The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications




Other Names


Dhoop, dhup, fumigium, incensio, räucherwerk, sahumerio, saumerio, weihrauch



In every climate zone, humans have discovered plants that can be used as incenses for ritual, medicinal, and psychoactive purposes. The inhabitants of the oases in the extremely arid Atacama Desert (northern Chile) use the aromatic, resinous herbage of Fabiana bryoides as a shamanic incense. (Watercolor: Donna Torres)

The use of incenses for ritual, religious, magical, medicinal, hygienic, and other purposes is found throughout the world. Incense is a transcultural phenomenon. In most cultures, incense is regarded as a “food of the gods.” Some incenses are used for their unusually pleasant scents. Others are burned for their pharmacological effects. The latter typically have an unpleasant smell but induce psychoactive effects. Many parts of plants (such as laurel leaves; cf. Laurus nobilis) are used as incense during esoteric rituals for their allegedly magical effects. From the form that the smoke takes on as it rises, the will of the gods or the malicious intent of demons can be read. Some incenses stimulate erotic feelings, while others are said to protect house and farm from diseases, spirits, and thieves. The use of incense gave rise to the practice of smoking (cf. smoking blends).

There are three main cultural centers for the use of incense: the ancient world (including the ancient Orient), the Indian subcontinent (including the Himalayan region), and Mesoamerica. The Native American incense culture developed separately and independently, while strong reciprocal influences existed between the ancient world, the Orient, and India. Extensive trade relationships between India and Egypt, resulting in the exchange of spices, medicinal plants, inebriants, and incenses, existed in ancient times. Egyptian graves dating to late antiquity have yielded containers filled with aromatic substances and inscribed with Indian and Chinese writing (Wollner 1995, 19).

The use of incense was very widespread during antiquity. Greek, Egyptian, and Roman gods all had their respective incenses (cf. Rätsch 1995a, 312 ff.*). In the ancient literature, e.g., the writings of Dioscorides and Pliny, the laurel (Laurus nobilis) was known as daphne and was attributed with powerful mind-altering properties. So far, however, all attempts to use laurel for psychoactive purposes have failed (see Rätsch 1996b), and no psychoactive constituents have been found to date (Hogg et al. 1974). This suggests that daphne was likely a name given to at least one or more other plants in antiquity. Perhaps one of these daphne, whose botanical identity is now unknown, was psychoactive.



The Uses of Incense


(from Rätsch 1996b)

Incense is used to:


—make offerings to the gods and goddesses

—establish contact with deities, demons, and spirits

—make contact with the ancestors

—escort the dead into the afterlife

—banish or ward off negative spirits

—support meditation

—intensify prayers

—kindle love and the readiness for love

—increase one’s own attractiveness

—honor guests

—conduct magical rituals

—improve conditions of hygiene

—disinfect rooms

—heal illnesses and dispel their causes

—induce specific spiritual experiences

—effect changes in consciousness

—effect changes in mood

—achieve specific medicinal or therapeutic effects

—disinfect or serve as an insecticide

—preserve food

—perfume clothes and hair

—spread joy and create amusement

—poison witches and offerings


“In Mexico, they know of a very unusual juniper bush, Juniperus thurifera (L.), and in Tibet we even find a species of juniper that grows at an altitude of 4,000 meters [and] that the Chinese call ‘hyiang ching’ (scented green). Juniperus scopulorum (Sarg.) and Cupressus benthamii(Endl.) are found in Mexico, while one encounters Juniperus squamata (Lamb.) and recurva in Nepal and Kashmir and Juniperus sabina (L.; sade tree) in Siberia. All of these juniper plants are different from one another and are also used by the indigenous medicine men for the most varied of treatments for diseases.”




It is very likely that white henbane (Hyoscyamus albus), known as apollinaris, or the plant of Apollo, was the inebriant that the Pythia of Delphi, the famous oracular priestess of antiquity, used to enter a state of ecstasy (cf. also Catha edulis). The mysterious smoke of Delphi that the Pythia inhaled before sitting on the tripod and uttering her prophecies was most probably produced by burning henbane seeds.

During the Middle Ages, “sleep-bringing” incenses were used in medicine. These almost certainly had powerful psychoactive effects. A fourteenth-century Roman codex contains a recipe for such an incense; it consisted of equal parts of arsenic,427 mandrake root (Mandragora officinarum), and opium (see Papaver somniferum). Storax (the gum resin of Liquidambar officinalis) and olibanum (= frankincense; the resin from Boswellia sacra) were also added to this already potent blend, which was then strewn over glowing coals. This recipe was used as an alternative to soporific sponges and is also somewhat reminiscent of witches’ ointments.

During the Renaissance, the burning of incense was construed as an alchemical process (Krumm-Heller 1934, 1955). Matter is transformed through fire and then affects the mind, whether pharmacologically or psychologically. The element of fire creates smoke out of the element of earth, and the smoke joins with the element of air to “transform the mind.” That Agrippa’s recipe for incense (see below) has the ability to transform the mind is clear: he names many psychoactive plants (man-drake, henbane, hemp, poppy) whose smoke one should inhale. It was said that one could also conjure demons—in the ancient sense of the word—with incense:


For the purpose of prophecy, incenses for stimulating the imagination shall be preferred. These, in correspondence with certain higher spirits, make us skilled to receive the divine inspiration. . . . Thus, when a smoke is made from coriander and celery, or henbane along with hemlock, the demons should gather momentarily, and this is why these plants are called spirit herbs. (1.43) [1387]


In Asia and Arabia, the most valuable incense was considered to be the dark brown, resinous lignum aloe (Aquilaria agallocha), also known as aloe wood, agar wood, agar-agar, garugaru, and lignum aspalathi. It was used primarily for ritual purposes. There have been repeated reports of psychoactive effects resulting from burning lignum aloe or inhaling the very expensive essential oil extracted from it. Lignum aloe contains sesquiterpenes, chromone derivatives, a coumarin lignan derivative, and an alkaloid (Kletter 1992, 308).

Today, incenses continue to play a significant ceremonial and symbolic role during the commencement of entheogenic rituals around the world. Breuzinho (from Protium heptaphyllum and Protium spp.) is the main incense used by the Santo Daime cult (cf. ayahuasca). In Afro-American possession cults, various aromatic herbs and mints are burned (cf. madzoka medicine) to greet and attract the orishas (the Yoruba deities) (Voeks 1989, 123*). The wood of Juniperus species, known as cedar, is used as a fumigant in the North American peyote cult (the Native American Church; cf. Lophophora williamsii). Copal (from Protium copalBursera spp.) or pine resin (Pinus spp.) is burned during the Mesoamerican balche’ ritual (cf. balche’). During the Japanese tea ceremony, incense sticks made of lignum aloe or special tea ceremony blends made of several ingredients are burned (cf. Camellia sinensis).

The burning of certain plants during healing ceremonies is a widespread phenomenon. In the Vaupés region of Colombia, the leaves of a Rubiaceae (Retiniphyllum concolor [Spruce ex Benth.] Muell. Arg.) are used for this purpose (Schultes 1978a, 196*). In Switzerland, juniper branches (Juniperus communis L.) are used.

Since ancient times, incenses have played a central role in shamanism. There is hardly any shamanic activity that does not incorporate the burning or fumigation of precisely defined plants or substances. Various species of juniper (cf. Juniperus recurva) grow throughout the world, particularly in Europe, Asia (the Himalayan regions and Mongolia), and North America. They are used for ritual, magical, and medicinal purposes almost wherever they grow. In most cultures familiar with shamanism, juniper has a reputation for being a shamanic incense. Juniper is probably one of the oldest—it may even be the oldest—incense used by humans. This is certainly due to the fact that its leaves exude an exquisite and spicy aroma, even when burned fresh (Rätsch 1996a, 1996b).

Shamans in the Colombian Vaupés region inhale the aromatic balsam of Styrax tessmannii Perk., which is purported to be psychoactive (Schultes and Raffauf 1986, 277*).

In Peru and northern Chile (Atacama region), a number of incenses (from Fabiana spp., Mentha spp., Senecio spp.) are referred to by the names koak’oakhoa, et cetera. They are used primarily during the ceremonies known as señaladas, when they are burned as an offering to the mother-goddess Pachamama (cf. Erythoxylum coca).

During shamanic healings and rituals, the modern Nahuat (Mexico) burn a blend of tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) and pine resin (from a Pinus species). Such an incense is said to keep away the malicious soul-eaters that live in Talocan (“the great flower of darkness”), the realm of dreams (Knab 1995, 29*). Mazatec shamans inhale large amounts of a blend of copal (resin from a Pinus species) and chili pods (Capsicum spp.) before they begin their divinations. This incense blend is said to have psychoactive effects (Jonathan Ott, pers. comm.). The Cuna of the San Blas Islands (Panama) burn generous amounts of chili pods, often mixed with cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao), in order to dispel malicious spirits (Duke 1975, 286*).

Among the North American Plains Indians, the most important ritual and shamanic incense is sage (Artemisia spp.). The Flathead use an incense of qepqepte (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) and cqelshp(Pseudotsuga menziesii[Mirbel.] Franco) in their sweat lodge ceremonies (Hart 1979, 278*).

The Indians of the Southwest prefer the piñon pine (Pinus edulis), which has played an important role in native culture as a food, medicine, and incense for at least six thousand years. The seeds are edible and high in nutritional value. The needles and resin are a component of many medicines. The Navajo believe that a squirrel planted the piñon pine (cá’ol) at the beginning of creation and that the first humans nourished themselves exclusively on pine nuts (nictc’íi pináa’). They use the resin as an incense in the night chant, their most important religious healing ceremony. The Tewa and Santa Clara Pueblo regard the pine as the first of all trees and its seeds as the first food (). The pine is the most important incense of the Pueblo Indians. The Zuni call the tree he’sho tsi’tonne, “gum branch.” The Hopi use primarily the needles of the pine as incense. Occasionally they also crumble the needles, mix them with wild tobacco (Nicotiana sp.), and use the product as an incense powder. After a burial ceremony, pine resin is tossed into the fire at the house of the surviving relatives so that they can “smudge” and purify themselves. The resin is also used to protect against magic. For this purpose, the Hopi rub a drop of the resin onto their foreheads (Lanner 1981).


An Indian depiction of a shaman burning cocoa beans (Cuna-Mola Panama, ca. 1990)



Psychoactive Incenses


The psychoactivity of some of the incenses listed here is doubtful.

(from Fischer 1971; Krumm-Heller 1934; Krumm-Heller 1955; Ludwig 1982, 134 f.*; Rätsch 1995; Rätsch 1996a; Rätsch 1996b; Vinci 1980; supplemented)






Many manufacturers of incense sticks offer varieties that hint at psychoactive effects. However, these products do not contain any true psychoactive substances. (Incense stick packaging)



Botanical illustration of the Southeast Asian benzoin tree (Styrax benzoin), the source of the pleasant-smelling incense ingredient benzoin. (Engraving from Periera, De Beginselen der Materia Medica en der Therapie, 1849)


Shamans often use the leaves, branches, or bark of sacred trees as ritual and even psychoactive incenses. In the Himalayan region, shamans inhale copious amounts of juniper smoke (see Juniperus recurva). The Chilean Mapuche shamans (machi), most of whom are female, use the cinnamon-scented bark of the sacred canelo tree (Drimys winteri Forst.434; Magnoliaceae), known locally as voiquefoique, or foye, as an incense at all of their tribal and healing ceremonies (Mösbach 1992, 79*). Whether the incense actually does have psychoactive effects remains an open question; in any case, the Mapuche use an infusion of the leaves as an inebriating narcotic (Houghton and Manby 1985, 93*). The machi regard the tree as a panacea and use the bark as a tonic and stimulant (Mösbach 1992, 79*). The bark contains an essential oil, a pungent resin, and tannin. The leaves contain sesquiterpenes, such as drimendiol (Brown 1994; Wren 1988, 284*). Canelo is often combined with Latua pubifloraFabiana imbricata, and Cestrum parqui and burned as a psychedelic incense.


The Mapuche shamans of southern Chile use the sacred canelo tree (Drimys winteri) as a ritual incense. (Photographed in Valdivia, southern Chile)



The aromatic leaves of the Chilean boldo tree (Peumus boldus) are used as a ritual incense and also are purported to have psychoactive effects.



Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans [syn. Rhus radicans]) may have been used as a psychoactive incense in certain “witches’ cults.”



Malai sorcerers inhale the sweetish smoke of benzoin to help them change their shape. The essential oil distilled from benzoin has been reported to have inebriating or mood-enhancing effects.



Lignum aloe (Aquilaria agallocha), which becomes enriched with an aromatic resin as a result of fungal contamination, is a valuable incense. Arabian sheiks esteem the essential oil of lignum aloe, known as ud, as a highly effective aphrodisiac. In aromatherapy, the plant is considered to have potent effects upon the mind.


Another ritual incense attributed with psychoactive effects is composed of the leaves of the Chilean boldo tree (Peumus boldus), which contain alkaloids (1% boldine in the leaves; also norboldine) that have stimulating and possibly psychoactive effects (Mösbach 1992, 80*). Boldine is an aporphine alkaloid (cf. Nymphaea ampla) that increases the secretion of gastric juices and thus aids in digestion; it also promotes bile production and is antispasmodic. Overdoses and chronic use are said to have toxic effects. Psychotropic effects and even hallucinations have been mentioned (Pahlow 1993, 365*). The flowery-fruity-scented essential oil contains ascaridol, cineol, eucalyptol, and p-cymol and has anthelmintic effects.

Recipes for Psychoactive Incenses


Countless recipes for incense have been created, tested, discarded, or passed down through tradition. The following selection includes recipes that were developed over time and either were or are used for psychoactive purposes (Rätsch 1991b, 230–36*).

Incense of Hecate (late antiquity)


Equal parts of:

laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis)

myrrh (Commiphora spp.) olibanum (Boswellia sacra)

storax (Styrax officinalis)

Syrian rue seed (Peganum harmala)

Incense of Delphi (reconstruction of original recipe)


Equal parts of:

henbane seeds (Hyoscyamus albus)

laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis)

myrrh (Commiphora spp.)

Incense for Conjuring Lesser Devils (sixteenth century)


Equal parts of:

parsley root (Petroselinum crispum)

belladonna (Atropa belladonna)

coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum) hemlock root (Conium maculatum)

henbane (Hyoscyamus niger)

opium (Papaver somniferum) sandalwood (Santalum album)

Mix together and sprinkle onto glowing charcoals.

Spirit-Herb Incense (from Agrippa of Nettesheim)


Equal parts of:

celery (Apium graveolens)

coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum) hemlock root (Conium maculatum) henbane (Hyoscyamus niger)

Mix together and sprinkle onto glowing charcoals.

Incense for Leaving That Which Is Hidden Unknown (from Porphyrius)


Equal parts of:

coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum)

celery seed (Apium graveolens)

henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) opium/poppy capsule (Papaver somniferum) saffron (Crocus sativus)

Chop and mix all of the ingredients and bind with freshly pressed hemlock juice. Sprinkle the dried mixture onto glowing charcoals.

Roman Incense (from Pliny)


laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis)

juniper branch (Juniperus spp.; cf. Juniperus recurva) vervain (Verbena officinalis L. [?])

sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

thyme (Thymus sp.)


The four components of the psychoactive incense of the Mapuche shamans: Fabiana herbage, Cestrum parqui leaves, canelo bark, and a branch tip of Latua pubiflora.



A traditional European recipe for a psychoactive incense used to conjure spirits: The main ingredient is henbane, to which is added olibanum, fennel seeds, cassia cinnamon, and coriander.


Incense for Divining the Future (from Jeannine Rose)


Equal parts of:

olibanum (Boswellia sacra)

magic mushroom (Psilocybe [Strophariacubensis or Psilocybe semilanceata)

ska María pastora (Salvia divinorum)

Mix all of the ingredients with a pinch of parsley root (Petroselinum crispum) and sprinkle onto glowing charcoals.

Incense for Seeing Visions (from Jeannine Rose)


Equal parts of:

hemp flower, female (Cannabis sativa) sandalwood (Santalum album)

thorn apple seed (Datura innoxia or Datura spp.)

Add a pinch of violet root (Viola odorata L.) and perfume with sandalwood oil, benzoin, and tolu balsam. Sprinkle the finished blend onto glowing charcoals.

Incense for Conjuring Spirits


4 parts henbane (Hyoscyamus niger)

1 part cassia cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum cassia)

1 part coriander seed

1 part fennel root (or seed)

1 part olibanum (Boswellia sacra)

Ground the ingredients in a mortar to produce an incense powder: This incense should be taken into a ghostly, dark forest. Light a black candle on a tree stump and heat the incense censer. Burn the powder until the candle suddenly goes out. In the darkness, the spirits of the night will then appear from the smoke. To disperse them, burn a blend of equal parts of asafoetida and olibanum (Hyslop and Ratcliffe 1989, 15*).

Ritual Incense of the Tarahumara


copal (Bursera spp. or Protium copal resin) peyote (Lophophora williamsii)

Mongolian Shamanic Incense435

Equal parts of:

juniper branch (Juniperus sp.; cf. Juniperus recurva)

wild thyme herbage (Thymus spp.)

rabbit droppings (as desired)

Mongolian Shamanic Incense


Equal parts of (from Tschubinow 1914, 44*): juniper/sade tree (Juniperus sabina L.)

silver fir bark (Abies alba Mill. [syn. Pinus picea


wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.)

Incense for Bodnath (Boudha)


Equal parts of:

balu (Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex Don) pama (pamo) (Juniperus indica Bertol.; Indian juniper)

shupa (Juniperus recurva)

Mix all ingredients and powder. Strew the powder (sang) onto glowing charcoals.

“Pressant”—Asthma Fumigant (1904)


40% fol. stramonii (Datura stramonium) 10% herba cannabis indic. (Cannabis indica)

2.5% herba hyoscyami (Hyoscyamus niger)

30% kalium nitricum (potassium nitrate)

2% anethol (from Anethum graveolens or others)

15.5% binding agent (e.g., gum arabic)

The smoke produced by burning this mixture

is inhaled for asthma attacks.

“Hadra”—Asthma Incense Powder (ca. 1920)


This incense powder was once available in the pharmacies of central Europe. It was intended to be burned and inhaled to treat asthma attacks. It may also have been used for “other purposes.” Unfortunately, while the ingredients are known, the proportions of each are not.

herb. cannabis ind. (Cannabis indica), herbage fol. stramoni (Datura stramonium), leaf

herb. hyoscyami (Hyoscyamus niger), herbage herb. lobelia (Lobelia inflata), herbage

fol. eucalypti (Eucalyptus sp.), leaf

kal. nitric (potassium nitrate)

menthol, essential oil


There are a number of other, similar preparations, all of which are no longer available. Many contemporary purveyors of incenses offer blends with psychoactive effects (based on their own self-experimentation). Pharmacognostic research has demonstrated that these often contain the branch tips of Fabiana imbricata and various resins (olibanum and others).

Some incenses are used to aromatize other psychoactive substances, such as betel nut (Areca catechu), ipadú (Erythroxylum coca), opium (Papaver somniferum), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

Activity and Pharmacology of Incenses


Today, there are a variety of scientific models for explaining the psychoactive effects of smoke and scent on human consciousness (cf. Laatsch 1991). There are essentially three mechanisms of action that can play a role, both alone and in combination with one another (from Rätsch 1996b):

“I was told that in earlier times the witches knew an herb called kat.[436] Used with incense, it opened the inner eye, the unconscious. In combination with another herb, sumac,[ 437] it produced hallucinations and was therefore not to be taken too frequently. When both herbs were used in the proper way, one could acquire the ability to leave one’s body. Unfortunately, the witches of today no longer know which herbs they were, although both are said to grow in England. It is also said that a woman will appear more beautiful if a man inhales incense mixed with kat. Magicians use something similar for the same purpose. Their mixture contains hemp [Cannabis sativa] and many other ingredients with tonic effects.”






(1965, 109)


1. The smoke may contain pharmacologically active substances that, at appropriate dosages, can act like neurotransmitters or their antagonists in the nervous system.

2. The smoke may give off a characteristic scent with a demonstrably strong psychological activity.


Nearly all of the plants or raw extracts used as incenses contain essential oils, which are responsible for their scent. Experiments have demonstrated that certain odors induce powerful changes in the brain’s activity and thus unequivocal alterations in consciousness (Steele 1991*, 1992*, 1993*). It is assumed that these aromatic substances elicit primarily psychotogenic effects, i.e., although the substance does not act pharmacologically, the experience of the scent can alter a person’s state of consciousness (scent as a catalyst for memory!). Some essential oils have been observed to have both pharmacological and psychological effects. When inhaled or taken internally, higher dosages of certain essential oils can result in powerful states of inebriation that from a neurophysiological perspective cannot yet be fully explained. The following incenses have been observed to produce the strongest psychoactive effects as a result of their essential oils: camphor, cedar (Cedrus spp.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry [syn. Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg]), copal, coriander, damiana, juniper (Juniperusspp.), laurel, lignum aloe, mugwort (Artemisia spp.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sade tree (Juniperus sabina), various sages (Artemisia spp.Salvia spp.), and wild rosemary (Ledum palustre). In addition, some of the constituents in essential oils, including thujone, eugenol, myristicin, safrole, and ledol, also have powerful psychoactive effects.


3. The smoke contains pheromones, which carry messages to the brain via the sensory organs.


Pheromones are rather simple chemical compounds that are related to hormones and function as sexual attractors in the plant and animal kingdoms (Jaenicke 1972). Although often odorless, they are as a result that much more effective. Animals and humans exude pheromones when it is time to mate. When a potential partner breathes in these molecules, they induce in him or her an irresistible urge to copulate. Male and female pheromones often differ in their chemical makeup. Certain aromatic substances that are produced in the fungal, plant, and animal kingdoms (e.g., the scent of the truffle, Tuber spp.) are chemically or structurally analogous or even identical to human pheromones. When these substances are inhaled in an incense, they can inflame a person’s amorous desires. Vanillin, the main aromatic substance in vanilla (Vanilla planiflora; cf. balche’), which is also found in many balsams and resins, is very closely related to human pheromones and appears to exert a corresponding effect upon the nervous system. Almost all of the plants that contain vanillin are traditionally regarded as aphrodisiacs. The following incenses contain or create substances that are pheromone analogs: ambergris, benzoin, cloves, copal, ladanum (the exudate of Cistus ladaniferus L. [syn. Cistus ladanifer L.]), Peruvian balsam (Myroxylon balsamum [L.] Harms var. pereirae[Royle] Harms [syn. Myroxylon pereira (Royle) Baill.]), rockrose and gray-haired rockrose (Cistus creticus L. [syn. Cistus incanus L. ssp. creticus] = Cretian rockrose), storax (Liquidambar spp.), tolu balsam (Myroxylon balsamum[L.] Harms var. balsamum), and white sandalwood.

The effects of incenses on humans result from a complex series of psychological, pharmacological, and hormonal events. Unfortunately, there has been almost no research in this area. In addition, other factors that can play a role include hyperventilation, the “choking fits” that may occur as a result of deep inhalation, oxygen deprivation (which can also lead to hyperventilation), combination with other activities (such as drumming, rattling, body postures, songs), and cognitive structures. For example, some shamans inhale incense to the beat of a drum. In this manner, they are able to precisely control the rate at which they hyperventilate and the depth to which they inhale the incense. This enables them to purposefully induce and control different altered states of consciousness.



See also entries for Boswellia sacraCinnamomum camphorasmoking blends, and essential oils.


Brown, Geoffrey D. 1994. Drimendiol, a sesquiterpene from Drymis winterii (sic!). Phytochemistry 35 (4): 975–77.


Caland, Marianne, and Patrick Caland. 1992. Weihrauch und Räucherwerk. Aitrang: Windpferd.


Droesbeke, Erna. 1998. Weihrauch. Amsterdam: Iris Bücher.


Drury, Nevill, and Susan Drury. 1989. Handbuch der heilenden Ole, Aromen und Essenzen. Durach: Windpferd.


Fischer, L. 1917. Ein “Hexenrauch”: Eine volkskundlich-liturgiegeschichtliche Studie. Bayerische Hefte für Volkskunde 4:93–212.


Fischer-Rizzi, Susanne. 1996. Botschaft an den Himmel: Anwendung, Wirkung und Geschichten von duftendem Räucherwerk. Munich: Irisiana.


Gardner, Gerald B. 1965. Ursprung und Wirklichkeit der Hexen. Weilheim: O. W. Barth.


Hinrichsen, Torkild. 1994. Erzgebirge: “Der Duft des Himmels. Hamburg: Altonaer Museum.


“Aromatic substances have been used in the form of incense in all confessions or earlier forms of religion, from the Mexican or the Egyptian mysteries to the Catholic mass of today. According to the religious beliefs, such incense is suitable for invoking beings from the invisible world, who can then exert a beneficial effect upon us according to their kind.”






(1934, 55)


Hogg, James W., Stuart J. Terhune, and Brian Lawrence. 1974. Dehydro-1,8-cineole: A new monoterpene oxide in Laurus nobilis oil. Phytochemistry 13:868–69.


Jaenicke, Lothar. 1972. Sexuallockstoffe im Pflanzenreich. Lecture no. 217. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.


Kletter, Christa. 1992. Aquilaria. In Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis, 5th ed., 4:306–11. Berlin: Springer.


Krumm-Heller, Arnold. 1934. Vom Weihrauch zur Osmotherapie. Berlin-Steglitz: Astrologischer Verlag W. Becker.


———. 1955. Osmologische Heilkunde: Die Magie der Duftstoffe. Berlin: Verlag Richard Schikowski.


Laatsch, Hartmut. 1991. Wirkung von Geruch und Geschmack auf die Psyche. Jahrbuch des Europäischen Collegiums für Bewußtseinsstudien (1991): 119–33. Berlin: VWB.


Lanner, Ronald M. 1981. The piñon pine: A natural and cultural history. Reno: University of Nevada Press.


Lee, Dave. 1993. Magische Räucherungen. Soltendieck: Boheimer Verlag.


Rätsch, Christian. 1995. Nahrung für die Götter. Esotera 11/95:70–74.


———. 1996a. Einige Räucherstoffe der Tamang. Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness 4 (1995): 153–61.


———. 1996b. Räucherstoffe—Der Atem des Drachen: Ethnobotanik, Rituale und praktische Anwendungen. Aarau and Stuttgart: AT Verlag.


Rose, Jeannine. 1979. Hygieia: A woman’s herbal. Berkeley, Calif.: Freestone Collective Book.


Vinci, Leo. 1980. Incense: Its ritual significance, use and preparation. New York: Samuel Weiser.


Wollner, Fred. 1995. Räucherwerk und Ritual: Die vergessene Kunst des Räucherns. Kempten: Buchverlag Fred Wollner.