Aromatherapy and Essential Oils for Beginners: Au Naturoil: A Guide for Stress Relief, Healing Remedies and Natural Cleaners

Chapter 15. Chinese Herbal Formulas

The fifty-six herbal formulas included in this chapter have been selected for their safety, effectiveness, broad range of application, and relative availability. Patent medicines (that is, traditional herbal formulas in pill form) are given here to make this easiest for the most people. Loose raw herbs are the strongest and most customizable option, but they can be more costly and require significantly greater commitment in both acquiring and learning how to properly combine and prepare them.

These are common formulas that are useful for a wide range of ailments. If you do not live near a Chinese herbs shop, the patent medicines can be found online. The name of each patent is given in pinyin, the current standard of romanization for the Mandarin Chinese language. This is done because whether you order online or visit an herbs shop, the pinyin name is the one most easily recognized, so you’ll get the exact formula you want. Also, there are many English-language herbs companies that have their own versions of the traditional formulas, with many different English names possible for the nearly identical formula. (The formulas are “nearly identical” because many companies have modified the original formula according to their idea of improving it or by replacing an expensive or harder-to-get herb with a more common one with similar functions.) If you give those companies the pinyin name, they will be able to provide you with their version of the appropriate formula.

English translations are provided when possible and helpful. In cases where the translation only states the names of the formula’s primary herbs, those are not included. The common name is sometimes given when that is most widely used. For example, Bao Xin An You translates to “Maintain Peaceful Heart Oil,” but it is best known by its common Cantonese name, Po Sum On.

Patent groupings given here are based on traditional formula categories but have been simplified for your convenience and to accommodate this select number of formulas. They are grouped according to either the general conditions they treat along with the organ or organs most commonly involved or according to their primary purpose, such as the tonics for Qi, Yang, Yin, and Blood. Some formulas include common variations, modifications to the main formula that have become standardized in order to address a different but related range of symptoms.

Most conditions are treated by more than one formula. This is because there can be many underlying patterns of disharmony that present with similar symptoms. Selecting the formula that most matches your pattern will always yield the best results. The category, functions, and typical symptoms information will help with your selection, and in Chapter 18 you’ll find additional guidance.

Note that while all the formulas are generally safe, there are a very few instances where cautions are given, primarily regarding pregnancy. In those cases, there is still no inherent toxicity in the herbs. Those formulas contain herbs that move the blood, which is very useful in pain conditions. However, those herbs will consider the fetus as a type of Blood Stasis that needs to be moved, which may result in a miscarriage.

Lungs: Common Cold with Variations

1. Yin Qiao Jie Du Pian

Category: Releases the Surface

Function: Releases External Wind Heat.

Typical Symptoms: Common cold with fever more than chills, sore throat, headache, body ache. Can help with tonsillitis, measles.

Special Instructions: Best taken within the first day of onset of symptoms; use for three days only. Because it releases the surface and dispels Heat, it can be used off-label for some skin conditions, such as poison ivy, poison oak, or hives.

Additional Note: This is a “medicine chest” formula that everyone should keep on hand.

2. Xiao Feng San

Translation: Eliminate Wind Powder

Category: Releases Wind from Skin and Channels

Functions: Disperses Wind and Damp, clears Heat and cools Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Eczema, hives, acne, dermatitis, itchy, red skin lesions with pus.

3. Bi Yan Pian

Translation: Nasal Inflammation Pills

Category: Releases the Surface

Function: Releases External Wind Heat or Wind Cold.

Typical Symptoms: Common cold with nasal symptoms, sinus pain, sinusitis, 

facial sinus, and nasal congestion.

4. Gan Mao Ling

Category: Releases the Surface

Function: Releases External Wind Heat or Wind Cold.

Typical Symptoms: Common cold and flu, swollen lymph glands, headache, sore throat, body aches.

5. Yu Ping Feng San

Translation: Jade Windscreen Powder

Category: Stabilizes the Exterior

Functions: Tonifies Weiqi, stops sweating.

Typical Symptoms: Frequent colds, aversion to wind, spontaneous sweat.

Additional Notes: Boosts immune system, increases resistance to disease, prevents colds.

6. Chuan Xiong Cha Tiao Tang

Category: Releases the Surface (for head and neck)

Functions: Disperses External Wind Cold, alleviates pain.

Typical Symptoms: Common cold with pain, headache, nasal congestion, sinus infection.

7. Zhi Ke Chuan Bei Pi Pa Lu

Category: Releases Surface

Functions: Dispels Wind, tonifies Lungs.

Typical Symptoms: Cough from many causes, such as external Wind, Lung Qi deficiency, and Lung Yin deficiency with hot phlegm.

Additional Note: This is a cough syrup.

8. Lo Han Guo Zhi Ke Lu or Lo Han Guo Chong Ji

Category: Nourishes Yin

Function: Moistens and cools Lungs.

Typical Symptoms: Cough with Heat (sore throat or fever), especially with Lung Yin deficiency.

Additional Notes: Lo Han Guo Zhi Ke Lu is a syrup and may be stronger for deep cough with yellow phlegm. Lo Han Guo Chong Ji is a powder pressed into cubes for tea.

9. Superior Sore Throat Powder Spray

Function: Clears external Wind Heat or internal Heat toxin.

Typical Symptoms: Sore throat, inflammation, sinus and ear infections, open sores in mouth or skin.

Additional Note: This is used topically in throat or on skin.

CAUTION: In throat application, use for short term only. Stop use once throat is better.

10. Watermelon Frost

Typical Symptoms: Sore throat, toothache, mouth sores/ulcerations.

Additional Note: Similar to Superior Sore Throat Powder Spray but milder.

Lungs: Asthma, Emphysema, Bronchitis

11. Qing Qi Hua Tan Wan

Translation: Clear Qi, Expel Phlegm Pill

Categories: Clears Heat, Transforms Phlegm

Functions: Clears Heat, expels Phlegm, descends Qi, stops cough.

Typical Symptoms: Cough with thick, yellow, sticky phlegm, fullness in the chest and diaphragm, sinus congestion, asthma, emphysema, bronchitis. Possible nausea.

Additional Note: Best used for Spleen deficiency generating internal phlegm.

12. Ping Chuan Wan

Translation: Calm Asthma Pill

Categories: Tonifies Qi, Transforms Phlegm

Functions: Tonifies Qi, Lungs, and Kidneys; resolves Phlegm.

Typical Symptoms: Chronic cough, difficult breathing, asthma, emphysema, bronchitis.

Additional Note: Best used for Kidneys failing to grasp Lung Qi.

Stomach/Spleen: Digestive Disorders

13. Ping Wei Pian

Translation: Peaceful Stomach Tablets

Category: Transforms Damp

Functions: Dries Damp, benefits Spleen, harmonizes the Middle Jiao (primarily Stomach and Spleen), moves and regulates Qi.

Typical Symptoms: Loss of taste and appetite, stomachache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal distension.

Additional Note: A classic formula for most types of stomach distress.

14. Kang Ning Wan

Translation: Pill Curing

Common Name: Stomach Curing Pills

Category: Transforms Damp Phlegm

Functions: Disperses Wind Damp, resolves Spleen Damp.

Typical Symptoms: Stomach flu, nausea, cramping, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, food poisoning. Also used for motion sickness and morning sickness.

Additional Notes: Most widely known as Stomach Curing Pills. This is a “medicine chest” formula that everyone should keep on hand for stomach first aid.

15. Bao He Wan

Translation: Preserve Harmony Pill

Category: Reduce Food Stagnation

Functions: Disperses food stagnation and accumulations of Phlegm or Hot Phlegm in the Stomach, invigorates Stomach Qi.

Typical Symptoms: Abdominal and epigastric distension and pain, belching, abdominal gas, constipation, diarrhea, high blood pressure.

Additional Note: Can lower cholesterol.

16. Shen Ling Bai Zhu Pian

Category: Tonifies Qi

Functions: Builds Qi, strengthens the Spleen, resolves Damp.

Typical Symptoms: Fatigue, poor digestion, poor appetite, indigestion, belching, abdominal bloating, weight loss, diarrhea, morning sickness.

17. Liu Jun Zi Tang

Translation: Six Gentlemen Formula

Category: Tonifies Qi

Functions: Tonifies Spleen Qi, transforms Damp and Phlegm, stops vomit.

Typical Symptoms: Poor appetite, indigestion, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.

18. Xiang Xia Liu Jun Zi Tang

Category: Tonifies Qi

Functions: Tonifies and regulates Spleen Qi, harmonizes Stomach and Spleen, transforms Cold Damp, stops pain.

Typical Symptoms: Poor appetite, abdominal distension with pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. Used for morning sickness.

Additional Note: This builds on Liu Jun Zi Tang, adding two herbs for a stronger effect, and also warms the center.

19. Ban Xia Huo Po Tang

Category: Moves Qi

Function: Clears Stomach Damp and constrained Stomach Qi.

Typical Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, food stagnation or poisoning, morning sickness, cough with profuse phlegm, and a sense of having a plum-pit stuck in the throat (plum-pit Qi).

Heart: Insomnia, Anxiety

20. An Mian Pian

Translation: Peaceful Sleep Tablet

Categories: Nourishes Heart, Calms Spirit

Functions: Cools Liver Heat, smoothes Liver Qi, calms spirit.

Typical Symptoms: Insomnia, anxiety, restlessness, eye irritation, dream-disturbed sleep.

Additional Note: This is a “medicine chest” formula that everyone should keep on hand.

21. Tian Wang Bu Xing Dan

Translation: Celestial Emperor’s Tonify the Heart Pill

Categories: Nourishes Heart, Calms Spirit

Functions: Nourishes Heart Blood and Yin, nourishes Kidney Yin, clears Yin-deficient Heat, calms spirit.

Typical Symptoms: Insomnia, irritability, anxiety, vivid dreams, fatigue, constipation, poor concentration, forgetfulness, nocturnal emission.

22. Gui Pi Wan

Translation: Restore the Spleen Pill

Category: Tonifies Blood

Functions: Nourishes Heart Yin and Blood, tonifies Heart and Spleen Qi, calms spirit.

Typical Symptoms: Insomnia, fatigue, night sweats, palpitations, restlessness, dream-disturbed sleep, anxiety, forgetfulness, poor digestion, abdominal distension.

23. Suan Zao Ren Tang

Translation: Sour Jujube Decoction

Categories: Nourishes Heart, Calms Spirit

Functions: Nurtures the Heart, nourishes Blood, calms spirit, clears Heat.

Typical Symptoms: Insomnia, irritability, palpitations, night sweats, dizziness, dry throat and mouth.

Liver: Detox, Stress

24. Xiao Yao Wan

Translation: Free and Easy Wanderer Pill

Category: Regulates and Harmonizes Liver and Spleen

Functions: Spreads constrained Liver Qi, tonifies the Spleen, nourishes Blood, harmonizes Liver and Spleen.

Typical Symptoms: Digestive disorders, menstrual disorders, pain below the ribs, emotional upset, dizziness, headache, fatigue, blurred vision.

Additional Notes: May also be helpful with food and airborne allergies. It is a calming formula.

25. Shu Gan Wan

Translation: Soothe the Liver Pills

Category: Regulates and Harmonizes Liver and Spleen

Functions: Spreads constrained Liver Qi, regulates the Spleen, nourishes Blood, stops pain.

Typical Symptoms: Abdominal distension and pain, gas, belching, diarrhea, poor digestion, poor appetite.

Additional Notes: May be helpful for hepatitis.

CAUTION: Contraindicated during pregnancy.

26. Long Dan Xie Gan Wan

Category: Clears Heat from the Liver

Functions: Clears Fire from the Liver and Gall Bladder, clears and drains Damp Heat from the Lower Jiao.

Typical Symptoms: Headache, dizziness, pain below the ribs, red and sore eyes, reduced hearing or tinnitus, easy to anger, difficult or painful urination, herpes.

27. Dan Zhi Xiao Yao Wan

Category: Regulates and Harmonizes Liver and Spleen

Functions: Spreads constrained Liver Qi, clears Liver Heat, tonifies the Spleen, nourishes Blood, harmonizes Liver and Spleen.

Typical Symptoms: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), abdominal and breast distension, headache, irritability, poor appetite, restlessness, menopausal hot flashes.

Additional Note: For menstrual disorders with Liver Heat signs.

28. Xiao Chai Hu Tang

Category: Regulates and Harmonizes Liver and Spleen

Functions: Spreads constrained Liver Qi, clears Liver Heat, tonifies the Spleen, nourishes Blood, harmonizes Liver and Spleen, regulates the Gall Bladder.

Typical Symptoms: Poor appetite, poor sleep, neck and shoulder tension, full sensation in the chest and below the ribs, headache, anxiety, alternating fever and chills.

Kidneys: Low Energy, Urinary 

and Sexual Dysfunction, Arthritis

29. Ba Zheng Tang

Translation: Eight Rectifying Powder

Category: Clears Damp Heat

Function: Clears Damp Heat in the Kidneys and Urinary Bladder.

Typical Symptoms: Urinary tract infections, painful urination, prostatitis, bladder stones, dry mouth and throat, abdominal distension and pain.

CAUTION: Contraindicated during pregnancy.

30. Wu Ling San

Categories: Promotes Urination, Drains Damp

Functions: Tonifies Spleen, warms Yang, promotes urination and drains Damp.

Typical Symptoms: Headache, irritability, fever, edema, ascites, urinary frequency and retention, diarrhea and other digestive disturbances, dizziness, shortness of breath.

31. Du Huo Ji Sheng Wan

Category: Dispels Wind Damp

Functions: Dispels Wind Damp, disperses painful obstruction in the channels and joints, tonifies Liver Kidneys, Qi, and Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Arthritis, rheumatism, low back and knee pain, sciatica, shortness of breath, aversion to cold, possible numbness.

CAUTION during pregnancy.

32. Kang Gu Zheng Sheng Pian

Translation: Counters Bone Hyperplasia Pill

Category: Tonifies Yang

Functions: Tonifies Qi, Yang, Kidneys, and Liver; benefits marrow, tendon, and bone.

Typical Symptoms: General back pain, vertebral bone spurs, subluxation, spondylitis, spinal inflammation.

33. Te Xiao Bai Shi Wan

Translation: Special Effective Discharge (Kidney) Stone Pill

Common Name: Passwan Formula

Category: Clears Damp Heat

Functions: Clears Damp Heat in Kidneys and Urinary Bladder; benefits Kidneys, Bladder, Spleen, and Intestines.

Typical Symptoms: Kidney, bladder, and ureter stones, kidney infection or inflammation, blood in the urine.

Qi Tonics

34. Ba Zhen Wan

Translation: Eight Treasures Pill

Category: Tonifies Qi and Blood

Function: Tonifies Qi and blood.

Typical Symptoms: Fatigue, poor appetite, loose stool, heart palpitations, anxiety, shortness of breath, menstrual irregularities.

Additional Notes: It promotes tissue regeneration after surgery or prolonged illness. This formula is a blend of the Qi tonic Si Jun Zi Tang and the Blood-nourishing formula Si Wu Tang. Combining the benefits of both, it’s a great all-purpose tonic. One of my herbs teachers called this “Chinese vitamin pills,” in that it’s a formula that has something to benefit just about everyone. This is a “medicine chest” formula that everyone should keep on hand.

35. Si Jun Zi Tang

Translation: Four Gentlemen Decoction

Category: Tonifies Qi

Function: Tonifies Spleen Qi.

Typical Symptoms: Low energy, poor appetite, loose stool, abdominal gas.

36. Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan

Translation: Tonifies the Middle (Jiao) and Supplements the Qi Pill

Category: Tonifies Qi

Functions: Tonifies the Qi of the Middle Jiao, raises Yang Qi (primarily Spleen Yang).

Typical Symptoms: Abdominal distension and gas, loose stool, spontaneous sweat, aversion to cold, all types of prolapse/sinking Qi from Spleen Qi and Yang deficiency. Prolapse symptoms include prolapsed rectum, colon, and uterus, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, frequent miscarriage, hernia, chronic diarrhea.

37. Shen Qi Da Bu Wan

Translation: Ginseng and Astragalus Great Tonifying Pill

Category: Tonifies Qi

Functions: Tonifies Qi and Weiqi, strengthens the immune system.

Typical Symptoms: General weakness, low energy, debility, fatigue, digestive disorders due to Spleen Qi deficiency.

Additional Notes: This formula has only two ingredients, ginseng (Ren Shen) and astragalus (Huang Qi). It may be used effectively by itself and may be taken with other tonic formulas when the presentation is appropriate.

Blood Tonics

38. Si Wu Tang

Translation: Four Substance Decoction

Category: Nourishes Blood

Function: Nourishes Blood, regulates the Liver.

Typical Symptoms: Anemia, fatigue, dizziness, muscle tension, numerous dry symptoms like dry hair, dry skin, dry nails, constipation, and delayed or absent menses.

39. Shou Wu Zhi/Pian

Categories: Nourishes Blood, Tonifies Jing

Functions: Nourishes Liver Blood, Jing, and Yin; moves Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Fatigue, delayed or absent menses, dry hair, skin, throat, and lungs, premature gray hair, insomnia, blurred vision, floaters (spots in the visual field, male sexual depletion.

Additional Note: Helps lower cholesterol.

Yang Tonics

40. Jin Gui Shen Qi Wan

Translation: Kidney Qi Pill from the Golden Cabinet

Category: Tonifies Yang

Function: Warms and tonifies Kidney Yang.

Typical Symptoms: Cold hands and feet, low back pain, frequent or profuse urination, incontinence, edema, impotence, infertility, other sexual dysfunction.

Additional Note: Based on the Yin tonic Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, with herbs added to address Kidney Yang.

41. Ba Wei Di Huang Wan

Category: Tonifies Yang

Functions: Tonifies and warms Kidney and Spleen Qi and Yang.

Typical Symptoms: Poor digestion, cold hands and feet, low back pain, frequent or profuse urination, incontinence, edema.

Additional Notes: Useful for diabetes and to prevent senility. Based on the Yin tonic Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, with herbs added to address Kidney and Spleen Yang. There are at least two formulas with this name; the formula intended here contains cinnamon bark (Rou Gui) and aconite (Fu Zi) as Yang tonics.

42. You Gui Wan

Translation: Restores the Right (Kidney) Pill

Category: Tonifies Yang

Functions: Tonifies and warms Kidney Yang, nourishes Jing and Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Debility from chronic illness, cold limbs, hands, and feet, low back pain, diarrhea, spermatorrhea, impotence, infertility, incontinence, edema.

Yin Tonics

43. Liu Wei Di Huang Wan

Category: Nourishes Yin

Functions: Nourishes Kidney, Liver, and Spleen Yin.

Typical Symptoms: Low back pain, dizziness, restlessness, insomnia, tinnitus, reduced hearing, night sweats, sore throat, impotence.

44. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan

Category: Nourishes Yin

Functions: Nourishes Kidney Yin and Liver Yin and Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Night blindness, dry or painful eyes, blurred vision, reduced visual acuity, light sensitivity.

Additional Note: This is a variation of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan with two herbs added to enhance benefits for the eyes.

45. Ming Mu Di Huang Wan

Translation: Improves Vision Pill (with Rehmannia)

Category: Nourishes Yin

Functions: Nourishes Kidney Yin and Liver Yin and Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Night blindness, dry or painful eyes, blurred vision, reduced visual acuity, light sensitivity, glaucoma and cataracts.

Additional Notes: This is a variation of Qi Ju Di Huang Wan, with herbs added to clear Liver Internal Heat and Wind, and treats eye disorders more strongly than the principal formula.

46. Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan

Category: Nourishes Yin

Functions: Nourishes Kidney Yin, clears Heat.

Typical Symptoms: Night sweats, intermittent low-grade fever, restlessness, poor sleep, high blood pressure, urinary difficulty, low back pain.

Additional Notes: This is a variation of Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, with two added herbs to clear strong Kidney Yin Deficiency Heat consuming Lung, Liver, and Heart Yin fluids.

47. Da Bu Yin Wan

Translation: Great Tonify the Yin Pill

Category: Nourishes Yin

Functions: Nourishes Yin, descends Fire.

Typical Symptoms: Night sweats, insomnia, menopausal hot flashes, spontaneous emission, irritability, knee and leg pain with heat.

Pain: General, Traumatic, Arthritis

48. Yi Yi Ren Tang

Category: Dispels Wind Damp

Functions: Dispels Wind Damp from the surface and channels, nourishes and moistens Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Swollen and painful joints primarily in the hands, feet, arms, and neck, neuritis, arthritis, rheumatism, fever.

49. Yan Hu Suo Zhi Tong Pian

Categories: Moves Blood, Dispels Blood Stasis

Functions: Moves Qi and blood in the channels, dispels Wind Damp.

Typical Symptoms: Headache, sinus pain, stomachache, menstrual cramps, toothache, most pain disorders.

Additional Notes: Zhi Tong Pian means “Stops Pain Tablets.” One of my herbs teachers called the herb Yan Hu Suo “Chinese aspirin.”

50. Yunnan Te Chuan Tian Qi Pian

Categories: Moves Blood, Stops Bleeding

Functions: Warms and moves Blood, breaks up Blood Stasis, stops bleeding, reduces swelling and pain.

Typical Symptoms: Nosebleeds, blood in urine, bleeding from trauma, bruising, menstrual cramps.

Additional Note: Helps lower blood pressure and serum cholesterol. This is a single-herb tablet of Tienqi ginseng.

CAUTION: Contraindicated during pregnancy.

51. Yunnan Bai Yao

Translation: Yunnan (Province) White Medicine

Categories: Moves Blood, Stops Bleeding

Functions: Moves Blood, stops bleeding and pain.

Typical Symptoms: Pain, internal or external bleeding (may be applied topically for external bleeding), swelling and pain from injury, severe menstrual bleeding, bleeding ulcers.

Additional Notes: This is a “medicine chest” formula that everyone should keep on hand. It is a powerful first-aid remedy for most pain and bleeding conditions. Not a traditional formula, this is available in powder or capsule form only. The main known ingredient is Tienqi ginseng, but it contains other proprietary secret ingredients.

CAUTION: Contraindicated during pregnancy.

52. Jin Gu Die Shang Wan

Translation: Muscle and Bone Traumatic Injury Pill

Categories: Moves Blood, Stops Bleeding and Pain

Functions: Moves the Blood, stops bleeding, strengthens tendons, promotes healing.

Typical Symptoms: Acute traumatic injuries of all sorts, including fractures, strains, and sprains, with swelling and pain.

CAUTION: Contraindicated during pregnancy.

53. Dan Shen Yin

Category: Moves Blood, Stops Bleeding

Functions: Moves Blood and Qi, disperses Blood Stasis, stops pain.

Typical Symptoms: Chest pain, angina, heart attack, stroke, abdominal pain radiating to the back and shoulder blades.

Additional Notes: Helps lower blood pressure and serum cholesterol. The classic formula has just three ingredients and generally addresses the Middle Jiao while still addressing Heart and Liver Blood Stasis. Contemporary pill forms contain fourteen ingredients, more strongly addressing the Heart and Liver. Both have Dan Shen as the main herb. The listed symptoms are more fully addressed by the pill form.

CAUTION: Contraindicated during pregnancy.

54. Chuan Bi Tang

Translation: Relieves Painful Obstruction Decoction

Categories: Releases Wind Cold Damp, Moves Blood

Functions: Clears Wind Cold Damp in the channels, breaks up Blood Stasis.

Typical Symptoms: Arthritis, bursitis, rheumatism, and other joint pain, especially in the upper body.

Topicals for Pain

55. Bao Xin An You

Translation: Maintain Peaceful Heart Oil

Common Name: Po Sum On

Category: Topical to Move Blood

Function: Clears Wind Cold, warms and moves Blood.

Typical Symptoms: Pain syndromes, rheumatism, chronic pain, acute injury.

Additional Notes: This is best known as Po Sum On. It is a “medicine chest” formula that everyone should keep on hand.

56. Zhen Gu Shui

Translation: Rectify Bone Liquid

Category: Topical to Move Qi and Blood

Functions: Moves Qi and Blood, relaxes muscles and tendons.

Typical Symptoms: Traumatic injuries of all sorts, fractures, sprains, torn muscles and ligaments.

Additional Notes: Promotes healing and stops pain. Popular among athletes and martial artists.