/week

1½ c/week

1½ c/week

2 c/week

2 c/week

2½ c/week

2½ c/week

2½ c/week

2½ c/week

Red and orange vegetables

2½ c/week

3 c/week

3 c/week

4 c/week

5½ c/week

5½ c/week

6 c/week

6 c/week

7 c/week

7 c/week

7½ c/week

7½ c/week

Beans and peas (legumes)

½ c/week

½ c/week

½ c/week

1 c/week

1½ c/week

1½ c/week

2 c/week

2 c/week

2½ c/week

2½ c/week

3 c/week

3 c/week

Starchy vegetables

2 c/week

3½ c/week

3½ c/week

4 c/week

5 c/week

5 c/week

6 c/week

6 c/week

7 c/week

7 c/week

8 c/week

8 c/week

Other vegetables

1½ c/week

2½ c/week

2½ c/week

3½ c/week

4 c/week

4 c/week

5 c/week

5 c/week

5½ c/week

5½ c/week

7 c/week

7 c/week

Grainse

3 oz-eq

4 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

6 oz-eq

6 oz-eq

7 oz-eq

8 oz-eq

9 oz-eq

10 oz-eq

10 oz-eq

10 oz-eq

Whole grains

1½ oz-eq

2 oz-eq

2½ oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3½ oz-eq

4 oz-eq

4½ oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

Enriched grains

1½ oz-eq

2 oz-eq

2½ oz-eq

2 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

3½ oz-eq

4 oz-eq

4½ oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

Protein foodsd

2 oz-eq

3 oz-eq

4 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5 oz-eq

5½ oz-eq

6 oz-eq

6½ oz-eq

6½ oz-eq

7 oz-eq

7 oz-eq

7 oz-eq

Seafood

3 oz/week

5 oz/week

6 oz/week

8 oz/week

8 oz/week

8 oz/week

9 oz/week

10 oz/week

10 oz/week

11 oz/week

11 oz/week

11 oz/week

Meat, poultry, eggs

10 oz/week

14 oz/week

19 oz/week

24 oz/week

24 oz/week

26 oz/week

29 oz/week

31 oz/week

31 oz/week

34 oz/week

34 oz/week

34 oz/week

Nuts, seeds, soy products

1 oz/week

2 oz/week

3 oz/week

4 oz/week

4 oz/week

4 oz/week

4 oz/week

5 oz/week

5 oz/week

5 oz/week

5 oz/week

5 oz/week

Dairyf

2 c

2½ c

2½ c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

Oilsg

15 g

17 g

17 g

22 g

24 g

27 g

29 g

31 g

34 g

36 g

44 g

51 g

Maximums of ash limit, calories (% of calories)

137 (14 %)

121 (10 %)

121 (9 %)

121 (8 %)

161 (9 %)

258 (13 %)

266 (12 %)

330 (14 %)

362 (14 %)

395 (14 %)

459 (15 %)

596 (19 %)

Source: USDA and HHS, US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC. Complete report can be viewed and downloaded at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/

aAll foods are assumed to be in nutrient-dense forms, lean or low-fat, and prepared without added fats, sugars, or salt. Solid fats and added sugar may be included up to the daily maximum limit identified in the table. For food items in each group and subgroup see Appendix 3

bFood group amounts are shown in cup (c) or ounce-equivalents (oz-eq). Oils are shown in grams (g). Quantity equivalents for each food group are:

  Grains, 1 oz-equivalent is: 1-oz slice bread; 1 oz uncooked pasta or rice; ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal; 1 tortilla (6″ diameter); 1 pancake (5″ diameter); 1 oz ready-to-eat cereal (about 1 cup cereal flakes)

  Vegetables and fruits, 1 cup equivalent is: 1 cup raw or cooked vegetable or fruit; ½ cup dried vegetable or fruit; 1 cup vegetable or fruit juice; 2 cups leafy salad greens

  Protein foods, 1 oz-equivalent is: 1 oz lean meat, poultry, seafood; 1 egg; 1 Tbsp peanut butter; ½ oz nuts or seeds. Also, ¼ cup cooked beans or peas may also be counted as 1 oz-equivalent

  Dairy, 1 cup equivalent is: 1 cup milk, fortified soy beverage, or yogurt; 1½ oz natural cheese (e.g., cheddar); 2 oz of processed cheese (e.g., American)

cEstimated calorie needs per day by age, gender, and physical activity level. Patterns from 1,600 to 3,200 cal meet the nutritional needs of children ages 9 years and older and adults

dVegetable and protein foods subgroup amounts are shown in this table as weekly amounts, because it would be difficult for consumers to select foods from all subgroups daily

eWhole-grain subgroup amounts shown in this table are minimums. More whole grains up to all of the grains recommended may be selected, with offsetting decreases in the amounts of enriched refined grains

fThe amount of dairy foods in the 1,200 and 1,400 cal patterns have increased to reflect new RDAs for calcium that are higher than previous recommendations for children ages 4–8 years

gOils and soft margarines include vegetable, nut, and fish oils and soft vegetable oil table spreads that have no trans fats

hSoFAS are calories from solid fats and added sugars. The limit for SoFAS is the remaining amount of calories in each food pattern after selecting the specified amounts in each food group in nutrient-dense forms (forms that are fat-free or low-fat and with no added sugars). The number of SoFAS is lower in the 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 cal patterns than in the 1,000 cal pattern. The nutrient goals for the 1,200–1,600 cal patterns are higher and require that more calories be used for nutrient-dense foods from the food groups