The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications

Vitis vinifera Linnaeus

 

Grape

 

“In the Dionysian inebriation, in the tempestuous dash of all the scales of the soul in narcotic stimulation or the unleashing of the urges of spring, nature expresses itself in her highest power; she brings individual beings back to one another and allows them to experience themselves as one.”

 

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE DIE DIONYSISCHE WELTANSCHAUUNG [THE DIONYSIAN WORLDVIEW] (1870)

 

Family

 

Vitaceae (Grape Family; previously also Ampelideae)

Forms and Subspecies

 

A number of subspecies and varieties of grape have been described:

 

Vitis vinifera L. ssp. caucasia Vavilov

Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa DC. (cultivated form for producing fruit)

Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmel.) Berger (wild form)

Vitis vinifera L. ssp. vinifera (cultivated subspecies)

Vitis vinifera L. var. apyrena L.

 

There also are numerous cultivars (grape varietals) that are important primarily in viniculture because of their different tastes (Pabst 1887, 2:211*).

Synonyms

 

Vitis sylvestris C.C. Gmel.

Folk Names

 

Angur (Hindi), drakh, draksha (Sanskrit), duracina, grape, grapevine, grape vine, gvid (Celtic, “bush”), ‘inab (Iraq), khamr (Arabic),323 palmes, parra, reba, rebe, rebo, rebstock, vigne, vine, vitis sativa (Latin), weinranke, weinrebe, weinstock, wynreben, zame weinreben

Folk Names for Wine

 

Aqua vitae, oinos, sharab, vin, vinho, vino, vinum, wein, woinos

History

 

The grape plant originated in Asia and probably was used to prepare inebriating drinks from a very early date. Current research suggests that humans have been making beverages by fermenting grapes for at least some nine thousand years (McGovern 2003). In the summer of 1990, clay drinking vessels were found in Godin Tepe (Iran), chemical analyses of which have clearly shown that they were used for drinking wine. These sensational finds were dated from 3500 to 2900 B.C.E. (McGovern et al. 1995). Soon thereafter, the first well-documented viticulture (vineyards, wine cellars) flourished in Mesopotamia. It quickly spread from Asia Minor to Egypt, Crete, and Greece (Lesko 1978). In ancient times, the Romans spread viticulture into all the areas of their empire that had suitable climate and soil conditions.

In Egypt, the cultivation of wine did not become established until the New Kingdom, when grapes were pressed and poured into different containers with enthusiasm. Numerous wine flagons have been discovered that include details about the vintage, quality, and location and the name of the head vintner (Lesko 1978). In the Nile valley, wine was a drink of the upper classes; it was enjoyed at private feasts as well as at religious offering festivals (libations).

The spread of viticulture that occurred in the following years was very closely related to the Christianization that was decreed “from above” (Marzahn 1994, 90, 96*). Whereas the Dionysian religion had been a cult of ecstasy, Christianity degenerated into a religion of alcoholics (Daniélou 1992*).

Today, viticulture is practiced throughout the world and has become an industry of great economic significance. The plant itself is not psychoactive, but its most important products, wine and distilled alcohol (brandy, cognac, et cetera), are.

Distribution

 

Current evidence indicates that the grape and viticulture originated not in Greece but in Asia Minor. It may have begun in the region between the Caucasus and the Hindukush mountains, where wild grapes can still be found today (Pabst 1887, 2:212*). Today, cultivation has taken the grape into every part of the world (including North and South America, Australia, and South Africa).

 

A grapevine (Vitis vinifera) growing on Crete.

 

 

A wild grapevine (Vitis sp.) in the Mexican rain forest. (Photographed in Naha’, Chiapas, Mexico)

 

“The wine has been transformed into nectar, thereby breaking the curse that has been attached to it since ancient times. It is now a magical drink that helps in crossing the threshold; it is the blood of the sun and of the moon.”

 

MIGUEL SERRANO EL/ELLA—DAS BUCH DER MAGISCHEN LIEBE [HE/SHE—THE BOOK OF MAGICAL LOVE]

 

(1982, 32)

 

Cultivation

 

Grapes are propagated primarily from cuttings. These are allowed sit in water until they develop roots and then planted. Grapes will grow well only in temperate climates where the average annual temperature does not exceed 17°C (63°F).

The “proper” method for growing grapes was a subject for many authors in ancient times (Hagenow 1982, 171 ff.).

Appearance

 

This twining climber can grow to a length of over 10 meters. It has a woody, often twisted stem and a woody, branched root that grows deep into the ground. The bush develops numerous climbing branches that divide like forks. The long-stemmed, heart-shaped leaves are retuse, with three to five lobes, and usually have a serrated or jagged margin. The flower panicles develop on the lower vines and have yellow-green, tiny, usually monoclinous flowers. These develop into the characteristic green, reddish, red, or blue clusters of fruits (grapes).

Vitis vinifera can be easily confused with wild Vitis species.

Psychoactive Material

 

—Fruits (grapes)

—Wine

Preparation and Dosage

 

The juice that is pressed from the grapes is fermented to produce wine. Over the course of history, numerous methods have been developed for making wine. Wine is a psychoactive compound in and of itself. But in ancient times, many psychoactive plants were also added to wine (see the table on the following page) to produce specific types of effects (Ruck 1995*). Such additives were known as “flowers of the wine” (Ruck 1982). There were essentially two methods: In the first, the additives were placed directly into the fermenting mixture, while in the second the finished wine served as a solvent for macerating specific substances. One famous concoction was mandrake wine, which was prepared by adding fresh or dried mandrake roots (Mandragora officinarum) to the grape must. Other recipes added root pieces to the finished wine. Because wine to which “flowers” had been added had much more potent effects, it was served with great care.

The ancient Greeks were very aware of the significance of dosing wine. The comedy Dionysos or Semele, by the poet Eubulos (fourth century B.C.E.), provides an indication:

 

For reasonable people I prepare only three mixing jars [with wine and water]: one for health (hygíeia), which they drink first; the second for love and pleasure, and the third for sleep. When that has been emptied, the people who are called wise will go home. The fourth mixing jar no longer belongs to me, but to immoderation. The fifth is full of howls; the sixth causes gushing and bawling; the seventh brings black eyes; the eighth calls to the servant of the court; the ninth is full of anger and disgust. The tenth leads to madness (manía) and stumbling. If you fill it into a small container, then this will easily knock the legs out from under he who empties it and throw him to the ground.

 

In general, the Greeks regarded their different wines as too inebriating to be consumed undiluted. Prior to consumption, wine was normally mixed with water in a 1:2 or 1:3 proportion. In addition, wine was rarely drunk unadulterated. Numerous aromatic, medicinal, and inebriating additives (aromatites) are known from ancient times (Weeber 1993, 35). Although the recipes for most preparations were kept secret, some have come down to us. These indicate that oleander (Nerium oleander L.; cf. honey), hemp (“wine of Democritus”; cf. Cannabis sativa), opium (cf. Papaver somniferum), and various nightshades, especially mandrake (“the grape of the field”; Mandragora officinarum) and henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), were all added to wine. In ancient Italy, crapula,“inebriating resin,” was an important additive (Weeber 1993, 41).

During the Middle Ages, plants were added to wine to produce specific psychoactive effects:

 

A person in whom melancholy is growing, who has a dark mood and is always sad. And he should drink often the wine with the boiled arum root [Aaron aculatum = Arum maculatum L.], and it will lessen the melancholy in him, that is, it will disappear, as will the fever. (Hildegard von Bingen, Physica 1.49)

 

Spiced wine continued to enjoy great popularity during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Clareth, also known as Luter drink, was renowned in the city of Bremen and the rest of northern Germany. This was a heavily spiced wine to which honey, sugar, saffron (Crocus sativa), cloves, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) had been added. It was served in the Bremen ratskeller (the inn in the city hall) and in the pharmacy of the city hall (Marzahn 1994, 96*).

 

The grapevine originated in Asia, where it was derived from a wild form. The earliest Chinese literature describes wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) under the name chien-sui-tzû. (Illustration from Nan-fang-ts’ao-mu chuang)

 

 

Triumphal procession of the wine god Dionysos, who was originally of Asian origin. (Floor mosaic, Roman period, Cyprus)

 

“I saw Bacchus on distant crags

teaching songs—posterity, believe it—

and Nymphs learning and the keen

ears of the goat-footed Satyrs.

 

Euhoe, my mind quivers with strange fear,

and, breast full of Bacchus, rejoices in commotion,

euhoe, spare me, Father Freedom,

spare, fearsome with grievous stem-wand!

 

It is divine right for me to sing

the stubborn bacchants, the fountain of wine and rivers

of rich milk, the hollow

trunks honey-flow.”

 

HORACE

 

ODE 2.19

 

(IN LOWRIE 1997, 206)

 

 

Psychoactive Additives to Wine

 

(from Krug 1993; Macmillan 1991, 427*; Pabst 1887, 216*; Root 1996*; Ruck 1992; Weeber 1993; supplemented)

 

 

 

 

Grapes not only are the source of the juice that can be fermented to make wine but also are a very healthful source of nourishment. (Woodcut from Tabernaemontanus, Neu Vollkommen Kräuter-Buch, 1731)

 

Ritual Use

 

Grape wine was at the center of the cult and mysteries of Dionysos (= Bacchus). Dionysos was both a god of fertility who was venerated as the lord of plants in rural festivals and a shamanic god of psychopharmaka who was celebrated in ecstatic cults and who revealed himself in secret mysteries (Merkelbach 1988).

“The Vine-Dionysus once had no father, either. His nativity appears to have been that of an earlier Dionysus, the Toadstool-god; for the Greeks believed that mushrooms and toadstools were engendered by lightning—not sprung from seed like all other plants. When the tyrants of Athens, Corinth and Sicyon legalized Dionysus-worship in their cities, they limited the orgies, it seems, by substituting wine for toadstools; thus the myth of the Toadstool-Dionysus became attached to the Vine-Dionysus.”

 

ROBERT GRAVES

 

THE WHITE GODDESS (1948, 159*)

 

 

From Der Formenschatz [Treasury of Forms], 1885, no. 105.

 

Dionysos was the prototypical shaman of the ancient world (Emboden 1977). The mythology that surrounded him was involved with issues of life and death, healing, and ecstasy and frenzy. He was born two or even three times and was once dismembered and killed by the Titans. But since he is a god and by definition immortal, he was born again knowing. The experience of being dismembered gave him the knowledge of the infinity of life. The dismembered god demonstrates that no matter what happens, there is actually nothing to fear. Salvation awaits at the end of all horror. Dionysos acts like a shaman in other ways as well. He has animal spirits that aid him or animal identities (panther, lynx, lion, tiger, dolphin, snake, bull, goat), has ecstatic music (drums, tambourine, cymbals, flutes) at his command that bring him to rapture, and often garbs himself—like the Siberian shamans—in women’s clothing and indulges in transsexual excesses. He is the wearer of a mask and a singer, and his goat song (tragedy) is renowned. He is the founder of the theater and of the bacchanal mysteries. He is also knowledgeable about plants and is a healer.

Orgiastic wine festivals were held in many places in Dionysos’s honor, and these often escalated into wild Bacchanalias. The temple of Dionysos in Pompeii had a wine garden in which the symposiums of the inebriated god took place. Great quantities of wine flowed there; wine, the gift of Dionysos, was reverently known as “the blood of the earth” as well as the “blood of Dionysos” or was simply named after the god himself, Dionysos. It was hoped that he would make it possible for humans to partake of immortality. Thus did the blind prophet Tiresias speak:

 

Young man, there are two things that come first for mankind: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her what you like—she nourishes mortals with food; the son of Semele came later, and he is Demeter’s counterpart, since he discovered and gave to mortals a drink, the juice of the grape. It puts an end to the pain of suffering humans, when they are filled with the stream of the vine, and it gives sleep to forget the troubles of the day; there is no other cure for pain. Itself a god, to the gods it is poured as a libation, so that through Dionysus people may have good fortune. (Euripides, The Bacchae, 274 ff.; Eds. D. Franklin, J. Harrison, J. Affleck 2000, 15)

 

According to mythology, Dionysos carried the first vines to each of the places in the world where grapes still grow and planted them himself (Daniélou 1992a*). In the Greco-Roman world, a goat kid was sacrificed when grapevines were planted so that the grapes would burst from the vines and Dionysos could receive the blood of his favorite animal.

Wine was one of the agents used to induce the Dionysian ecstasy324 (Detienne 1992; Emboden 1977; Evans 1988). Drinking festivals were held both in Greece and later in the Roman Empire (Murray 1990). Such a drinking festival was known as a symposion or symposium, “drinking together.” The Latin name for the leader of the symposium was magister, “master.” He was responsible for the dosages, for the ratio of wine to water, and for any psychoactive additives that may have been used. As Xenophon stated: “So is it best to come home from drinking: I am no longer sober, but also not too inebriated.” A symposium was first and foremost a communal drinking fest, often of an intellectual nature. This was the place where the philosophy of the ancients (e.g., of Plato and Socrates) was born.

In India and the Himalayan region, wine is sacred to Shiva (cf. Aconitum feroxCannabis indicaPapaver somniferumalcohol). Shiva and Dionysos were already being equated in ancient times (Daniélou 1992a*). Wine also plays a significant role in the tantric cult (Serrano 1982). Since one of the aims of the cult was to ritually break social taboos, wine drinking was an important means for doing so, as Hindus are normally forbidden to consume alcohol.

In the Catholic Church, the consumption of wine has remained central to the rite of communion into the present time:

 

Although wine was already indispensable in the Church because of communion, it also played a role there for other reasons. For the German Pagan honored his gods and folk heroes by raising a glass to them, while the newly converted German Christian drank to commemorate those saints who had gained his admiration because their spiritual or bodily strength had been tested, and the Church in its tolerance incorporated these so-called minnetrinkeninto their rituals after having tried in vain for centuries to suppress them; the bishops were almost incapable of limiting the number of saints in whose honor, or minne, they would drink. (Schultze 1867, 104)

 

Many contemporary wine aficionados have developed a cult around wine that is known as “wine culture.” But this activity is not so much concerned with the psychoactive or inebriating effects of wine as it is with a gourmet lifestyle, a mania for collecting, and a desire to acquire possessions.

Artifacts

 

There are numerous ancient representations of the grapevine, the harvest of its grapes, and the consumption of wine as well as its effects. A marble sculpture from the first century C.E. shows a drunken Hercules, naked and holding his penis between his fingers as if urinating (Herkulaneum, House of the Deer). The Dionysian mysteries, which were celebrated with wine, are depicted on the murals of Pompeii (Grimal and Kossakowski 1993). Dionysos and his followers, festivals, and symposia have been artistic themes since antiquity (Hamdorf 1986). Some representations appear to make reference to Amanita muscaria.

 

“The vine bears three grapes,

The first brings the loss of the senses,

The second inebriation,

The third crime.”

 

EPICTETUS C.E. 55–C.E. 135

 

Dionysos/Bacchus and his wine, festivals, and mysteries were described in numerous ancient writings (Brommer 1959; Merkelbach 1988; Preiser 1981a, 1981b; Weeber 1993).

The number of vessels for drinking wine (kraters, chalices, cups) that have been found is almost beyond count. Some ancient wine chalices have been interpreted as cryptic symbols for Amanita muscaria or other psychoactive fungi.

No other ancient deity survived as long as Dionysos/Bacchus. The mysterious god of inebriation continues to inflame people’s feelings. He appears on wine and beer labels and in theaters—in The Bacchaeof Euripides (ca. 480–406 B.C.E.), The Bassarids of Hans Werner Henze (born 1926),325 and Ariadne auf Naxos by Richard Strauss (1864–1949). Richard Wagner (1813–1883) opulently immortalized Dionysos’s wild and erotic festivals (Bacchanalias) in his opera Tannhäuser.

The “classic” horror novel The Elixir of the Devil, written in 1815 by E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776–1822), revolves around a “wine of Saint Anthony” (cf. Claviceps purpurea). The wine, which is preserved as a reliquary in a cloister, is described as a potent psychoactive agent. Anyone who partakes of it is cast into a schizophrenic world of hallucinations that he interprets as “the temptations of the devil.” One monk dares to partake of the drink:

 

Among these [reliquaries] was a sealed flask, which contained within a seductive elixir that Saint Anthony was said to have taken from the devil. . . . I was overcome by an indescribable longing to find out what was in fact contained within the flask. I was able to take it aside, I opened it and found a wonderfully scented, sweet tasting, potent drink that I drank to the last drop.—How all of my senses then changed, how I experienced a burning thirst for the world, how the vices, in their seductive forms, appeared to be the highest pinnacle of life. (Hoffmann 1982, 123*)

 

In 1974, the American science-fiction author Robert Silverberg published “The Feast of St. Dionysus,” a story that received the Jupiter Award. In this story, an astronaut who is traveling to Mars ends up in a utopian cult of Dionysos beyond space and time and is initiated into the mysteries of the god with a special wine:

 

The rhythms are sharp and fierce. This is the music of the Bacchantes, this is an Orphic song, at first strange and terrifying, and then strangely soft and consoling. . . . Take, eat. This is my body. This is my blood. More wine. Figures move around him, other communicants step forward. He loses all sense of time and space. He separates from the physical dimension and glides over a swelling ocean, a large warm sea, a gently rolling sea that bears him lightly and merrily. He senses light, warmth, size, weightlessness, but he does not feel anything tangible. The wine. The host. Perhaps a drug in the wine? He slips out of the world and into the universe. This is my body. This is my blood. This is the experience of wholeness and unity. I take the cup of the god, and his wine dissolves me. . . . I call the name of the god, and his thunder sedates me. Dionysos Dionysos! (Silverberg 1984, 69)

 

Medicinal Use

 

Wine had approximately the same significance in Hippocratic medicine as beer did in the Babylonian and Egyptian healing arts. White, dark, red, sweet, tart, sweet-smelling, and heavy wines were all used as dietary vehicles for administering medicines. Numerous medicinal wines were made from wine and the appropriate herbs. Dioscorides names many of these.

The healing properties of wine grapes were mentioned in the founding works of Indian Ayurvedic medicine by Susrata and Charaka (Hopper 1937, 186*).

In 1753, a book titled Der curieus- und offenherzige Wein-Artzt [The Curious and Open-Hearted Wine Physician] appeared. Written by an anonymous “lover of the economic sciences,” it revived the ancient tradition of healing wines and played an enormous role in popularizing the use of medicinal wines.

Today, wine—in moderate dosages—is still recommended as a healing agent and tonic, particularly for the elderly (Köhnlechner 1978).

Constituents

 

Wine grapes contain large amounts of grape sugar (= glucose), fructose, saccharose, citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, potassium salts, and traces of starch (Downton and Hawker 1973). An antifungal substance, α-viniferin, has also been described as a constituent in grapes (Pryce and Langcake 1977).

The alcohol content of wine can vary from 6 to 18%. White wines typically have between 10 and 12%, and red wines between 11 and 15%. It has been rumored that red wine also contains anandamide, a substance analogous to THC (cf. Theobroma cacaoTHC).

 

The shamanic god Dionysos offers a cup of his sacred wine. (Copperplate engraving, eighteenth century)

 

Effects

 

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, there were reports of a variety of peculiar psychoactive effects resulting from the consumption of wine; unfortunately, we have no information about these wines or the pharmacological manipulations that might have led to such effects. All that is known is that these were “old wines” that were prescribed by a physician and said to be healthful:

 

But these wines also had other wondrous effects:“I had only but tasted from these barrels” wrote the theologian Johann Gottfried Hoche in the year 1800, “and yet the stones on the street appeared to have grown when I came out.” Wilhelm Hauff had his wonderful Phantasien im Bremer Ratskeller [Reveries in the Bremer Council Cellar]326 after tasting what may have been a [Bremen] rosé from 1615 or 1624, and Heinrich Heine saw drunken angels sitting on the rooftops and the spirit of the world with a red nose after a visit to a ratskeller. (Marzahn 1994, 109*)

 

Is it possible that chemical transformations in wines that have been stored for centuries might produce visionary substances? Unfortunately, it will be a difficult task to perform chemical and pharmacological studies of such old wines, which collectors safeguard as though they were precious jewels.

The effects of wine are very dependent upon dosage (cf. alcohol, beer). In moderate doses, wine uplifts the spirits, lowers inhibitions, and stimulates. If a person drinks wine and also water throughout the evening (in a ratio of 1:3, 1:2, or 1:1), the pleasantly stimulating and uplifting effects can be enjoyed the whole night. But if too great a quantity is consumed, the experience can end in a “blackout” or loss of consciousness. Individual reactions to wine can vary considerably and are much more difficult to control than, for example, dosages of Cannabis indica. Many people believe that the effects of sparkling wines (champagne, sekt) are different from those of wine. The former are more stimulating, have greater aphrodisiac effects, and also stimulate the circulation of the blood (of course, only when consumed in moderation).

In former times, the effects of wine (“drunkenness”) were frequently compared to those of opium (cf. Papaver somniferum).

Commercial Forms and Regulations

 

Grapes and all types of wine are subject to the laws regulating food. Wine is legal in most countries of the world. In some Islamic countries, the use of wine is generally forbidden or frowned upon.

Literature

 

See also the entries for alcohol and wine.

 

Brommer, Frank. 1959. Satyrspiele. Berlin: de Gruyter.

 

Detienne, Marcel. 1992. Dionysos: Göttliche Wildheit. Frankfurt and New York: Campus.

 

Downton, W. John S., and John S. Hawker. 1973. Enzymes of starch metabolism in leaves and berries of Vitis viniferaPhytochemistry 12:1557–63.

 

Emboden, William A. 1977. Dionysos as a shaman and wine as a magical drug. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 9 (3): 187–92.

 

Evans, Arthur. 1988. The god of ecstasy: Sex-roles and the madness of Dionysos. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

 

Grewening, Meinrad Maria, ed. 1996. Mysterium Wein: Die Götter, der Wein und die Kunst. Speyer: Verlag Gerd Hatje.

 

Grimal, P., and E. Kossakowski. 1993. Pompeji: Ort der Mysterien. Munich: Metamorphosis Verlag.

 

Hagenow, Gerd. 1982. Aus dem Weingarten der Antike. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern.

 

Hamdorf, Friedrich Wilhelm. 1986. Dionysos-Bacchus: Kult und Wandlungen des Weingottes. Munich: Callwey.

 

Hehn, Victor. 1992. OliveWein und Feige: Kulturhistorische Skizzen. Frankfurt/M.: Insel.

 

Köhnlechner, Manfred. 1978. Heilkräfte des Weines. Munich: Knaur.

 

Lesko, Leonard H. 1978. King Tut’s wine cellar. Berkeley, Calif.: B. C. Scribe Publications.

 

Lowrie, Michèle. 1997. Horace’s narrative odes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

McGovern, Patrick E. 2003. Ancient wine: The search for the origins of viniculture. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

 

McGovern, Patrick E., Stuart J. Fleming, and Solomon H. Katz, eds. 1995. The origins and ancient history of wine. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers.

 

Merkelbach, Reinhold. 1988. Die Hirten des Dionysos. Stuttgart: Teubner.

 

Murray, Oswyn, ed. 1990. Sympotica: A symposium on the symposion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

Otto, Walter E. 1933. Dionysos: Mythos und Kultus. Frankfurt/M.: Vittorio Klostermann.

 

Paris, Ginette. 1991. Pagan grace: Dionysos, Hermes, and Goddess Memory in daily life. Dallas: Spring Press.

 

“Wine, in which the fire of the sun joins with the liquid element, is seen everywhere as the counterpart to bread, the fruit of the earth. But wine has effects upon man that are more subtle than those of bread, for it becomes blood, life itself. Even more, because of its divine origin, it is a drink of immortality, embodying the presence of the supernatural light, the divine love in humans. It opens the spiritual inebriation, which produces ‘a complete forgetting of all that exists in the world,’ leaving room only for the burning desire to find once more the devoutly loved and unite with him.”

 

JACQUES BROSSE

 

MAGIE DER PFLANZEN [MAGIC OF PLANTS]

 

(1992, 278*)

 

Preiser, Gert. 1981a. Wein im Urteil der griechischen Antike. In Rausch und Realität, ed. G. Völger, 1:296–303. Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum für Völkerkunde.

 

———. 1981b. Wein im Urteil der Römer. In Rausch und Realität, ed. G. Völger, 1:304–8. Cologne: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum für Völkerkunde.

 

Pryce, R. J., and P. Langcake. 1977. α-viniferin: An antifungal resveratrol trimer from grapevines. Phytochemistry 16:1452–54.

 

Ruck, Carl A. P. 1982. The wild and the cultivated: Wine in Euripides’ BacchaeJournal of Ethnopharmacology 5:231–70.

 

Schultze, Rudolf. 1867. Geschichte des Weins und der Trinkgelage. Berlin. Repr. Sändig, 1984.

 

Serrano, Miguel. 1982. EI/Ella—Das Buch der Magischen Liebe. Basel: Sphinx.

 

Silverberg, Robert. 1987. The Feast of St. Dionysus. In The Feast of St. Dionysus. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

 

Smith, Huston. 1970. Psychedelic theophanies and the religious life. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 3 (1): 87–91.

 

Weeber, Karl-Wilhelm. 1993. Die Weinkultur der Römer. Zurich: Artemis und Winkler.