The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications

General Literature on Psychoactive Fungi

 

This bibliography contains those sources that are cited in this section on psychoactive fungi and are marked with **.

 

Aaronson, Sheldon. 1989. Fungal parasites of grasses and cereals: Their role as food or medicine, now and in the past. Antiquity 63:247–57.

 

Adelaars, Arno. 1997. Alles over Paddo’s. Amsterdam: Prometheus.

 

Allen, John W. 1993. Iconae plantarum inebriantium—2. Integration 4:81–87.

 

Allen, John W., Jochen Gartz, and Gastón Guzmán. 1992. Index to the botanical identification and chemical analysis of the known species of the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Integration 2/3:91–97.

 

Allen, John W., Mark D. Merlin, and Karl L. R. Jansen. 1991. An ethnomycological review of psychoactive agarics in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 23 (1): 39–69.

 

Avila B., Alejandro de, A. L. Welden, and Gastón Guzmán. 1980. Notes on the ethnomycology of Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmaçology 2 (4): 311–21.

 

Benítez, Fernando. 1964. Los hongos alucinantes. Mexico City: Ediciones Era. Repr. 1992 (7th ed.).

 

Benjamin, Denis R. 1995. Mushrooms: Poisons and panaceas. New York: Freeman and Company.

 

Birkfeld, Alfred. 1954. Pilze in der Heilkunde. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, no. 135 Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen.

 

Blyth, R. H. 1973. Mushrooms in Japanese verse. The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 3rd series, 11:1–14.

 

Böttcher, Helmuth M. 1959. Wunderdrogen: Die abenteuerliche Geschichte der Heilpilze. Cologne: Kiepenheuer und Witsch.

 

Bourke, John Gregory. 1996. Der Unrat in Sitte, Brauch, Glauben und Gewohnheitsrecht der Völker. Frankfurt/M.: Eichborn. (Orig. pub. 1913.)

 

Bresinsky, Andreas, and Helmut Besl. 1985. Giftpilze. Stuttgart: WVG.

 

Brown, Christopher. 1987. R. Gordon Wasson: 22 September 1893–23 December 1986. Economic Botany 41 (4): 469–73.

 

Camilla, Gilberto. 1997. Reminiscenze enteogeniche nella tradizione giudaico-cristiana. Eleusis 7:18–23.

 

Carmichael, Michael. 1996. Wonderland revisited. The London Miscellany 28:19–28.

 

Cerletti, A., and Albert Hofmann. 1963. Mushrooms and toadstools. The Lancet (January 5, 1963): 58–59.

 

Cetto, Bruno. 1987/88. Enzyklopädie der Pilze. 4 vols. Munich: BLV.

 

Clare, Ray. 1984. The Mayan magic mushroom dust of Palenque. Unpublished manuscript, Los Angeles. (Cited 1998.)

 

———. 1988. The breaching of Don Juan’s teaching. Unpublished manuscript, Los Angeles. (Cited 1998.)

 

Conover, Philip. 1994. Teonanacatl: The food of the gods. Mexico City: The Huautla Press.

 

Cooper, Richard. 1980. A guide to British psilocybin mushrooms. London: Red Shift Books.

 

Cortés, Jesús. 1979. La medicina traditional en la Sierra Mazateca. Actes du XL11e Congrès des Américanistes 6:349–56. Paris: Société de Américanistes.

 

Dähncke, Rose Marie. 1993. 1200 Pilze in Farbfotos. Aarau: AT Verlag.

 

Donati, Dario. 1991. Doña Julieta, die kranke Heilerin: Dimensionen im Umgang mit Krankheit und Heilung einer mazatekischen Frau. Zurich: Lizentiatsarbeit.

 

Dörfelt, Heinrich, ed. 1989. Lexikon der Mykologie. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.

 

Dörner, Gerd. 1963. Die “heiligen Pilze” Mexikos, ihre Zeremonie und ihre Wirkung. Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 103 (51): 1699–1702.

 

Eisner, Betty. 1996a. Ein Abenteuer in Huautla. In María Sabina—Botin der heiligen Pilze, ed. Roger Liggenstorfer and C. Rätsch, 117–31. Solothurn: Nachtschatten Verlag.

 

———. 1996b. Huautla—place where eagles are born. Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness, 1995 (4): 13–33. Berlin: VWB.

 

Emboden, William A. 1990. Whence ethnomycology? The Albert Hofmann Foundation Bulletin 1 (4): 8.

 

Enos, L. 1970. A key to the American psilocybin mushroom. Lemon Grove, Calif.: Youniverse.

 

Escalante H., Roberto, and Antonio Lopez G. 1974. Hongos sagrados de los Matlazincas. In Atti del XL Congresso Internazionale degli Americanisti 2:245.

 

Estrada, Alvaro. 1980. María Sabina—Botin der heiligen Pilze. Munich: Trikont. (See also Liggenstorfer and Rätsch 1996.)

 

Festi, Francesco. 1985. Funghi allucinogeni: Aspetti psichofisiologici e storici. Pubblicazione 86. Rovereto: Musei Civici di Rovereto.

 

Findlay, W. P. K. 1982. Fungi: Folklore, fiction, and fact. England: Richmond Publishing.

 

Furst, Peter T. 1992. Mushrooms: Psychedelic fungi. New York: Chelsea House.

 

Garnweidner, Edmund. 1993. Pilze: Bestimmen, Kennenlernen, Sammeln. Munich: Gräfe und Unzer.

 

Gartz, Jochen. 1991. Psychotrope Inhaltsstoffe in verschiedenen einheimischen Pilzarten. Jahrbuch des Europäischen Collegiums für Bewußtseinsstudien, 1991: 101–8.

 

———. 1993. Narrenschwämme: Psychotrope Pilze in Europa. Geneva: Editions Heuwinkel.

 

———. 1994. Ethnopharmakologie psilocybin-haltiger Pilze im pazifischen Nordwesten der USA. Jahrbuch des Europäischen Collegiums für Bewußtseinsstudien, 1993/1994: 159–64.

 

———. 1996. Magic mushrooms around the world. Los Angeles: Lis Publications.

 

Ghouled, F. C. 1972. Field guide to the psilocybin mushroom: Species common to North America. New Orleans: Guidance Publications.

 

Gillman, Linnea, Art Goodtimes, Gary Lincoff, Emanuel Salzman, and Jason Salzman, eds. 1996. Wild mushrooms of Telluride. Denver: Fungophile.

 

Gonzalez Torres, Yolotl. 1989. Altered states of consciousness and ancient Mexican ritual techniques. In Shamanism: Past and present, ed. M. Hoppal and O. J. von Sadovsky, 349–53. Budapest: ISTOR Books.

 

Graves, Robert [= Robert Ranke-Graves]. 1957. Mushrooms, food of the gods. Atlantic Monthly 200 (2): 73–77.

 

———. 1960. Food for Centaurs. New York: Doubleday.

 

———. 1992. The Greek myths. Complete ed. London: Penguin Books.

 

Gurevich, Luydmila. 1995. Study of Russian psilocybine-containing basidiomycetes. Integration 6:11–20.

 

Guzmán, Gastón. 1978a. Further investigations of the Mexican hallucinogenic mushrooms with descriptions of new taxa and critical observations on additional taxa. Nova Hedwigia 29:625–64.

 

———. 1978b. Hongos. Mexico City: Editorial Limusa.

 

———. 1980. Identificación de los hongos: comestibles, venenosos y alucinantes. Mexico City: Editorial Limusa.

 

———. 1983a. The genus Psilocybe. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, no. 74. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: J. Cramer.

 

———. 1983b. Los hongos de la Península de Yucatán. Biotica 8:71–100.

 

———. 1990. Wasson and the development of mycology in Mexico. In The sacred mushroom seeker, ed. Thomas J. Riedlinger, 83–110. Portland, Ore.: Dioscorides Press.

 

———. 1994a. Los hongos en la medicina tradicionál de Mesoamérica y de México. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 11:81–85.

 

———. 1994b. Los hongos y liquenes en la medicina traditional. In Atlas de las plantas de la medicina traditional mexicana, ed. A. Argueta V. et al., 3:1427–78. Mexico City: INI.

 

Guzmán, Gastón, Jonathan Ott, Jerry Boydston, and Steven H. Pollock. 1976. Psychotropic mycoflora of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, California and British Columbia. Mycologia 68 (6): 1267–72.

 

Haard, Richard, and Karen Haard. 1980. Poisonous and hallucinogenic mushrooms. 2nd ed. Seattle: Homestead.

 

Haseneier, Martin. 1992. Der Kahlkopf und das kollektive Unbewußte: Einige Anmerkungen zur archetypischen Dimension des Pilzes. Integration 2/3:5–38.

 

Heim, Roger. 1959. Les investigations anciennes et récentes propos aux agarics hallucinogènes du Mexique, à leur action et aux substances qui en sont responsables. Paris: Masson.

 

———. 1963. Les Champignons toxiques et hallucinogènes. Paris: Editions N. Boubee. Repr. 1978 (2nd ed.).

 

Heim, Roger, et al. 1966. Nouvelles investigations sur les champignons hallucinogènes. Archives du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 9 (1965–1966): 111–220, plus eleven plates.

 

Heim, Roger, and R. Gordon Wasson. 1958. Les champignons hallucinogènes du Mexique. In Archives du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 7th series, vol. 6. Paris: Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle.

 

Hobbs, Christopher. 1995. Medicinal mushrooms: An exploration of tradition, healing, and culture. 2nd ed. Santa Cruz, Calif.: Botanica Press.

 

Hofmann, Albert. 1964. Die Erforschung der mexikanischen Zauberpilze und das Problem ihrer Wirkstoffe. Basler Stadtbuch 1964:141–56.

 

———. 1965. Pilzgifte als Halluzinogene. Selecta 7, 2146 (no. 49).

 

———. 1969. Investigaciones sobre los hongos alucinogenos mexicanos y la importancia que tienen en la medicina sus substancias activas. Artes de México 16 (124): 23–31.

 

———. 1971. Teonanácatl and ololiuqui, two ancient magic drugs of Mexico. Bulletin on Narcotics 23 (1): 3–14. (Also available in French.)

 

———. 1987a. Die heiligen Pilze in der Heilbehand-lung der Maria Sabina. In Ethnopsychotherapie, ed. Adolf Dittrich and Christian Scharfetter, 45–52. Stuttgart: Enke.

 

———. 1987b. Pilzliche Halluzinogene vom Mutterkorn bis zu den mexikanischen Zauberpilzen. Der Champignon 310:22–28.

 

———. 1990. The discovery of the psychoactive components of the magic mushrooms of Mexico. The Albert Hofmann Foundation Bulletin 1 (4): 6–7.

 

———. 1993a. Chemistry and pharmacology of the “sacred mushrooms” of Mexico. In Atti del 2° Convegno Nazionale sugli Avvelenamenti da Funghi, Annali dei Musei Civici di Rovereto 8 suppl. (1992): 97–106.

 

 

 

 

In ancient times, the word boletus was the name for the savory Caesar’s mushroom (Amanita caesarea); it was also used for other species of the genus Amanita, e.g., the fly agaric. (Woodcut from Matthiolus, Kräuterbuch, 1627)

 

———. 1993b. Maria Sabina und die heiligen Pilze. In Naturverehrung und Heilkunst, ed. C. Rätsch, 213–22. Südergellersen: Verlag Bruno Martin.

 

Hyde, C., G. Glancy, P. Omerod, D. Hall, and G. S. Taylor. 1978. Abuse of indigenous psilocybin mushrooms: A new fashion and some psychiatric complications. British Journal of Psychiatry 132:602–4.

 

Imazeki, Rokuya. 1973. Japanese mushroom names. The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 3rd series, 11:26–80.

 

Imazeki, Rokuya, Yoshio Otani, and Tsuguo Hongo. 1993. Fungi of Japan. Tokyo: Yam-kei Publishers. (In Japanese.)

 

Imazeki, Rokuya, and R. Gordon Wasson. 1973. Kinpu, mushroom books of the Toku-Gawa period. The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 3rd series, 11:1–12.

 

Inchaustegui, Carlos. 1977. Relatos del mundo mágico mazateco. Mexico City: INAH.

 

———. 1983. Figuras en la niebla: relatos y creencias de los mazatecos. Mexico City: Premia Editora.

 

Johnson, Jean Basset. 1939a. The elements of Mazatec witchcraft. Ethnological Studies 9:128–50.

 

———. 1939b. Some notes on the Mazatec. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropológicos 3:142–56. (This and the 1939a entry above are two of the earliest references on ritual mushroom use among the Mazatec.)

 

———. 1940. Note on the discovery of teonanacatl. American Anthropologist, n.s., 42:549–50.

 

Jordan, Michael. 1989. Mushroom magic. London: Elm Tree Books.

 

Kell, Volkbert. 1991. Giftpilze und Pilzgifte. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, vol. 612. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: Ziemsen Verlag.

 

Knecht, Sigrid (later Sigrid Lechner-Knecht). 1961. Magische Pilze. Neue Wissenschaft 10 (2).

 

Laatsch, Hartmut. 1994. Das Fleisch der Götter—Von den Rauschpilzen zur Neurotransmission. In Welten des Bewußtseins, ed. Adolf Dittrich, Albert Hofmann, and Hanscarl Leuner, 3:181–95. Berlin: VWB.

 

Leistenfels, H. v. n.d. Pilze. Der Grüne Zweig 65c. Löhrbach: Werner Pieper’s MedienXperimente. (Includes “Glücks-Pilze,” by Micky Remann.)

 

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1970. Les Champignons dans la culture. L’Homme 10 (1): 5–16.

 

———. 1992. Strukturale Anthropologie II. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. (Contains the chapter “Die Pilze in der Kultur,” by Levi-Strauss [1970].)

 

Liggenstorfer, Roger, and Christian Rätsch, eds. 1996. María Sabina—Botin der heiligen Pilze: Vom traditionellen Schamanentum zur weltweiten Pilzkultur. Edition Rauschkunde. Solothurn: Nachtschatten Verlag.

 

———. 1998. Pilze der Götter. Aarau: AT Verlag. (A new edition of Liggenstorfer and Rätsch 1996, with a CD of María Sabina’s songs.)

 

Lowy, Bernard. 1975. Notes on mushrooms and religion. Revista/Review Interamericana 5 (1): 110–17.

 

———. 1977. Hallucinogenic mushrooms in Guatemala. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 9 (2): 123–25.

 

———. 1980. Ethnomycological inferences from mushroom stones, Maya codices, and Tzutuhil legend. Revista/Review Interamericana 10 (1): 94–103.

 

Mayer, Karl Herbert. 1975. Die heiligen Pilze Mexikos. Ethnologia Americana 11 (5): 594–96; 11 (6): 603–8.

 

McGuire, Thomas. 1982. Ancient Maya mushroom connection: A transcendental interaction model. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 14 (3): 221–38.

 

McKenna, Terence. 1988. Hallucinogenic mushrooms and evolution. ReVision 10 (4): 51–57.

 

———. 1990. Wasson’s literary precursors. In The sacred mushroom seeker: Essays for R. Gordon Wasson, ed. Thomas J. Riedlinger, 165–75. Portland, Ore.: Dioscorides Press.

 

Menser, Gary P. 1997. Hallucinogenic and poisonous mushroom field guide. Berkeley, Calif.: Ronin.

 

Merlin, Mark D., and John W. Allen. 1993. Species identification and chemical analysis of psychoactive fungi in the Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 40:21–40.

 

Metzner, Ralph. 1970. Mushrooms and the mind. In Psychedelics, ed. Bernard Aaronson and Humphry Osmond, 90–107. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books (Doubleday).

 

Mills, P., D. Lesinskas, and G. Watkinson. 1979. The danger of hallucinogenic mushrooms. Scottish Medical Journal 24 (4): 316–17.

 

Morgan, Adrian. 1995. Toads and toadstools: The natural history, folklore, and cultural oddities of a strange association. Berkeley, Calif.: Celestial Arts.

 

Morris, Brian. 1992. Mushrooms: For medicine, magic and munching. Nyala 16 (1): 1–8.

 

Munn, Henry. 1973. The mushrooms of language. In Hallucinogens and shamanism, ed. M. Harner, 86–122. London: Oxford University Press.

 

Norland, Richard Hans. 1976. What’s in a mushroom? Psychoactive Mushrooms, part 3. Ashland, Ore.: Pear Tree Publications.

 

Ohenoja, E., et al. 1987. The occurrence of psilocybin and psilocin in Finnish fungi. Journal of Natural Products 50:741–44.

 

 

In the area inhabited by the Maya, objects have been found that have been interpreted as phallus stones but are nevertheless associated with mushroom stones. (From Theobert Maler, ca. 1895)

 

 

Psychoactive Molds

 

A number of species of mold fungi produce indole alkaloids (lysergic acid, elymoclavine, agroclavine, fumigaclavine, fumitremorgine, ergokryptine, ergosine, costaclavine, ergosinine, noragroclavine, and others), some of which have psychoactive as well as highly toxic effects (from Samorini 1997a, 41):

Ascochyta imperfecta Peck

Aspergillus clavatus Desmaz.

Aspergillus conicus Bloch.

Aspergillus flavus Link.

AspergilIus fumigatus Fres.

Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Wint

Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill.) Tirab.

Dematium chodati Nechitsch

Geotrichum candidum Link.

Isariopsis grieseola Sacc.

Mucor subtilissimus Berk.

Penicillum chermesinum Biourge

Penicillum expansum Link.

Penicillum granulatum Bain.

Penicillum roqueforti

Penicillum rugulosum Thom.

Rizopus arrhizus Fischer

Rizopus nigricans Ehramb.

Streptomyces rimosus Finlay

Trichochoma paradoxa Jungh

 

“While researching Psilocybe, I became accustomed to meeting great resistance from professional mycologists, many of whom had an instant distrust of anyone expressing a passion for Psilocybe. There were some mycologists who stated publicly that it would be better for people to die from mistakes in identification than to provide them with the tools for recognizing a Psilocybe mushroom. This bizarre attitude towards Psilocybe mushrooms and the people who used them reflected a chasm between generations.”

 

PAUL STAMETS

 

PSILOCYBIN MUSHROOMS OF THE WORLD

 

(1996, 3**)

 

Ott, Jonathan. 1975. Notes on recreational use of hallucinogenic mushrooms. Boletín de la Sociedad Mexicana de Micología 9:131–35.

 

———. 1978. Recreational use of hallucinogenic mushrooms in the United States. In Mushroom poisoning: Diagnosis and treatment, ed. B. H. Rumack and E. Salzman, 231–43. West Palm Beach, Fla.: CRC Press.

 

Ott, Jonathan, and Jeremy Bigwood, eds. 1978. Teonanácatl: Hallucinogenic mushrooms of North America. Seattle: Madrona.

 

Pike, Eunice, and Florence Cowan. 1959. Mushroom ritual versus Christianity. Practical Anthropology 6 (4): 145–50.

 

Puharich, Andrija. 1959. The sacred mushroom: Key to the door of eternity. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co. Repr. 1974 (paperback issue).

 

Rätsch, Christian. 1993. Halluzinogene Pilze und unsere Ahnen. In Zauberpilze, ed. R. Rippchen, 21–24. Löhrbach, Werner Pieper’s MedienXperimente.

 

———. 1995. Pilze, Schamanen und die Facetten des Bewußtseins. Curare 18 (1): 3–14.

 

———. 1996. Die Rückkehr zur Kultur: Heilige Pilze in modernen Ritualen. Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie 6 (1995): 299–339.

 

Reko, Blas Pablo. 1940. Teonanacatl, the narcotic mushroom. American Anthropologist, n.s., 42:368–69.

 

Reyes G., Luis. 1970. Una relación sobre los hongos alucinantes. Tlalocan 6 (2): 140–45.

 

Ricks, David F. 1963. Mushrooms and mystics: A caveat. The Harvard Review 1 (4): 51–55.

 

Riedlinger, Thomas J., ed. 1990. The sacred mushroom seeker: Essays for R. Gordon Wasson. Portland, Ore.: Dioscorides Press.

 

Rippchen, Ronald, ed. [1993]. Zauberpilze. Der Grüne Zweig 155. Löhrbach: Werner Pieper’s MedienXperimente; Solothurn: Nachtschatten Verlag.

 

Roldan, Dolores. 1975. Teonanácatl (Carnita Divina): Cuentos antropológicos. Mexico City: Editorial Orion.

 

Rolfe, R. T., and F. W. Rolfe. 1974. The romance of the fungus world. New York: Dover. (Orig. pub. 1925.)

 

Roth, Lutz, Hans Frank, and Kurt Kormann. 1990. Giftpilze—Pilzgifte, Schimmelpilze—Mykotoxine. Munich: ecomed.

 

Rubel, Arthur, and Jean Gettelfinder-Krejci. 1976. The use of hallucinogenic mushrooms for diagnostic purposes among some highland Chinantecs. Economic Botany 30:235–48.

 

Ruck, Carl A. P. 1981. Mushrooms and philosophers. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 4:179–205.

 

———. 1983. The offerings from the Hyperboreans. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8:177–207.

 

Rumack, Barry H., and Emanuel Salzman, eds. 1978. Mushroom poisoning: Diagnosis and treatment. West Palm Beach, Fla.: CRC Press.

 

Saar, Maret. 1991. Fungi in Khanty folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 31 (2): 175–79.

 

Samorini, Giorgio. 1990a. Sciamanismo, funghi psicotropi e stati alterati di coscienza: Un rapporto da chiarire. Boll. Camuno Studi Preistorici 25/26:147–50.

 

———. 1990b. Sullo stato attuale della conoscenza dei Basidiomiceti psicotropi Italiani. Annali dei Musei civici di Rovereto 5 (1989): 167–84.

 

———. 1993. Funghi allucinogeni italiani. In Atti del 2° Convegno Nazionale sugli Avvelenamenti da Funghi, Annali dei Musei Civici di Rovereto 8 suppl. (1992): 125–49. (Very good bibliography!)

 

———. 1996. New frontiers of ethnomycology. Lecture to the Entheobotany Conference, San Francisco, Oct. 18–20, 1996.

 

———. 1997a. Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. Eleusis 8:38–43.

 

———. 1997b. L’albero-fungo die Plaincourault / The mushroom-tree of Plaincouralt. Eleusis 8:29–37.

 

Samorini, Giorgio, and Francisco Festi. 1989. Le micotossicosi psicotrope volontarie in Europa: Osservazioni sui casi clinici. Annali dei Musei civici di Rovereto 4 (1988): 251–57.

 

Sandford, Jeremy. 1973. In search of the magic mushroom: A journey through Mexico. New York: Potter.

 

Sanford, James H. 1972. Japan’s “laughing mushrooms.” Economic Botany 26:174–81.

 

Schlichting, Michael. 1996. Reise nach Oaxaca. In María Sabina—Botin der heiligen Pilze, ed. Roger Liggenstorfer and C. Rätsch, 133–38. Solothurn: Nachtschatten Verlag.

 

Schultes, Richard Evans. 1939. Plantae mexicanae II: The identification of teonanacatl, a narcotic basidiomycete of the Aztecs. Botanical Musuem Leaflets 7 (3): 37–54.

 

———. 1940. Teonanacatl: The narcotic mushroom of the Aztecs. American Anthropologist, n.s., 42:429–43.

 

———. 1978. Evolution of the identification of the sacred hallucinogenic mushrooms of Mexico. In Teonanácatl: Hallucinogenic mushrooms of North America, ed. J. Ott and J. Bigwood, 25–43. Seattle: Madrona.

 

Semerdzieva, Marta, and F. Nerud. 1973. Halluzinogene Pilze in der Tschechoslowakei. Ceska Mykologie 27:42–47.

 

Shepherd, C. J., and C. J. Totterdell. 1988. Mushrooms and toadstools of Australia. Melbourne and Sydney: Inkata Press.

 

Singer, Rolf. 1958. Mycological investigation on teonanácatl, the Mexican hallucinogenic mushroom. Part I. The history of teonanácatl, field work and culture work. Mykologia 50:239–61.

 

 

———. 1978. Interesting and new species of basidiomycetes from Ecuador II. Nova Hedwigia 29:1–98.

 

Singer, Rolf, and Alexander H. Smith. 1960. Hongos psicotópicos. Lilloa 30:124–26.

 

———. 1982. A correction. Ethnomycological Studies, no. 8. Cambridge, Mass.: Botanical Museum of Harvard University.

 

Smith, Alexander H. 1977. Comments on hallucinogenic agarics and the hallucinations of those who study them. Mycologia 69:1196–200.

 

Solier, René de. 1965. Curandera, les champignons hallucinogènes. [Paris]: Chez Jean-Jacques Pauvert.

 

Stafford, Peter. 1980. Psilocybin und andere Pilze. Markt Erlbach: Raymond Martin Verlag.

 

Stamets, Paul. 1978. Psilocybe mushrooms and their allies. Seattle: Homestead.

 

———. 1996. Psilocybin mushrooms of the world. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press.

 

States, Jack S. 1990. Mushrooms and truffles of the Southwest. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

 

Stijve, Tjacco. 1995. Worldwide occurrence of psychoactive mushrooms: An update. Czech. Mycol. 48:11–19.

 

Stijve, Tjakko. 1997. Boleti allucinogeni in China? Eleusis 7:33.

 

Thompson, John P., M. Douglas Anglin, William Emboden, and Dennis Gene Fischer. 1985. Mushroom use by college students. Journal of Drug Education 15 (2): 111–24.

 

Tibón, Gutierre. 1983. La ciudad de los hongos alucinantes. Mexico City: Panorama.

 

Viola, Severino. 1972. Die Pilze. Munich: Hirmer.

 

Walleyn, R., and J. Rammeloo. 1995. The poisonous and useful fungi of Africa south of the Sahara: A literature survey. Scripta Botanica Belgica, vol. 10. Meise: National Botanic Garden of Belgium.

 

Walters, Bill. 1995. Hallelujah! Praise the mushrooms. Psychedelic Illuminations 8:38–40.

 

Wasson, R. Gordon. 1957. Seeking the magic mushroom. Life (May 13, 1957) 42 (19): 100 ff.

 

———. 1961. The hallucinogenic fungi of Mexico: An inquiry into the origins of the religious idea among primitive peoples. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 19 (7): 137–62.

 

———. 1963a. The hallucinogenic mushrooms of Mexico and psilocybin: A bibliography. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 20 (2a): 25–73c. (Corrected and expanded second version.)

 

———. 1963b. The mushroom rites of Mexico. The Harvard Review 1 (4): 7–17.

 

———. 1973. Mushrooms in Japanese culture. The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 3rd series, 11:5–25.

 

———. 1978. The hallucinogenic fungi of Mexico. In Teonanacatl: Hallucinogenic mushrooms of North America, ed. J. Ott and J. Bigwood, 63–84. Seattle: Madrona.

 

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“And thus, as is still told here and there in Bavarian and Austrian states, their [the mushrooms’] growth depends upon higher and lower gods of growth. Once it depended upon Donar and Wodan, later upon their Christian equivalents, upon God and his saints, especially St. Peter, who controls the weather, and St. Veit, the successor to the Slavic sun god Svantevit, and upon St. Procopius and Anthony the hermit. On the other hand, some claimed that it was the devils, witches, elves, and good or evil fungi spirits that enabled the race of fungi to grow, or mushroom souls, mushroom dwarves, or perhaps a dwarflike mushroom prophet. All of them are offered small gifts and ‘mushroom prayers.’ ”

 

LINUS ZEITLMAYER

 

KNAURS PILZBUCH [KNAUER’S BOOK OF FUNGI]

 

(1976, 10**).

 

 

“The secret of the castle ghosts has been solved! In Great Britain, which is rich in castles, microbiologists investigated moist, mildewed, and moldy cellars, in which thrive tiny little fungi with psychoactive effects. Breathing in their spores induces hallucinations—in other words, people get ‘high’ and believe that they are seeing things that in actuality do not exist.”

 

FRANZ AUF DER MAUR

 

(IN NATÜRLICH 16/11:30, 1996)