The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications


1 Editor’s note: DAB6 refers to the sixth edition of a German pharmacopoeia entitled Deutsches Apotheker Buch.


2 Translator’s note: Effective July 1, 1992, khat leaves were added to Appendix 2 of the Swiss Federal Drug List, thereby making them illegal to import, possess, or use in Switzerland. Cathinone was already listed in the same appendix as a hallucinogen.


3 It should be noted, however, that many plants that are characterized as “magical plants” in folklore or literature are not psychoactive (cf. Schöpf 1986; Storl 1996c; Weustenfeld 1995).


4 “The fear of the psychedelic experience is quite literally the fear of losing control. Dominator types today don’t understand that it’s not important to maintain control if you are not in control in the first place” (Terence McKenna, in Sheldrake et al. 2001, 50).


5 E.g., among the Tukano and Desana Indians (Reichel-Dolmatoff 1971).


6 This is very similar to the Indian concept of maya, “the illusion that conceals reality as a result of ignorance” (Zimmer 1973, 31*).


7 Psilocybin is an analog of serotonin, mescaline of dopamine, LSA of the tryptamine-like endopsychedelics, and scopolamine of acetylcholine (Rätsch 1993c, 42).


8 It should be noted that Western psychiatry has or still does use the active substances in these four drugs for psychotherapeutic purposes. The discovery of mescaline led to a revolution in European psychiatry (Hermle et al. 1993; La Barre 1960). Psilocybin and its derivatives were used extensively in psycholytic therapy (Leuner 1981). Because of their hypnotic properties, the alkaloids in ololiuqui were tested in experimental psychiatry (Heim et al. 1968; Isbell and Gorodetzky 1966; Osmund 1955). Scopolamine was used as a truth serum and in narcoanalysis, and in psychiatry it is still used as a “chemical straitjacket” (Rätsch 1991b).


9 Typically, the altered state of consciousness produced by alcohol is viewed medically as being fundamentally different from the state produced by hallucinogens (Winkelman 1992, 186). This notwithstanding, Mexican shamans use both hallucinogens and alcohol to induce a shamanic trance. The effects of alcohol that we are familiar with (ranging from being slightly tipsy to delirium tremens) are thus at least partially conditioned by culture. After all, the ancient descriptions of the Dionysian frenzy (cf. Emboden 1977) are fundamentally different from the descriptions of alcohol intoxication in modern industrialized societies.


10 The ritual and hygienic use of sweat houses (temazcal in Aztec) was widespread in Mexico before the arrival of the Spanish. Today, it has almost vanished (cf. Cresson 1938).


11 See Jilek (1971) for an extensive study of the contradictions and changes that have taken place in the images of shamans.


12 Reise in Süd-Amerika [Journey in South America] (Mannheim 1854).


13 In the older ethnographic literature, the key role that psychoactive substances play in shamanism was typically suppressed. Some authors even went so far as to suggest that those shamans who “required” drugs to produce their trance state (which was referred to as toxic ecstasy) were “degenerate” and no longer capable of “true ecstasy.” In the years following Eliade’s “classic” publication (1951), the more recent ethnological and cultural anthropological literature on shamanism has essentially corrected this earlier view, for it has now been determined that almost all shamans ingest drugs (cf. Rosenbohm 1991) and that pharmacological techniques for inducing altered states of consciousness are much more important than all the others.


14 Many psychopharmacological drugs and medicines used in psychiatry exert a palliative effect upon sick people but have no effects upon healthy individuals (cf. V. Faust 1994).


15 Seeds of Datura stramonium are also added to dolo beer (Voltz 1981, 176).


16 “An external change of the drug is also effected by boiling the tuber in cow urine, a common custom, which apparently protects them against the attacks of insects, which they are otherwise very prone to. In this condition, it largely loses its color and also yields a dark brown solution in water after just a short period of time. For medicinal purposes, this latter form of the drug is completely useless; it can be used only as a poison for killing wild animals, as is often done in India” (Pabst 1887, 8*).


17 Pseudoaconitine has the same properties as aconitine and is chemically related to veratrum acid (cf. Veratrum album).


18 This name is also given to, and in fact is primarily used for, Hyoscyamus niger.


19 According to legend, Claudius was poisoned with a mushroom (Amanita phalloides) (Deltgen and Kauer 1973; Wasson 1972). But this did not prove powerful enough, so Aconitum was used as well.


20 Botanists have recently questioned whether sweet flag does indeed belong in the Araceae Family (cf. Grayum 1987).


21 “Akoron, some call it choros aphrodisias [= dance of Venus’s plant], the Romans venerea [= Venus plant], also Radix nautica [= ship’s root], the Gauls peperacium [= water pepper], has leaves that resemble those of the sword lily but are narrower, and not dissimilar roots, although these are not intertwined with one another and do not grow straight, but grow toward the light at an angle and are interrupted at intervals, whitish, with a pungent taste and not unpleasant scent. The thick and white ones, which have not been eaten and are full of aroma, are superior. Such a one is that which in Colchis and Galatia is called splenion [= agent against spleen disorders]” (Dioscorides, De materia medica 1.2).


22 Like the European hazelwort (Asarum europaeum L.), Asarum canadense L. also contains asarone (the name of which was derived from the genus name).


23 “In high doses, α- and β-asarone can induce visual hallucinations and LSD-like states of inebriation” (Roth et al. 1994, 92*).


24 The siphonlike cucurbit vessels used to tap pulque are known as acacote. The pulque sack itself (bota) is made from an animal skin and a cow horn.


25 The so-called Brazilian pepper is regarded as a poisonous plant (Morton 1978).


26 The leaves have been shown to contain the alkaloid N-methyl-βphenethylamine (Argueta et al. 1994, 1338*); it may also be present in the root.


27 The closely related species Prosopis nigra (Grisebach) Hieron. contains βcarbolines (Ott 1993, 263*).


28 This variety does not appear to have been used for psychoactive purposes (C. Manuel Torres, pers. comm.).


29 Some authors regard this name not as a synonym but as a name for a separate species—Parapiptadenia excelsa (Griseb.) Burk.—popularly known as cebilcebil blancosacha cebil, or horcocebil (Santos Biloni 1990, 18*).


30 This name may be linguistically related to curupira, a term for a mythical protective spirit of the forest (cf. Pavia 1995, 90*).


31 In Argentina, the folk name guayacán is also used to refer to other hardwood trees, e.g., Caesalpinia paraguariensis (D. Parodi) Burkart (Santos Biloni 1990, 100*).


32 In Chile, the name quebracho is also used for Cassia closiana Phil. (= Senna candoleana) (Donoso Zegers and Ramírez García 1994, 38*).


33 The name uals ria to is used in Peru primarily to refer to the claw thorn (Uncaria tomentosa); one of its uses is as an ayahuasca additive.


34 In Peru, the white quebracho tree (Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco) is also called willca (Santos Biloni 1990, 118*).


35 During excavations in the area of Jujuy (Argentina), C. Manuel Torres found a chilamlike pipe that was some five thousand years old. The pipe still contained clearly identifiable remains of the seeds. Unfortunately, the object was lost when it was sent to Sweden for chemical analysis.


36 The author believes that the seedpods are those of Anadenanthera peregrina; however, in pre-Columbian Peru, it is much more likely that A. colubrina was being used.


37 While the algorrobo (Prosopis chilensis) does indeed produce seedpods, neither are these segmented (as are those of Anadenanthera), nor do their ends taper to a small, fine point. In Peru, Chile, and Argentina, algorrobo is used as a fermenting agent for beer and chicha.


38 “In addition, the following substitutes were also mentioned: among the Weddas on Ceylon, the bark of the mora tree (Nephelium longana Camb.); on the Philippines, the bark of Psidium guajava Raddi; in Cochin, China, the poisonous roots of Derris elliptica Lour., which are otherwise used as an arrow poison. Finally, Ibn Baithar (thirteenth century) names red sandalwood and coriander as substitutes for areca nut, although he does not specifically refer to their use in betel chewing” (Hartwich 1911, 529*).


39 Some authors regard this taxon as a separate species (Grey-Wilson 1995, 74, 75*).


40 This name is also used to refer to the white-blooming Mexican Argemone platyceras Link et Otto (Grey-Wilson 1995, 76f.*). Another Mexican member of the poppy family, Bocconia arborea Wats., is also called chicalote or chicalote de árbol (Martínez 1987, 1058*).


41 Other psychoactive plants, such as Datura spp., are also known by this name.


42 Ipomoea tuberosa L. does not contain any lysergic acid derivatives and also has no known psychoactive effects (Ott 1993, 140*).


43 The entheogenic effects of this species, which is probably only an African variety or race of Argyreia nervosa, have been demonstrated; chemical studies, however, are lacking (Ott 1993*).


44 Ariocarpus denegrii (Fric) W.T. Marsh. is now known as Obregonia denegrii Fric (see Lophophora williamsii); Ariocarpus strobiliformis Werderm. is now Pelecyphora strobiliformis (Werderm.) Kreuzgr. (cf. Pelecyphora aselliformis).


45 In Turin [Italy], wormwood wine was made from Artemisia absinthium as well as Artemisia pontica L. and Artemisia abrotanum L. (Hartwich 1911, 772*).


46 According to Pliny (Natural History 25.73), the name is derived from that of a certain Artemisia, the wife of King Mausolus of Caria.


47 Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. and Artemisia klotzchiana Basser are also known as estafiate (cf. Artemisia spp.).


48 Chrysartemins also occur in Chrysanthemum spp., which are used as additives in tea (Camellia sinensis) and sake (Romo et al. 1970).


49 As Elisabeth Blackwell wrote in her Herbal, “The berries, which look so lovely, almost always bring either deadly vomiting or a deadly rage, as tragic experiences have confirmed” (Heilmann 1984, 96*).


50 During the first seven days of the fasting period, an apple could be eaten at midnight on every second day; otherwise, only water could be consumed (Magister Botanicus 1995, 185*).


51 The Makú Indians use this name (which is applied throughout Amazonia to Banisteriopsis caapi) to refer to another vine from the same family: Tetrapteris methystica.


52 Boswellia serrata is sometimes alleged to be hallucinogenic (Schultes and Hofmann 1980, 367*).


53 H 15 (also known as H15-ayurmedica) is a standardized extract of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. One tablet contains 400 mg of the dried lipophilic extract (Etzel 1996, 91).


54 “Also brought to our attention as a result of repeated observations of addiction [!], we began to consider which constituents could produce these effects. We became aware of the fact that there is a possibility for synthesizing the hashish constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol through the conversion of olivetol (5-pentylresorcin) with verbenol. . . . Verbenol, like phenols and phenol ether, has frequently been described as a component in incenses; in addition, other phenolic structures might be formed in the course of the combustion process, so that we are of the opinion that the formation of a basic tetrahydrocannabinol structure . . . is entirely possible. . . . It is also entirely possible that such inebriating and stimulating substances may be produced during the chewing process or in the digestive tract as a result of enzyme activity, whereby the essential oils are of course also of some importance” (Martinetz et al. 1989, 138).


55 In folk taxonomy, the name borrachera is also used to refer to and classify other plants, e.g., Iresine celosia L. and Iresine herbstii Hook. f. (cf. Iresine spp., cimora), as well as all other species of Brugmansia, but also Iochroma fuchsioides (Bristol 1969, 184).


56 In Indonesia, kecubong is normally used to refer to Datura metel.


57 The name tecomaxochitl is normally used for Solandra spp. (cf. Díaz, 1979: 84*).


58 The name kiéri is used usually for Solandra spp. and less frequently for Datura innoxia.


59 In South America, many inebriating plants are known as borrachero or borrachera. Some of these (e.g., Brugmansia spp.Iochroma fuchsioides) have psychoactive properties. But the name is also applied to some plants that are not known to exert any psychoactive effects; Pilocarpus alvaradoi Pittier (Rutaceae), for example, is known as borrachero in Venezuela (Blohm 1962, 45*).


60 In Spanish, the European snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) is referred to as campanilla blanca.


61 This name is used in South America (and especially in Chile) for Datura stramonium.


62 In Peru, this name is also applied to other plants that are used as additives to cimora and San Pedro drinks: Iresine spp., Pedilanthus tithymaloides, and Hippobroma longiflorum (see Trichocereus pachanoi).


63 In Sibundoy (Colombia), the name guamuco also refers to Spigelia pedunculata H.B.K.


64 Some Lacandon Mayans see angel’s trumpets as relatives (u bäho’) of the plant they call k’äni bäkel, the “yellow scented” (Solandra spp.). And indeed, the plants are members of the same family (Solanaceae). The scent of Solandra is quite similar to that of Brugmansia suaveolens.


65 On the Putumayo (Colombia), this name is also used to refer to the fever tree (Stephanopodium peruvianum Poeppig et Endlicher; Dichapetalaceae) (Schultes 1983a, 262*).


66 Possibly a synonym for Brunfelsia pauciflora var. calycina (Benth.) J.A. Schmidt (Roth et al. 1994, 174*).


67 The common garden plant Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D. Don is very easily confused with the very similar Brunfelsia australis Benth. (Plowman 1977, 290). The constituents of Brunfelsia australis are practically unknown. Little is known about any possible psychoactive effects; reports of any psychoactive use are lacking. The plant is, however, regarded as poisonous.


68 In South America, the name borrachera or borrachero, “inebriator,” is given to almost all inebriating nightshades (cf. BrugmansiaDaturaIochroma).


69 This name is also given to the tree Lucuma salicifolia H.B.K., which has psychoactive properties and is known in modern Mexico as zapote borrachero.


70 In the Yucatán, this Mayan name is also used for the closely related species Calea urticifolia (Mill.) DC. as well as its subspecies Calea urticifolia var. axillaris (DC.) Blake (Barrera Marin et al. 1976, 214; Martínez 1987, 1069).


71 The Melanesian dream fish (Kyphosus fuseus) is said to produce oneirogenic effects like those of Calea zacatechichi (cf. Ott 1993, 410).


72 Germacranolides are apparently of chemotaxonomic significance in the genus Calea (Ferreira et al. 1980).


73 “In Tunisia, the medical establishment regards the black tea that is used there ‘almost as a dangerous drug’ and regards its consumption as ‘a widespread toximania’ ” (Aléijos 1977, 109).


74 Cobra venom can also be sniffed and is said to induce extreme psychedelic effects (per oral communication from Ossi Urchs). In the Himalayas, it is believed that hemp that grows over a buried cobra will become especially potent as a result of its venom and have extremely strong inebriating effects (Sharma 1972, 208).


75 According to a different Indian myth, the first hemp plant arose at the spot where a drop of juice pressed from Datura metel fell upon the earth (Schleiffer 1979, 60*).


76 Comparable homeopathic agents (relations) include Belladonna (deadly nightshade), Hyoscyamus (henbane), and Stramonium (thorn apple), the “witches’ herbs” of old. Anhalonium lewinii, the extract of Lophophora williamsii, is a substitute (Boericke 1992*).


77 The homeopathic essence (Tct. Cannabis, homoeopath.) was once even called Aphrodisiacum (Arends 1935, 15*).


78 The Kommentar zum [Commentary on the] Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG 1994) states: “The use of Cannabis plants to manufacture Cannabis cigarettes, to manufacture medicaments and Cannabis tinctures (cough agents, sleeping agents, asthma and migraine agents) is forbidden.”


79 Various no more precisely identified species of the genus Canavalia have been found in archaeological contexts dating to the prehistoric period in Peru and northern Mexico (Dressler 1953, 126*). Canavalia maritima is native to Polynesia. It is highly questionable whether the plant truly does have psychoactive effects. The presence of L-betonicine has been demonstrated (Schultes and Hofmann 1995, 37*).


80 The primary ethnobotanical importance of the genus Cecropia in South America is as a source of ash for coca chewing (cf. Erythroxylum coca).


81 It is possible that the plant referred to is Mimosa pudica, which is known in Guatemala and Mexico by the same name (dormilona, “sleeping plant”) (Ott 1993, 400*). In Mexico, the following plants are also known as dormilonaMimosa albida Humb. et Bonpl., Mimosa pigraL., Phyllanthus lathyroidesH.B.K., Neptunia oleracea Bour., and Bellis perennis L. Interestingly, Psilocybe aztecorum is known as dormilón (Martínez 1987, 317*).


82 This plant, which contains ephedrine, is also used in the Brazilian Candomblé cult as a “liturgical” (i.e., sacred) plant (Voeks 1989, 127*).


83 To date, no biodynamic or psychoactive compounds have been found in the tropical genus Zornia (Schultes 1981, 20*; Schultes and Hofmann 1995, 59*).


84 The Pima of northern Mexico drink a tea made from the leaves of the “snake plant” to treat shivering (Pennington 1973, 223*).


85 Possibly Senecio eriophyton Remy (cf. Senecio spp.), an aromatic Compositae known in the Atacama Desert as chachacoma and used as a medicinal incense (Hofmann et al. 1992, 83*).


86 In ancient times, the name Scythian was a catchall phrase for nomadic horse-riders who lived on the Black Sea, along the Danube, and in southern Russia and who spoke several Indo-Iranian languages or dialects. Many of the Scythian tribes developed extensive trade relationships with the Pontic Greeks. They were feared as brave and wild warriors and were consequently a respected people (Pavlinskaya 1989).


87 The “cedar wood” actually comes from a species of juniper (Juniperus spp.; cf. Juniperus recurva). The descendants of the Scythians in the Hindu Kush still inhale juniper smoke to induce a shamanic trance (Jettmar 1981, 312).


88 In Mexico, tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca; see Nicotiana spp.) is also known by the name marijuana (V. Reko 1936, 62*).


89 “The African aphrodisiac khala-khif consists of normal marijuana mixed with hemp resin; a blue mold is then allowed to develop on the mixture for about one month, after which this potent product is dried and smoked” (Stark 1984, 60*).


90 In Sonora and Baja California, the somewhat larger and sweeter fruit of the cactus Cereus thurberi Engelm., known as pitahaya dulce, is used in a very similar manner (Havard 1896, 36*).


91 In the literature, this family name is often written as Celestraceae (e.g., Elmi 1983, 164); according to Zander (1994, 171*), the correct spelling is Celastraceae (cf. also Frohne and Jensen 1992, 175*).


92 The describing author was Pehr Forsskål (Krikorian 1985, 515; Zander 1994, 710*). The correct abbreviation is actually Forssk., but Forsk. has become accepted internationally.


93 Louis Lewin (1980*) placed khat in the group of the Excitantia, together with camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), and betel.


94 Catha transvaalensis has been found to contain sesquiterpenes but no other psychoactive alkaloids (Mathys 1993, 15). To date, no studies of Catha abbottii have been carried out (Brenneisen and Mathys 1992, 732).


95 This name is also given to Artemisia mexicana.


96 A Caribbean relative, Cestrum latifolium Lam., is also known by this name (Wong 1976, 37*).


97 In the Andes, the closely related species Cestrum matthewsii Dun. (which may possibly also produce narcotic or other psychoactive effects) is also known by the name hediondilla (Bastien 1987, 116 f.*).


98 In contrast, camphor is regarded as an anaphrodisiac in Cuba and is used in medicine as such (Morton 1977, 106*).


99 “A man who accidentally ingested 3.7 g of camphor at one time became dizzy, felt cold in his extremities, and experienced great anxiety, cold sweats, mild delirium, somnolence, and weak pulse, soon thereafter extreme heat, rapid pulse, and red urine” (Roth et al. 1994, 232*).


100 In China, recent or petrified alga colonies (Collenia sinensis) were also thought to be “dragon brains” and used for medicinal purposes (Read 1977, 9*).


101 The tender fruit flesh of the Seychelles’s coco-de-mer (Lodoicea maldivica [J.F. Gmel.] Druce [syn. Lodoicea seychellarum Labill]) also has the reputation of being a powerful aphrodisiac. No constituent that might produce such effects has yet been found (Müller-Ebeling and Rätsch 1989, 39 f.*).


102 In Arabic, wine is usually referred to as khamr, a word that means “inebriating” (cf. Vitis vinifera).


103 In the underground drug scene, the term double espresso is also used to refer to cocaine (because of the similar effects).


104 It is questionable whether the songwriters were actually speaking of coffee and caffeine, for in the music scene, the terms coffee and double espresso are sometimes used as cover names for cocaine.


105 This Yoruba name is originally from Africa. Santería followers in South America now also use the name to refer to the coconut (Cocos nucifera) (González-Wippler 1981, 97*).


106 “The orishas are energies that largely represent the different aspects of nature” (Neimark 1996, 23).


107 The helxine has also been interpreted as the field convolvulus (Convolvulus arvenis L.).


108 Synonyms: Corynanthe macroceras K. Schum., Pausinystalia pachyceras (K. Schum.) De Wild., Pseudocinchona africana A. Chev. ex E. Perrot, Pseudocinchona pachyceras (K. Schum.) A. Chev.


109 Meadow saffron is an ancient Colchic magical and witches’ plant that can produce serious toxic effects if used incorrectly (Rätsch 1995a, 190ff.*).


110 This Mazatec name (Díaz 1979, 84*) is identical to the Zuni name for Datura (a’neglakya; cf. Schultes and Hofmann 1992, 106*).


111 The name kiéri (or kiéli) is usually used for Solandra spp., and less often for Brugmansia.


112 This name is normally used for various species in the genera Astragalus and Oxytropis.


113 For more on the meaning European tarot cards have in Mexican brujería, see Devine (1982).


114 Brujería can be translated as “sorcery.” In Mexico, the term is used to refer to magical practices that are conducted by brujas (“[female] witches”) or brujos (“[male] witches/sorcerers). These typically syncretistic practices combine Indian, Catholic, and esoteric and occult elements (Scheffler 1983*; Sepulveda 1983*).


115 In Mexican folklore, Empress Carlotta’s insanity was said to have resulted from her having been poisoned with toloache (Havard 1896, 39*).


116 Interestingly, Jacques-Joseph Moreau de Tours published an article in Memoirs in 1841 titled “Traitement des hallucinations par le Datura stramonium.


117 Throughout the world, this and other Datura species have great importance as aphrodisiacs (Kennedy and Rätsch 1985).


118 This name is also used for Erythrina fulgens and Erythrina indica (see Erythrina spp.).


119 This name is also given to the nightshades Cestrum nocturnum and Cestrum parqui. The ground leaves of these Cestrum species have the same scent as the crushed leaves of Datura stramonium.


120 This name is applied to a number of psychoactive nightshades: Atropa belladonnaHyoscyamus nigerScopolia carniolica (Arends 1935, 268*).


121 The name tollkörner is also given to the seeds of Anarmita cocculus (also known as fructus cocculi) (Arends 1935, 268*).


122 In Iran, the name kachola is also used for the poison nut (Strychnos nuxvomica) (Hooper 1937, 112*).


123 The Jíbaro Indians (Ecuador) use Brugmansia suaveolens in a similar manner.


124 Some authors (e.g., Diaz) have identified atl inan as the plant Rumex pulcher. However, this plant is not known to produce any inebriating effects.


125 This name is also used to refer to a fructiferous plant (Ugni candollei [Barn.] Berg), the berries of which are used to make chicha (Mösbach 1992, 95*).


126 The non-Aboriginal inhabitants of Australia now refer to all chewing tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) as pituri (Peterson 1979, 178*).


127 There are more than 130 species of Hakea, many of which the Aborgines use as food, medicines, and the basis for a mildly alcoholic drink (Low 1992b, 184 f.).


128 This American name is supposedly derived from the saying “In treating patients without much knowledge, you are asking for trouble,” which a Chinese herb dealer said to a student after the student had wrongly recommended the use of the mahuang plant (Lu 1991, 84*).


129 The closely related species Erythrina chiapasana Kruk., which occurs in the highlands of Chiapas, is also known by this name (Martínez 1987, 112*).


130 In West Africa, the related species Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Bak.) van Meeuwen [syn. Aromosia laxiflora (Benth. ex Bak.) Harms, Ormosia laxiflora Benth. ex Bak.] is reported to have a “kind of hypnotic or hallucinogenic effect” (Neuwinger 1994, 635*).


131 The name Erythroxylon, which is of Greek derivation, is actually correct. However, in accordance with the now accepted international rules of botanical nomenclature, (most of) the original Greek names have been Latinized, i.e., the ending –on has become –um (Plowman 1967).


132 Other species of the genus (E. areolatumE. tortuosum) are sources of timber (Anzeneder et al. 1993, 65*).


133 Trichocereus from a California culture was found to contain 0.075% candicine (Shulgin 1995, 26*).


134 The fresh leaves of this Tagetes species are also chewed alone as a cold remedy (Plowman 1980, 254).


135 The resin consists of 30% protamyrine, 25% proteleminic acid, 37.5% protele resin, and oils. In Amazonia, it is often burned in the local churches as an incense (Schultes 1957, 246). It is also the most important incense in the Brazilian Santo Daime cult (see ayahuasca).


136 There are some fifteen species of the genus Cecropia in Amazonia, many of which have ethnobotanical uses (Berg 1978); cf. snuffs and marijuana substitutes (Cannabis indica).


137 Chamairo can also be chewed alone; it produces mild euphoriant effects (Plowman 1980, 258).


138 According to the Taiwano, this additive makes the coca stronger and “better” for certain ritual dances (Schultes 1983a, 258*; Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 170*).


139 The unripe fruit husks of the closely related Tachigalia ptychophysca Spruce ex Bentham are esteemed as an aphrodisiac (Schultes 1978a, 184*).


140 The addition of this leaf powder is said to prevent and heal the sores that can develop in the mouth as a result of constant coca chewing (Schultes 1977, 117*).


141 In the Caribbean, the related species Erythroxylum rotundifolia Lunan is used as an ingredient in love drinks (McClure and Eshbaugh 1983*).


142 For the treatment of asthma, the bark of this tree is tossed into the fire and the resulting smoke inhaled (Schultes 1977b, 117*).


143 This substance is also present in the essential oil of black tea (see Camellia sinensis).


144 While this wild relative of cultivated coca does contain cocaine, the concentrations are significantly lower. The Barasana say that you can eat this coca and that it was “the coca of our fathers” (Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 166*).


145 According to the Mapuche of southern Chile, a tea made from the leaves of this daisy thistle (also known as ulhuihuaca) lowers body temperature and purifies the blood (Houghton and Manby 1985, 100*). The root of the plant, which is also referred to as facullaupangepanguenalca, and oder, contains large amounts of tannins (Mösbach 1992, 81*).


146 These leaves are also chewed “against the cold” (Plowman 1980, 254).


147 Pedro de Cieza de León, a chronicler from the colonial period, provided a short description of the sexual practices of the last Mochica: “The women practiced sodomy [i.e., anal copulation] with their spouses or other men, even while they were nursing their own children. . . . In spite of the fact that there was no shortage of women, some of whom were beautiful, I was assured that most of these indulged in the abominable vice of anal copulation, about which they were very proud” (cited in von Hagen 1979, 67, 70).


148 This name is normally used for Solandra spp.


149 Coptisine and sanguinarine are present in most members of the poppy family; however, they do not produce any noticeable psychoactive effects (Brown and Malone 1978, 8*).


150 In South America, this and similar names (khoakhoba) are also used for pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium; cf. kykeon), which is also used as a ritual incense in traditional Indian ceremonies. In the Atacama Desert, a plant known as koaLepidophyllum quadrangulare (Mey.) Benth. et Hook, also is used as a ritual incense (Munizaga A. and Gunckel 1958, 32*).


151 The Mapuche also use this name for a plant of similar appearance from the Family Papilionaceae: Anarthrophyllum andicola (Gill. ex H. et A.) F. Phil. (Mösbach 1992, 84*). Further studies are needed to determine whether this plant was or is also used as a ritual incenseLepidophyllum cupressiforme(Lam.) Cass. also is called pichi (Mösbach 1992, 110*).


152 This same folk name is used in Chile for Anarthrophyllum andicola (Gill. ex H. et A.) F. Phil., a common Andean plant that bears a distant resemblance to Fabiana imbricata and is also used in folk medicine as a diuretic (Montes and Wilkomirsky 1987, 106*).


153 Romero is actually the Spanish name for rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.).


154 This Quechua word is also used to refer to Baccharis boliviensis (Wedd.) Cabr. (Mösbach 1992, 110*).


155 In Spanish, tola is actually used to refer to Baccharis tola.


156 Some of these sesquiterpenes also occur in Pernettya furens (cf. Pernettya spp.) and Matricaria recutita (Brown 1994, 432).


157 In Mexico, the same name is used to refer to the henna plant Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae); in Mexican folk medicine, this plant was also used as a sedative (Díaz 1979, 77*).


158 This name is also used for Passiflora spp.


159 In Mexico, this name is also used for the plants Selloa glutinosum Spreng. and Baccharis glutinosa Pers. (Díaz 1979, 76*).


160 In Mexico, this name is also used for Helenium mexicanum H.B.K. and Ipomoea orizabensis Leden [syn. Ipomoea thryanthina Lindl.] (Díaz 1979, 76*).


161 This species is rumored to be used for hallucinogenic purposes (Grubber 1991, 61*).


162 Rosemary is an important ingredient in many aphrodisiac bath additives (Rätsch 1995a, 334*).


163 “Lavender flowers have sedative effects upon the central nervous system and on the nervous system of the trachea” (Pahlow 1993, 206*).


164 The genus Humulus is composed of three species: H. lupulus L., H. japonicus Sieb. et Zucc. [syn. H. scandens (Lour.) Merr.], and H. yunnanensis Hu (Wohlfahrt 1993, 447). H. japonicus can be used only for ornamental purposes.


165 Many of the folk names given to Hyoscyamus niger are also used for yellow henbane (Schneider 1974, 2:184*).


166 The so-called smoke of Delphi has also been attributed to Catha edulisDatura stramoniumCannabis indica, and Laurus nobilis.


167 According to J. M. Fericgla, the Spanish veneno, “poison,” may have been derived from this name.


168 This name is also used for Datura stramonium.


169 In her Herbal, Elisabeth Blackwell noted, “The entire plant stinks, overpowers the head, and the smell alone betrays its powers to make one stupid” (Heilmann 1984, 124*).


170 In Romania, a similar ritual using the mandrake (Mandragora officinarum) instead of henbane was still being conducted in the twentieth century.


171 Ernst Schoen, Nomina popularia plantarum medicinalium, Zurich, Galenica, 1963, p. 36.


172 The city that gave its name to the modern, heavily hopped beer known as pilsener acquired its name from henbane, which thus also gave its name to the true or original pilsener beer. In Switzerland, the ancient name pilsener krut lives on in the name Pilsenkraut (henbane plant).


173 The “drink of forgetfulness” that Gudrun gave to Sigurd (in the Volsunga Saga) has often been interpreted as a henbane brew.


174 This family is very closely related to the Celestraceae (cf. Catha edulis) (Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 79*).


175 “The word is said to be derived from assie, ‘little leaf,’ and comes from the language of the also extinct Timuna Indians, who adopted it from the Creek who migrated into their territory” (Hartwich 1911, 468*).


176 Although holly (Ilex aquifolium) does not contain any caffeine, it does contain some theobromine (Alikaridis 1987).


177 In Ecuador, other plants are also known by the name guayusa, particularly several members of the Piperaceae Family, as well as Siparuna eggersii Hieron. (Monimiaceae) and possibly others as well (Patiño 1968, 315). One member of the genus Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae), the species identification of which is uncertain, not only is known by the name guayusa but also is used to produce a stimulating drink (Schultes 1972, 128).


178 The use of penis bones as aphrodisiacs is a worldwide phenomenon. The Maya of southern Mexico also use coati penis bones to manufacture love drinks. The Chol, who live in the region of Palenque, drink penis bone scrapings in alcohol three times daily (Helfrich 1972, 153*).


179 Other Tabebuia species are used in South America as ayahuasca additives. The Caribbean Tabebuia bahamensis (Northrop) Britt. is an important ingredient in love drinks (McClure and Eshbaugh 1983*).


180 Today, in Florida, these snail shells are used primarily as ritual objects by members of the Afro-Cuban Santería cult. The shells of Caribbean snails are exported even as far away as the Himalayas, where they are used ritually as sacred snails.


181 The Kamsá use the same name to refer to Cestrum spp. (Schultes and Raffauf 1991, 37*).


182 The closely related species Iochroma lanceolatum Miers is also known by this name (Bristol 1965, 290*).


183 In California, the species Iochroma coccineum Scheid., Iochroma lanceolatum Miers, and Iochroma tubulosum Benth. also have been successfully cultivated as ornamentals (Grubber 1991, 40 f.*).


184 This name is a folk taxonomic indication of the plant’s (botanical) relationship to the angel’s trumpets (Brugmansia spp.), which are known in Latin America as campana.


185 Now regarded as a synonym (Wasson 1971, 340).


186 It is doubtful whether Reichel-Dolmatoff’s botanical identification is correct. If it is, then Ipomoea violacea must have already made its way to Colombia in pre-Columbian times, perhaps through trade. The plant in question may be Ipomoea carnea Jacq., which is indigenous to South America and is actually more potent. In another article (1978), Reichel-Dolmatoff refers only to a Convolvulaceae.


187 In Yucatec Mayan, the closely related species Ipomoea cornicalyx Moor and Ipomoea seleri Millsp. are also known as tu’xikin (Barrera M. et al. 1976, 249*; Martínez 1987, 1137*).


188 Very often, the noninitiated populace regards ritual plants and fungi with psychoactive effects (e.g., fly agaric mushrooms, thorn apple, henbane) as poisonous, or at least very dangerous.


189 Unfortunately, these authors erroneously illustrated their monograph with a photograph of Convolvulus tricolor.


190 In Japan, this vine is regarded as a “sibling” of the thorn apple (see Datura metel).


191 The pink-blossomed morning glory Ipomoea sepiaria Roxb. [syn. Ipomoea maxima auct. non. (L. f.) Sweet] is also known in Sanskrit as lakshmana and bears the same name in many other Indian languages. It is also regarded as a tonic, aphrodisiac, and rejuvenant (Warrier et al. 1995, 3:237).


192 The seeds contain alkaloids, including elymoclavine (Asolka et al. 1992, 371; Gröger 1963). This species is found throughout the Amazon basin (Almeida Falcão 1971).


193 Juniperus macropoda Boiss. may possibly be synonymous with Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. (Goodman and Gharfoor 1992, 14*).


194 In Nepali, the same name is also given to other Juniperus species (e.g., Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas [Indian juniper], Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. [Himalayan pencil cedar, shukpa], and Juniperus wallichiana Hook [techokpo]), and to both cultivated and introduced forms and cultivars (e.g., Juniperus chinensis L., J. polycarpa Koch); it is also used for the conifer Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don (= dhupi salla; cf. Storrs 1988, 88 f.) and the Himalayan cypress Cupressus torulosa D. Don, which is also used as a temple incense (Polunin and Stainton 1985, 389).


195 This consists of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, cadinene, juniperol, juniperine, junen, and terpineol-4.


196 This name is also used to refer to the Venezuelan Justicia caracasana, which is used as an additive in chimó (cf. Nicotiana tabacum) (Ott 1993, 410*).


197 Tilo is actually a Spanish term for the linden tree (which is not indigenous to the Americas). Today, Florida is home to numerous Cubans who have preserved their own businesses and relationship structures. They trade in justicia leaves and flowers, which are then (as if there were not already enough confusion) sold under the American name linden flowers with leaves.


198 In former times, lactucarium was also obtained from blooming Lactuca sativa L., the cultivated garden salad (Schneider 1974, 2:226*).


199 Even chlorinated Lactuca sativa leaves have been smoked as a marijuana substitute (cf. Cannabis indica).


200 Lactucine and lactupicrine also occur in the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web.) (Frohne and Pfänder 1983, 68*).


201 This same name is used in Chiloé (southern Chile) to refer to Desfontainia spinosa.


202 Not to be confused with the archaeological culture of Valdivia, Ecuador (Baumann 1981). The Chilean Valdivia lies in the heart of Araucana. This ostensibly European city was founded in 1552 by the conquistador and general Pedro de Valdivia (1505–1553).


203 The genus Ledum is composed of some six species. The closely related Labrador tea bush (Ledum latifolium Jacq.) is very similar in appearance to though somewhat larger than wild rosemary; it grows in Greenland, Labrador, and northern North America. The Indians and the Inuit (Eskimos) use its aromatic leaves as a medicinal tea that they drink for asthma and colds and also as incense. The Kwakiutl Indians of the Canadian Pacific coast obtained a narcotic from the Greenland porsch (Ledum groenlandicum Oed. [syn. Ledum latifolium Ait. non Jacq.]) that they used in shamanic healing. The Inuit used the dried tips of the twigs of Ledum decumbens (Ait.) Lodd. (possibly a synonym for Ledum latifolium) as a medicinal incense for treating children’s ailments (cf. Rätsch 1996).


204 Many authors continue to believe that the berserkers used fly agaric mushrooms (cf. Amanita muscaria) to induce their battle ecstasy. The fly agaric, however, is completely unsuited for this purpose, because its effects tend to be more sedative and opium-like, conducive to dreaming and listening to music.


205 This name is also used to refer to the very similar Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (Karting et al. 1993, 648).


206 This name is now regarded as an old synonym for the species Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.


207 In Quintana Roo (Mexico), the closely related species Lonchocarpus castilloi Standl. is also known as balche in Mayan (Cioro 1982, 123*).


208 This Mayan name is also applied to other trees from the Legume Family, including Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. (Arvigo and Balick 1994, 140).


209 The genus Lonchocarpus H.B.K. consists of some 175 species, most of which are found in the tropics of the New World (Allen and Allen 1981, 395*).


210 Geoffroy first isolated rotenone from Lonchocarpus nicou (Aubl.) DC. [syn. Robinia nicou] between 1892 and 1895 and presented it under the name nicouline (Allen and Allen 1981, 396*).


211 The root of this plant is also used as a substitute for the areca nut (Areca catechu)


212 See Agave spp. for a discussion of the confusion surrounding the term mescal (cf. also Schultes 1937b).


213 The etymology is not entirely certain; the name peyotl may be derived from the Aztec pepeyoni, “excite,” or peyona-nic, “stimulate” (cf. Anderson 1980, 139).


214 Although piule appears to be a corruption of peyote, in Mexico the word is used as a catchall term for psychoactive plants that are used by the so-called piuleros, or traveling diviners.


215 One seventeenth-century source (Ortego, Historia del Nayarit) provides a description of the peyote dance festival of the Cora (cf. Schultes 1938; Schultes and Hofmann 1987, 134).


216 Dream catchers are small, flat, woven objects resembling spiderwebs. It is believed that they capture dreams in their webs and can thus be associated with a particular place.


217 Rhythms of 200 to 220 bpm are regarded as trance-inducing (Goodman 1992*). Modern techno music (cf. herbal ecstasy) purposefully uses this range to produce altered and extraordinary states of consciousness (Rätsch 1995d, 316ff.*).


218 Jonathan Ott has suggested that the Bromeliaceae Family, and perhaps even the genus Tillandsia, may contain potent entheogenic species (cf. Ott 1993, 108, 420*; cf. also shahuán-peco).


219 This species is quite variable, with numerous forms, varieties, and subspecies already described (cf. Preston-Mafhan 1995, 44*).


220 In Mexico, this species is attributed with aphrodisiac powers. To date, no psychoactive effects or constituents have been identified (Schultes and Hofmann 1992, 37*).


221 This orchid, which occurs from Mexico to Paraguay, possesses a strong rhizome and blooms in late winter (Wiard 1987, 109). It is occasionally available through the international orchid trade (Rysy 1992, 140). The genus Oncidium is one of the most species-rich genera in the New World (Stacy 1975).


222 This old synonym has caused much confusion in the botanical, ethnobotanical, and history of medicine literature (e.g., in Eliade 1982, 215–34).


223 This name is also used for Atropa belladonna and Scopolia carniolica.


224 The ancient Aztecs are said to have known the mandrake by this name (Cerna 1932, 304*). However, Mandragora was not part of the pre-Columbian flora.


225 A play on the Arabic love story “Majnun and Layla.”


226 According to Thompson (1949, 217*), the Assyrian namtargira is strikingly similar phonetically to the Greek mandragora.


227 The Solanaceae are typically given a great deal of consideration in the modern toxicological literature. Remarkably, mandrake does not appear in most compendiums on poisonous plants. In my opinion, this is due to the fact that its alleged toxicity has been greatly exaggerated. Moreover, the rarity of the plant means that almost no incidence of hospitalized cases of poisoning have occurred. The experientially oriented literature on psychedelics also makes little mention of the plant (it is not mentioned in Hartwich 1911* or in Lewin 1980 [orig. pub. 1929]*!) or speaks of it only in passing. There are no firsthand reports of experiences with the plant. It appears as though the magical aura that has surrounded the root since ancient times has frightened away psychedelic experimenters, many of whom are otherwise so ready to try anything new.


228 The root of the American mandrake (= mayapple) is sold in North American “voodoo drugstores” as mandrake root. It is esteemed as a talisman. The root is said to bring luck in love (it makes the bearer of the talisman attractive and lovable in the eyes of the other sex), attract wealth (= money), protect from magical spells and the evil eye, and ward off demons. In general, the root of the American mandrake is attributed with the same properties as the true mandrake.


229 This taxon cannot be identified from the literature.


230 In northern Dalmatia, where chelidonium root is known as cimitrk, it is used in love magic in a very similar manner to the true mandrake (Mitrovic 1907, 233).


231 See Hylands and Masour (1982) for information on the chemistry of white bryony.


232 Women accused of being witches, including Joan of Arc, the Virgin of Orleans, were charged with having worn a mandrake on their chest (Schmidbauer 1969, 282).


233 The Biblical dûdâ’îm has been construed as Cucumis dudaim L., as Citrus medica L., and even as the common edible field mushroom (Agaricus campestris L.) and as jasmine (Jasminum spp.) (Moldenke and Moldenke 1986, 138*). Others have interpreted dûdâ’îm as flowerpots, cherries, jujube fruits (Zizyphus), blackberries, bananas (Musa x sapientum), and melons (Cucumis aegypticus reticulatus) (Friedreich 1966, 159 f.). “Luther, who used the translation ‘lilies,’ in particular got onto the wrong track, for these are the plant symbols of chastity, the greatest of all repressive achievements” (Müller-Ebeling n.d., 97).


234 In this city, located by the Red Sea, stood a giant rue tree (peganon, presumably Ruta montana [Kottek 1994, 130 f.] or Peganum harmala). Here too is where the lost cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were said to have been located, and John the Baptist was supposedly beheaded here (cf. Schlosser 1987, 88). The magical root, in other words, was at home in a completely “sinful” land.


235 This luminous plant (baaras is derived from the Hebrew ba’ar, “to burn”) has been the subject of considerable discussion. To date, botanists know of no plant that gives off light during the night. In moist areas and rain forests, however, it has been observed that rotting roots or tree trunks phosphoresce and glow in an almost otherworldly manner at night. Rahner has proposed the following interpretation of the luminous mandrake, which I find very compelling: “The glow worms in Palestine like to rest upon the beautiful leaf rosettes of the spring mandrake, so that the plant looks like a glowing lamp. When persons looking for the plant approach, the light goes out, to reappear once more on another mandrake. Today, the Arabs in the Holy Land still refer to the mandrake as ‘Sirag el-Kotrub,’ ‘devil’s lamp’ ” (Rahner 1957, 210*).


236 Hematite, or bloodstone, is a common iron oxide mineral. It usually has a black or reddish luster. When hematite is ground or cut, the powder takes on a bloodred color.


237 “In an ancient Egyptian myth of the gods, it is told how the mandrake fruits came from Nubia, from whence they were brought to the temples and royal palaces of Egypt. There they were given to a goddess in a vessel filled with beer. This magic drink made her eyes shiny and caused her to enter into such an inebriated state ‘that after sunrise she could no longer see’ ” (Kreuter 1982, 19*).


238 “Folk belief regarded the mandrake as a chthonic plant, one that was classed with the dark demons. For the place of these spirits is in the West, and so it was believed that a look to the West would banish the spirits of darkness. The Greeks directed their sacrifices for the dead and curses to the West. . . . One had to protect oneself from the wind [from the West], for otherwise the scent of the still unrisen plants could transmit the evil influence of the plant demon. But the look to the West can also mean that the rhizotome wished to insure himself of the powers of the nocturnal spirits that are thought to be present in the root and for this reason asked with a look for ‘permission’ as it were to remove it without harm” (Rahner 1957, 205*).


239 Dierbach (1833, 195*) considers the mandragora of Hecate to be the mandragora of Theophrastus and regards it as the deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna. I am doubtful about this interpretation, as the deadly nightshade is not indigenous to the land of Hecate, whereas the mandrake is.


240 “In the myths and poetry of the Greeks, we learn about the great witches such as Circe and Medea. But perhaps these were not originally witches, but goddesses or priestesses of deities of a long-lost religion. Their knowledge of herbs, roots, and mushrooms represents primeval experiences whose secrets were guarded and which gave them special powers. They were priestesses in their own culture; subsequent generations made them into dangerous magicians” (Luck 1990, 46*). Similar things can be said about Roman poetry (cf. Luck 1962, 60 f.*).


241 Emboden (1989) has hypothesized that both Nymphaea caerulea and mandrake were used for shamanic experiences or practices in dynastic Egypt.


242 In ancient times, representations of plants were used as illustrations in medicinal, pharmaceutical, and botanical works. Unfortunately, few of these pictures have been preserved; cf. Stückelberge 1994, 79.


243 According to Schultes and Hofmann (1980: 298*), cuscohygrine and mandragorine are identical. The empirical formula of the alkaloid “mandragorine” is C15H19NO2 (Roth et al. 1994: 485*).


244 Translator’s note: The foehn is a high-pressure weather pattern common in southern Germany.


245 As late as the early Middle Ages, the story of the male elephant eating mandrake leaves that grow near the Garden of Eden as an aphrodisiac before mating was often found in books about animals (Hansen 1981, 32*).


246 In spite of this distinction, there is considerable confusion on this topic in the literature. Even today, the voluminous German-language standard reference work on poisonous plants states that M. officinarum blooms in the fall and M. autumnalis (autumnalis means “autumnal”!) in the spring (Roth et al. 1994, 485*).


247 This plant has not been identified with certainty, although many authors have interpreted it as the common thorn apple (Datura stramonium). The plant, which presumably came from India or the Caspian Sea, has been construed as the trance-inducing inebriant used by the Pythia on several occasions (Mehra 1979, 167*). Pliny reported that the “one that makes mad” (manikon) produces effects in which “one is led to perceive apparitions and hallucinations” (21.178).


248 German-language literature continues to use the family name Aizoaceae (Frohne and Jensen 1992, 125*; Zander 1994*). The name Mesembryanthemaceae is preferred in English-language literature (Herre 1971) (cf. Sceletium tortuosum).


249 This name is also used for Mimosa nigra, which contains DMT and was used as a substitute (albeit only rarely) for Mimosa tenuiflora to produce jurema drinks (Schultes and Hofmann 1980, 155*).


250 In South America, this name is also given to the psychedelic cactus Trichocereus pachanoi as well as to other Trichocereus species (Trichocereus spp.).


251 Lobelia nicotianaefolia is also known as wild tobacco (cf. Lobelia inflata).


252 In the German-speaking regions, the name strong tobacco (starker tobak) was once also given to hemp (Cannabis sativa).


253 The name Peter is derived from the Latin word petrus, “rock.” This implies that the saint was a “sacred stone.”


254 The same name is used for Piper auritum.


255 Sterculia pruriens contains a cyanogenic substance that is considered toxic (Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 447*).


256 In the Putumayo region, the dried leaves of the closely related species Cephalis williamsii Standley are smoked together with tobacco (Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 379*).


257 This may be an incorrect botanical identification from the older literature. Kamen-Kaye believes that the leaves of a Psychotria species (Psychotria spp.), a genus that is very closely related to and easily confused with the genus Palicourea, may have been or are used as an additive containing tryptamines (1971, 47).


258 An alkaline substance is not necessary to liberate the alkaloid (nicotine) from the plant material (unlike Erythroxylum coca and Areca catechu). However, laboratory studies have demonstrated that an alkaline additive potentiates the effects of the nicotine (Kamen-Kaye 1971, 41).


259 The same bark ash is also added to snuffs (made from Virola spp.).


260 In Colombia, the dried roots and leaves of Piper interitum Trelease (cf. Piper spp.) are used as a substitute for sniffing tobacco (Davis and Yost 1983, 182*; Schultes 1978b, 226f.*).


261 “This notion corresponds to deliberations as to whether birds had already carried tobacco seeds from the Americas to Polynesia and then to New Guinea [and perhaps Australia] during prehistoric times” (Michel 1981, 260) (cf. also Feinhandler et al. 1979).


262 The word cigar is derived from the Quiché term siq’ar, which refers to tobacco that has been rolled without a cover leaf (Richter 1921). Quiché is a Mayan language spoken in the highlands of Guatemala.


263 In this context, it should be noted that it cannot be assumed that the cigars of the smoking god were made only of tobacco. There is a great deal of ethnographic evidence attesting to the fact that the shamans of the various Mayan peoples smoke other plants (Brugmansia suaveolensDatura innoxiaDatura stramoniumAmanita muscaria) besides tobacco.


264 The Yucatec Maya believe that burning tobacco will keep snakes at bay (Redfield 1950, 124).


265 This plant, whose name means “Inca tobacco,” may have been smoked or even used as a snuff (Alvear 1971, 22*). It is doubtful, however, that the botanical name is correct.


266 “Ground to a fine powder and mixed with some chicha, this plant can invoke almost the same symptoms as Datura stramonium” (Hargous 1976, 158*).


267 Solanum mauritianum, which is also known as wild tobacco or wild tobacco tree, was not smoked as tobacco. The fruits of this plant are edible. The Aborigines used the soft leaves as toilet paper (Low 1992a, 78*). However, this plant is usually regarded as poisonous (Jackes 1992, 40*).


268 Ancient Germans also used a nightshade (Hyoscyamus niger) for rain magic. Some authors have conjectured that nightshades can induce auditory hallucinations that sound like rain or flowing water. For this reason, such plants were utilized in sympathetic magic.


269 The Nymphaia of Theophrastus should probably also be construed as Nuphar lutea.


270 In the Yucatán, this name is also used for Centella asiatica Urban (Barrera M. 1976, 115*). Naab is both a name for the water lily and the measure between the thumb and little finger (app. 20 cm).


271 Mehen-naab, “little water lily,” is a name used in the Yucatán for Hydrocotyle umbellata L., thereby establishing a folk taxonomic relationship between the plants (Barrera M. et al. 1976, 112*).


272 There are uncertain reports suggesting that the flowers of Nymphaea stellata also have narcotic effects (Emboden 1978, 401).


273 Höfler 1990, pp. 92f.*; cf. Hyoscyamus niger.


274 This umbelliferous plant has the same effect on grazing cattle as the bearded darnel (Lolium temulentum) (Roth et al. 1994, 210*).


275 A similar iconographic recipe can be found on an image of Demeter.


276 According to Langham (1579), children should be given the ground seeds together with hemp (Cannabis sativa) and almonds in milk or beer (ale).


277 “The quantities of harmane in Passiflora incarnata are very slight and lie according to the state of knowledge at the time in the range of 50 to 300 mg in 100 g of dried drug. This is far removed from the effective dosage, which was investigated in the 1950s and was said to lie at 10 to 35 mg daily for a sedative effect in humans” (Meier 1995b, 119).


278 The plant was formerly assigned to the Family Rutaceae.


279 The German name for American pokeberry (Phytolacca americana L.) is amerikanischer nachtschatten (“American nightshade”) (Schneider 1974, 2:59*).


280 This name is also used for black nightshade (Solanum nigrum; see Solanum spp.).


281 In South America, another herbaceous pepper plant (Pothomorphe peltata [L.] Miquel) is also known by this name (Vickers and Plowman 1984, 26*).


282 This same name is used in the Santo Daime cult to refer to marijuana (Cannabis sativa) (cf. ayahuasca).


283 The South American Ugni molinae Turcz. [syn. Myrtus ugni Mol., Eugenia ugni (Mol.) Hook. et Arn.] (Myrtaceae) is known in German as chilenische guava (“Chilean guava”) (Zander 1994, 556*; see chicha).


284 The crategolic acid that has been found in the leaves is also found in clove (Syzygium aromaticum; cf. essential oils) and appears to be at least partially responsible for the analgesic effects (Brieskorn et al. 1975).


285 Quercetin (= cyanidanol, cyanidenolen 1522, 3,3’,4’,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone, meletin, sophorin, ericin) is very common in the plant kingdom, especially in the bark of trees. Significant quantities are found in the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), pansies (Viola tricolor L.), the false hellebore (Adonis vernalis L.), the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), the true chamomile (Matricaria recutita), the English hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata [Poir.] DC.), hops (Humulus lupulus), oaks (Quercus spp.), the apple tree (Malus sylvestris Mill., Malus spp.), catechu resin (cf. Acacia spp.), Fabiana imbricata, wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), and many members of the Family Ericaceae (Ledum palustreVaccinium uliginosumArctostaphylos spp.; cf. kinnikinnick) (Römpp 1995, 3746*).


286 Pellagra (maidism) is a disease of malnutrition that results from a one-sided maize diet with deficiencies in niacin and nicotine amide.


287 “To date, little that is certain is known about the age of the salvia ritual, as corresponding ethnographic or historical evidence is lacking, but Wasson attempted to identify a plant known in ancient Aztec as pipizizintli or pepetzintle with Salvia divinorum, basing his arguments on the Spanish chronicles. The monk Agustin de Vetancourt reported on an inebriating drug named pepetichinque, the root of which produced effects similar to those of the peyotl cactus [Lophophora williamsii] or ololiuqui seeds [Turbina corymbosa]. There was a male and a female form of this plant, the macho and the hembra. In the National Archives in Mexico City, Inquisition files from the years 1696, 1698, and 1706 refer to the plant pipiltzintzin and mention its inebriating effects, but the details are too vague to unequivocally recognize this as a species of salvia” (Mayer 1977, 779).


288 Loliolide is a known ant repellent (Brand 1994, 540).


289 Many Westerners have reported having experiences while under the influence of ketamine that are strongly reminiscent of shamanic experiences (dismemberment, death and rebirth, cosmic flight, body doubles, relocalization, clairvoyance, et cetera). Many users of Salvia divinorum who are also familiar with ketamine have shown a tendency to compare the two agents. To date, however, ketamine is known only as a synthetic substance related to PCP (“angel dust”), although it may soon be found in a natural form. The receptor to which the ketamine molecule binds is known. Salvinorin A does not attach to this receptor site.


290 This species also contains the β-phenethylamine hordenine, a characteristic constituent of the cacti (Arndt and Kruger 1970).


291 In Romania, the same name is given to Mandragora officinarum (Fühner 1919).


292 In Lithuania, this name is also used for water hemlock (Cicuta virosa) (cf. witches’ ointments).


293 This Nahuatl name is also used to refer to Brugmansia arborea (Díaz 1979, 84*).


294 At the time, the authors (Furst and Myerhoff 1966) still assumed that kiéli was either Datura innoxia or Datura stramonium, an interpretation that subsequently was corrected (Furst 1996).


295 There is also an association between a nightshade species and this shamanic animal in South America: the Waorani of the Ecuadoran Amazon say that Solanum pectinatum Dunal in DC. was originally planted by a jaguar (Davis and Yost 1983, 204*).


296 This name is usually used for Kalmia latifolia (cf. kinnikinnick).


297 “Owners of various saloons in the port cities in China have long added a similar red bean, Sophora tomentosa L., to alcoholic beverages so that their patrons, typically sailors who would drink themselves into a heavy state of drunkenness after just a few draughts, could be duly robbed while in this condition” (Reko 1938, 138*).


298 In Colombia, another alkaloid-rich plant from the Family Apocynaceae is also referred to as sanangoBonafousia tetrastachya (H.B.K.) Markgraf (Schultes and Raffauf 1986, 277*).


299 This mushroom was also used in other magical rites in West Africa but is now a component only of the Bwiti mythology, in which it serves as a symbol for the brain and for “the first man to die” (Samorini 1995, 111). It has been claimed that the powdered mushroom has psychedelic effects and was once used in connection with or as an additive to iboga (Fernandez 1972, 246).


300 In Gabon, some one thousand to two thousand temples are said to lie along the “streets of the iboga” (Samorini 1993, 6).


301 The same name is used for Piper auritum.


302 The fresh leaves of this Tagetes species are also chewed alone as a cold remedy (Plowman 1980, 254).


303 The information that Siegel et al. published has not been verified by any other ethnographic research (Stacy Schaefer, pers. comm.).


304 The name hutkih is given to all white-flowering scented vines, e.g., Ipomoea alba (cf. Ipomoea spp.).


305 This name is said to have been used for Theobroma angustifolium DC. as well (Furst 1995, 121*).


306 In Veracruz, the cacao flower tree (Quararibea funebris) is called canela (Martínez 1987, 1199*). Calliandra anomala is known as canelo in Mexico. For more on canella, canelo, et cetera, see incense.


307 “. . . San Pedro is extremely fast growing. Specimens in my greenhouse have gained almost eighteen inches in one year. It is also uncommonly easy to cultivate, and will thrive almost anyplace where the winters are relatively mild” (DeKorne 1994, 86*).


308 More than one hundred alkaloids have been found in the genus Lycopodium (club mosses) (Gerard and MacLean 1986). To date, it is not known whether any of these alkaloids are psychoactive. Six alkaloids have been detected in the Chilean species Lycopodium magellanicum (Loyola et al. 1979).


309 In Amazonia, this name is used for pleasantly scented Cyperus spp. (cf. ayahuasca).


310 This name is not used solely for Trichocereus pasacana. In northern Chile, the edible fruits of various columnar cacti are also referred to as pasakana, including those of Trichocereus atacamensisOreocereus hendriksenianus Backeb., and a Soehrensia species (Aldunate et al. 1981, 211, 213, 217*).


311 In only one sample of a Trichocereus spachianus cultivated in Indiana were traces of mescaline detected (Shulgin 1995*).


312 For the name piule and its etymology, see Rhynchosia pyramidalis.


313 See Rhynchosia pyramidalis for more on the name piule.


314 This name is used in Querétaro (Martínez 1994, 119*); in Oaxaca, it is used for Salvia divinorum.


315 Unfortunately, no pharmacological studies of these effects have been conducted to date (Lowry 1984, 267).


316 “Small amounts of the Schneeberger Schnupftabak—which contains only a little hellebore—can be consumed without concern. Anyone who snuffs too frequently or too much may occasionally have nosebleeds” (Pahlow 1993, 242*).


317 “Apart from the profane use, the cauldron, as archaeological and written sources have confirmed, was the sacred and ritual vessel of the Celts, comparable to the Christian chalice, which myth elevated from a household to a sacral object. It became a complex symbol, a true focal point of mythology” (Botheroyd 1992, 180). The Celts also used cauldrons to brew beer and mead.


318 Both names were also used for Veratrum eschscholtzii Gray [syn. Veratrum eschscholtzianum (R. et S.) Rydb.].


319 This name is also given to Osteophloeum platyspermum (DC.) Warburg and Iryanthera macrophylla (Benth.) Warburg (see Iryanthera juruensis), both of which are used as oral hallucinogens (Schultes et al. 1977, 264).


320 In Amazonia, the following trees are also known by the name paricáCassia fastuosa Willd., Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke, Parkia spp., Piptadenia spp., Pithecolobium spp., Schizolobium amazonicum (Hub.) Ducke, Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake, Senegalia spp., and other Leguminosae (Schultes 1954, 257 f.).


321 This name may suggest a psychoactive use. The association with Theobroma cacao is also of interest.


322 Whether the Mundurukú actually make their parika from a Virola or from an Anadenanthera is unclear. One early report mentioned a Leguminosae (Acacia angico) as the stock plant, the seeds of which are mixed with the juice from the leaves of a moonseed known as abuta(“cocculus”; cf. Anarmita cocculus) (Schultes 1954, 257).


323 It has often been claimed that the word coffee is derived from the Arabic word for wine, i.e., khamr or gahwa (cf. Catha edulisCoffea arabicawine). Khamr essentially means “inebriating.”


324 The dervishes, who have preserved certain elements of the orgiastic Orphic cult of Dionysos in their tradition, esteemed and “esteem wine (sharab) as a means to ecstasy” (Frembgen 1993, 198*).


325 Henze’s opera (a musical drama in one act by W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman) is a modern adaptation of Euripides’ The Bacchae. “An—unfortunately lost—tragedy by the playwright Aischylos was called ‘The Bassarids.’ From what we know, this drama appears to have been a counterpart to ‘The Bacchae’ of Euripides. The name ‘Bassarids’ refers to Dionysos Bassareus, the ‘Dionysos in a fox skin,’ after whose example the Maenads would occasionally wrap themselves in the characteristic red fox furs that their name ‘Bassarids’ refers to” (Giani 1994, 98*). The “Bassariká” of an almost unknown poet named Dionysios provided the model for the “Dionysiaka” of Nonnos (Merkelbach 1988, 50).


326 Hauff, who wrote a number of famous fairy tales, effusively described the Bremen ratskeller as the “seat of bliss.”


327 This English name is normally given to Hyoscyamus niger.


328 In eastern Australia, the cinnamon wood tree (Cinnamomum oliveri) is also called sassafras (Pearson 1992, 62*).


329 Some authors have suggested that the synonym refers to a different species. Caesalpinia japonica Sieb. et Zucc. is said to be another synonym (Bärtels 1993, 206*). Here again we find taxonomic confusion, an unfortunately frequent occurrence.


330 “And inasmuch as they [the Prussians] did not know of [the Christian] God, it so happened that they worshipped the entire creature-world instead of God, namely: the sun, moon and stars, the thunder, birds, even the four-legged animals, including toads. They also had holy groves, sacred fields, and waters.” (Chronicon Prussiae, by Peter Dusberg, 1326; in Gimbutas 1983, 179).


331 The Leguminosae Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. is listed in the Florentine Codex (Sahagun) under the same name (Díaz 1979, 94*).


332 This may correspond to the three subspecies: Hedera helix L. ssp. canariensis (Willd.) Cout. [syn. H. canariensis Willd., H. algeriensis Hibb.], ssp. helix, and ssp. poetarum Nym. It could also refer to Hedera colchica (K. Koch) K. Koch or Hedera pastuchovii Woron. of southwestern Asia.


333 In Islamic literature, for example, hashish, the “inebriant par excellence for the wandering dervishes,” is often referred to as “wine” (Frembgen 1993, 200*).


334 Two alkaloids and two lignans have been found in this plant, the pharmacology of which is unknown (D. McKenna 1995, 101*).


335 The related species Metteniusa nucifera (Pittier) Sleumer is also called canyí and is also said to be used by the Kogi in ritual contexts. In other areas, it is regarded as a fruit tree (Lozano-C. and Lozano 1988, 26).


336 This notwithstanding, in the Ayurvedic view Ocimum sanctum has the power to affect the mind: “Basil opens the heart and the mind and distributes the energy of love and devotion (bhakti). Basil is sacred to Vishnu and Krishna and strengthens faith, compassion, and clarity. Tulsi stalks are worn as garlands and strengthen the energy of attachment. Basil imparts divine protection by purifying the aura and invigorating the immune system. It contains natural mercury that, as the seed of Shiva, imparts the germinative power of pure consciousness” (Lad and Frawley 1987, 156*).


337 Not to be confused with the grass Cyperus spp., which is called piripiri.


338 This name is also used to refer to puffballs (see Lycoperdon spp.) and to Ephedra spp.


339 Numerous medicinal plants, e.g., Valeriana sp., are known by these names in South America.


340 The Mataco whom I was able to interview had never heard anything about these plants.


341 The taxonomy of this genus is rather chaotic. Voacanga africana alone is known under the following synonyms: Voacanga glabra Schum., V. schweinfurthii var. parvifolia Schum., V. magnifolia Wernham, V. talbotti Wern., V. eketensis Wern., V. glaberrima Wern., and V. africana var. glabra Schum. (Oliver-Bever 1982, 29).


342 The botanical genus name Daphne L. is not associated in any way with the laurels but rather belongs to the Family Thymelaeaceae.


343 “We also find the peony in Hecate’s magic garden, which suggests the plant has magical powers” (Baumann 1982, 100*).


344 In Ecuador, Gnaphalium dysodes Spreng. (Compositae) is still known as ispingo (Naranjo et al. 1981).


345 If the ancient sources are correct, a verbena known as hiera botane, “sacred plant,” was a magical and psychoactive plant (cf. Rätsch 1995a, 154 ff. *).


346 Ambrosia consisted of honey, water, fruits, olive oil, cheese, and barley. The first letters of the Greek names of these ingredients yield the word myceta, the accusative form of mykes, “fungus.” Graves sees this as a secret message indicating that the ambrosia of the gods actually consisted of (psychoactive) fungi (Graves 1957**).


347 “Whether invoked in a natural manner or through special techniques, through hallucinogenic essences, or through inebriating drinks—in Druidism as in shamanism, the dream is always an elementary component of the world” (Markale 1989, 208*).


348 For Theophrastus, monocoli, literally “one-footed,” was a metaphor for plants that have only one stem (Ruck 1981, 181**).


349 In Sanskrit, the word for mushroom is chattra, a word derived from chad, “to cover,” which originally meant “parasol” (Samorini 1995, 35).


350 In 1809, G. H. von Langsdorf suggested referring to the fly agaric of Kamchatka as a distinct variety: Amanita muscaria var. camtschatica. This name (nom. nud.), however, has never been accepted.


351 Fly agaric mushrooms still grow in Greece today (Baumann 1982, 140 f.*).


352 Dionysos was usually worshipped in the form of a phallus. Also called mykes, “mushroom,” this phallus was eaten by the frenzied maenads (Danielou 1992*)—an obvious metaphor for the mycomorphosed god as a fly agaric. In general, the fly agaric is regarded as the “penis of god” (Heinrich 1992).


353 Hippomanes (literally, “breast secretion of mares in heat”) was originally the term for a “tough body obtained from the pineal glands (epiphyses) of newborn foals that (because of its melatonin content) was used primarily as an aphrodisiac” (Genaust 1996, 290*). Ruck has argued that hippomanes means “horse madness” and was a name for Datura stramonium (Ruck 1995, 135*).


354 The mythical apples of the Hesperides have also been interpreted as mandrake fruits (cf. Mandragora officinarum).


355 In Egypt, mushrooms in general are known as ‘eisch-al-ghorâb, “raven’s bread” (Gholam M. and Geerken 1979, 64).


356 “Certain species of mushrooms grow in ‘witches’ rings’—also known as fairy rings or elf dance sites—small circles in which, it was assumed, the witches—or the fairies—would dance at night. These fairy rings appear when the decaying fruiting bodies from the mushrooms of the previous year fertilize the mycelia that are growing out at the border. The tender, threadlike fibers—which have the same function as a root system—then cause new mushrooms to grow around” (Mercatante 1980, 254 f.*).


357 Today, one still finds repeated in the literature, where the idea is perpetuated and passed on without reflection, the thesis that the berserkers acquired their enormous power and their legendary courage, the so-called berserker madness or furor teutonica, through their use of fly agaric (e.g., Roth et al. 1990, 274**). But the psychoactive effects of the fly agaric more closely resemble those of opium, and the user will seldom experience anything more than a euphoric state with certain synaesthetic visions. The fly agaric only rarely reveals its entheogenic effects (Cosack 1995). The fly agaric is most certainly not the drug of the berserkers. The only psychoactive that is able to produce real aggression, raving madness, and rage is alcohol. The berserker madness was also induced by a beer to which Ledum palustre had been added.


358 In Yucatec Maya dictionaries from the colonial period, uay xibalba is translated as “necromancer” or “conjurerer of the dead”; my own knowledge of Mayan, however, suggests that the name may mean “changer of the other world” or “shaman of the parallel world.”


359 In Japan, the word kami is usually used to refer to ancient Shinto deities or sacred objects (Lowell 1894). The word itself appears to be related to the Turko-Tatar word kam and the Mongolian word kami, both of which mean “shaman” (Couliana 1995, 63**; Eliade 1975, 14**).


360 The Japanese red kite (Accipiter gularis) is usually identified with tengus.


361 This was actually an art song that became popularized among the people. The text was written by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1798–1874) (Bauer 1992, 46).


362 “Russian forest workers have reported chewing dried pieces of fly agarics so that they could deal more easily with the physical exertion” (Neukom 1996, 392).


363 The very poisonous species Amanita verna (Fr.) Quél. is known in Japanese as shiro-tamago-tengu-take, “white egg tengu mushroom” (Imazeki 1973, 47**).


364 According to Zander (1994, 420*), the grass is originally from North America and became naturalized in the Mediterranean region only after the conquest of the New World! It is not mentioned by a single ancient author (cf. Arundo donaxPhalaris arundinaceaPhalarisspp.Phragmites australis).


365 In India, the closely related grass Paspalum dilatatum Poir. may also be infected with Claviceps paspali (Aaronson 1988, 346).


366 Lolium temulentum is also known as tollkorn.


367 In 1934, Hindemith composed a symphony entitled Mathis der Maler, which also set the temptations to music.


368 Bradley had already mentioned the “dancing madness” that ergot induced during the Middle Ages in her novel Darkover Landfall, which was first published in 1972 (Bradley 1972, 60).


369 Ergot infesting the Argentinian grass Spartina alternifolia (Gramineae) produces primarily α-ergokriptine (Ferraro et al. 1978).


370 In Japan, Psilocybe venenata (Imai) Hongo [syn. Stropharia venenataStropharia caerulescens Imai] (cf. Psilocybe spp.) is referred to as waraitakemodoki, “false laughing mushroom,” or shibiretake, “inebriating mushroom.”


371 The true tinder fungus is Fomes fomentarius (Fr. ex L.) Kichx. (Cetto 1987, 1:377**). “No fire can be made using a birch fungus, as its tissue is too thick. But the birch polypore does contain two interesting substances: polyporic acid C and ugulinic acid. Polyporic acid has antibacterial effects. This species of fungus can be used as an antibiotic, i.e., a medicinal agent. The glacier man was thus carrying with him a kind of first-aid kit” (Barfield et al. 1992, 96).


372 Fomes fomentarius is depicted in the scene of the temptation of Saint Anthony on Matthias Grünewald’s Isenheim Altar (cf. Claviceps purpurea). It is a symbol for the transitory nature of life. (Claudia Müller-Ebeling, pers. comm.)


373 The ling chih is usually interpreted as Ganoderma lucidum but has occasionally been seen as a fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) (Mackenzie 1994, 107).


374 This species was used in Japan as a tinder fungus (Wasson 1973, 23**).


375 See Rhynchosia pyramidalis for more on this name, its etymology, and its meaning.


376 In his first three books, Castaneda reported that entheogenic mushrooms were being used as a “little smoke.” This claim has been severely criticized by ethnomycologists. No one would believe him, although many people tried smoking the mushrooms—but without success (cf. Clare 1988**; Siegel 1988*). Gordon Wasson apparently wrote a very critical letter to Castaneda; Castaneda later stated his own position in an interview: “After the publication of The Teachings of Don Juan, I received a thoughtful letter from Gordon Wasson, the founder of ethnomycology, who has studied the human use of mushrooms and fungi. . . . And then Dr. Wasson [sic] asked me to clarify certain aspects of Don Juan’s use of psychotropic mushrooms. I happily sent him several pages of my field notes that were relevant to his area of interest, after which we met two more times. From that point on, he spoke of me as an ‘honest and serious young man’ or in a similar manner.” (From “Carlos Castaneda: Portrait eines Zauberers—1994,” in Energy 6/94: 4–7, 14–18)


377 Mixe soothsayers also use other entheogens besides the mushrooms: ma”zhun paHk (Turbina corymbosa/Ipomoea violacea), ama’y mushtak (Datura stramonium), po:b piH (Brugmansia x candida), and piH (Tagetes erecta; see Tagetes spp.) (Lipp 1990, 151 f.).


378 Like the Mazatec, the Mixe use the species Psilocybe caerulescensPsilocybe cordisporaPsilocybe hoogshagenii, and Psilocybe yungensis (cf. Psilocybe spp.).


379 In modern Mexico, the word copal is used to refer to all aromatic incenses. The true copal is obtained from a tropical deciduous tree (Protium copal [Schl. et Cham.] Engl. [Burseraceae]; cf. Bursera bipinnata.


380 From an interview in Maurizio Venturini and Claudio Vannini, Zur Geschichte der Halluzinogenforschung: Schwerpunkt Schweiz (Teil I: 1938–1965), licentiate thesis at the Philosophischen Fakultät I of the Universität Zürich, 1995, page 101.


381 In northern India, the meadow champignon (Agaricus campestris L.) is still known as mokshai, “the liberator” (Morgan 1995, 149**).


382 Since ancient times, the deer truffle (Elaphomyces) has been esteemed as an aphrodisiac and magical agent (Brøndegaard 1975).


383 The opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) will eat fly agaric mushrooms (Amanita muscaria), but it learns to recognize their inebriating qualities and then avoids the mushroom (Ott 1993, 335*).


384 In Mexico, this name is also used to refer to Ephedra spp. as well as the fern Pellaea cordata J. Sm. (see Polypodium spp.) (Díaz 1979, 93*).


385 The literature occasionally claims that Lycoperdon mixtecorum and L. marginatum contain tryptamine derivatives (Benjamin 1995, 326**).


386 Under certain circumstances, this puffball can be mistaken for very young specimens of Amanita muscaria.


387 In the psychiatric literature, the effects produced by mushrooms that contain psilocybin are often also characterized as “mushroom madness” (McDonald 1980).


388 “Samandarin is a convulsive poison; it affects the central nervous system but also has hypertensive and local anesthetic effects. Externally, it is extremely irritating to the mucous membranes” (Altmann 1980, 130*).


389 Amazonian Indians claim that the fruits of this tree produce an unusual effect. They are eaten by certain birds (Nothocrax urumutum Spix), which are in turn hunted and eaten by the Indians. When their dogs eat the bones of these birds, they immediately exhibit severe toxic symptoms (Schultes 1960).


390 Older texts claim that Prestonia contains N,N-DMT; this information is unfortunately incorrect. The common name yagé probably refers solely to the fact that the plant is used as an ayahuasca admixture (Schultes and Raffauf 1960).


391 In the Afro-Brazilian Candomblé cult, the aromatic roots of dandá da costa (Cyperus rotundus) are chewed in order to give one the power to influence other people and to acquire personal power (Voeks 1989, 122, 123*).


392 The Shipibo-Conibo call Petiveria alliacea L., a member of the Family Phytolaccaceae (cf. Phytolacca acinosa), vuén mucura or mucura sacha. They claim that it has “hallucinogenic properties” and esteem it as a “master teacher of the healing arts” (Gebhart-Sayer 1987, 336).


393 In West Africa, this plant is used in combination with Combretum micranthum to treat fever (Assi and Guinko 1991, 122*).


394 Several South American Croton species contain morphinelike alkaloids (see morphine) (Bennett 1992, 490; Schultes and Raffauf 1990*).


395 In the Ecuadoran Amazon, a black “paint” is prepared from ko-pi, the fruits of the nightshade Cyphomandra hartwegii (Mier) Sendtner ex Walper. This preparation is used to paint on pottery the geometric patterns that represent the visual hallucinations of ayahuasca (Schultes and Raffauf 1991, 37*).


396 In Nepal, the Himalayan species Hypericum choisianum Choisy [syn. Hypericum cernuum Roxb.] is one of the plants sacred to Kali (the wife of Shiva; cf. Cannabis indica). Its veneration as a plant of the gods suggests that it may have some kind of psychoactivity.


397 Tetrahydro-β-carbolines are common in this family, although often only in trace amounts (Drost-Karbowska et al. 1978, 289).


398 In Yemen, the shoots of this plant are used as an antispasmodic agent (Fleurentin and Pelt 1982, 92 f.*).


399 Many Desmodium species have ethnomedicinal and folk medicinal significance (e.g., Akendengué 1992:169*); to date, no psychoactive use among traditional peoples has been observed.


400 The leaves of this plant are used in African folk medicine to treat asthma (N’Gouemo et al. 1996).


401 Xuchit is the Mayan version of the Aztec xochitl, “flower” (Helfrich 1972, 145*).


402 The name nicte is used both for the vulva and for Plumeria (Helfrich 1972, 145*).


403 Although it is uncertain whether the bog myrtle (Myrica gale L.; Myricaceae) induces psychoactive effects, it is possible; the fruits contain substances (chalcones, flavonoids) with preservative properties (Mathiesen et al. 1995). The essential oil has exhibited sedative properties in animal studies (Simpson et al. 1996, 127).


404 Unfortunately, no further details about this species are known. There is considerable evidence for the existence of psychoactive beetles, e.g., Phromnia marginella Oliv. This insect from the Family Fulgoridae occurs in Uttar Pradesh (India). It is purportedly used in the Garwhal district for its alleged psychoactive effects (Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975, 200, n. 248*).


405 This wild relative of the cultivated betel palm is indigenous to the mountain forests of New Guinea (Seyfarth 1981, 562).


406 The use of cocaine as an additive to betel quids has been previously described for the region from Iran to Pakistan (Krenger 1942c, 2929).


407 This extract of the Rubiaceae is sometimes sold under the name catechu or pale catechu.


408 The use of heroin is a new invention that appears to be found primarily in Taiwan (Chu 1995, 183).


409 The use of amphetamines as an (illegal) betel additive is common in Taiwan (Chu 1995, 183).


410 What these “permitted spices” are is unclear. I presume that the ingredients that are not permitted are datura seeds, crow’s eyes (Strychnos nux-vomica), opium, hashish (Cannabis indica), and possibly arsenic and Aconitum—all ingredients found in Tantric inebriating mixtures. Such ingredients, however, are sometimes available under the counter: Prince Pan, a betel shop in Delhi, sells special betel quids with such rare and illegal ingredients as gold leaf, opium, and even cocaine!


411 Interestingly, the World Health Organization classifies betel as a nonaddictive drug (cf. Areca catechu). In contrast, the literature frequently uses such terms as habitaddiction, and betel nut psychoses (cf. Seyfarth 1981, 565).


412 Some Gaultheria species are reputed to be psychoactive (Schultes and Hofmann 1995, 43*). Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), however, is drunk only as a tea substitute (called Salvador tea or mountain tea) and does not have any psychoactive effects. It contains only methylsalicylate (Frohne and Pfänder 1983, 106*).


413 The chicha prepared from these is usually known as tecu (Mösbach 1992, 91*).


414 This name is also used for Desfontainia spinosa.


415 This plant, originally from the Caribbean region, was taken to Sri Lanka, where it is now feared as a deadly horse poison (Macmillan 1991, 430*).


416 “Lampe describes especially the eye injuries caused by the [milk] latex. The seeds or latex induce long-lasting vomiting and diarrhea, leading to electrolyte imbalances” (Roth et al. 1994, 547*).


417 Even wheat beer (weizenbier) has been administered as an enema (Degenhard 1985, 333).


418 In traditional Chinese medicine, it is said that oyster shells (from Crassostrea gigas Thunb., Ostrea rivularis Gould, Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse) “stabilize and calm the mind: used for pounding heart accompanied by anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia” (Bensky and Gamble 1986, 571*).


419 Despite the linguistic connection between soma and haoma, there is no evidence supporting the assumption that the two terms refer to the same plant, much less the same preparation.


420 “In his divine zeal, the prophet [Zarathustra] characterized the inebriating beverage (hauma), which was drunk during meals, as ‘urine’ (Yasna 48, 10)” (Merkelbach 1984, 11). It is possible that a urine rich in active constituents was actually consumed (cf. Amanita muscaria).


421 It has been suggested that “the pre-Zoroastrian Iranian religion was ruled by communities of ecstatic warriors who cultivated shamanic ecstasies and journeyed in the realms beyond. Inebriated by haoma, these warriors would enter into a dangerous state of murderous frenzy (aeshma). Zarathustra’s reforms were directed against these male, shamanic brotherhoods of warriors” (Couliano 1995, 136*).


422 It is here that the Spanish bullfight has its origins.


423 The following description of the first sacrifice of a bull is found in the Persian book on the “creation” (Bundahishin): “The good god Ohrmazd (the later form of Ahura Mazda) created the bull, ‘white and brilliant like the moon’ (1, 49), but later the evil one (Ahriman) slipped into the world, and Ohrmazd saw in advance that he would slaughter the bull. And so he gave the bull hemp to eat, thereby inducing in the animal a hashish sedation, ‘so that the injustice of its killing and the affliction of its pain would be lessened’ (chapter 4). From the bull were all the small animals then created, as well as 55 kinds of grain and 12 kinds of healing plants. The bull’s semen was borne to the moon, where it was filtered; it contains the seeds of all life. The soul of the bull will nourish all earthly creatures and be recreated as a beneficial animal in the material life” (Merkelbach 1984, 12). “The death of a cosmic primordial being . . . , which is sacrificed and cut into pieces and, in dying, brings forth the universe out of itself” (Gina 1994, 11*), is an archetypal image and is, in fact, the most primordial experience of life. It is only by killing our food that we are able to preserve our lives!


424 A recent double-blind study found that regular administration of ginkgo extracts led to substantial and significant improvements in memory performance in people affected by senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (Hofferberth 1994).


425 A pharmacognostic study conducted at the Pharmaceutical Institute in Bern (Switzerland) was unable to identify this component as a raw drug obtained from Myristica spp. (Leitner 1995, 6).


426 This terpene is also present in many other plants, e.g., bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia L.), mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.), prickly heath (Pernettya mucronata [L. f.] Gaudich ex Spreng.), and the Siberian alpine rhododendron (Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.) (Roth et al. 1994, 758*). It is conceivable that bees also visit these plants.


427 Arsenic not only is one of the most famous poisons of criminal history but also is a tonic and inebriant (cf. Lewin 1980 [orig. pub. 1929], 417 ff.*).


428 The resin known as benzoin is derived from two plant sources. The Siamese benzoin tree grows in Thailand and Malaysia, while in Indonesia the source is Styrax benzoin Dryander (Sumatran benzoin tree, benzoin storax tree) [syn. Laurus benzoin Houtt., Benzoin officinaleHayne, Lithocarpus benzoinBlume].


429 The popular and historical literature often confuses the rare and very valuable lignum aloe with Aloe vera.


430 This incense is said to hold witches (nahuallis) at bay. The ascending smoke is said to be deadly (for them) (Knab 1995, 156*).


431 “Sorcerers burned coriander seeds to dispel evil spirits and to induce hallucinations. The narcotic effect has been confirmed by modern science—as long as large quantities of coriander are consumed. Perhaps it is because of this narcotic effect that the seeds are still used to make gin” (Drury 1989, 55).


432 The modern, worldwide esoteric movement, especially in the United States (California) and Europe, has developed numerous recipes for a variety of types of incense. These have become known chiefly through esoteric publications (e.g., Caland 1992, Lee 1993, Rose 1979, Vinci 1980, Wollner 1995).


433 This species has a reputation for being hallucinogenic (Schultes and Farnsworth 1982, 189*; Schultes and Hofmann 1980, 367*).


434 This species occurs in two varieties:Drimys winteri var. winteri and D. winteri var. chilensis (DC) A. Gray. Some botanists assign it to its own family: Winteraceae (Mösbach 1992, 78*). [1389]


435 From personal communication with Amelie Schenk (September 1996).


436 It is very unlikely that the plant being referred to is khat (Catha edulis), as this does not grow in England.


437 This may be one of the sumac species that were introduced from North America to Europe, such as fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica Ait. [syn. Rhus canadensis Marsh. non Mill.]), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.), and poison sumac (Toxicodendron quercifolium [Michx.] Greene [syn. Rhus toxicodendron L., Toxicodendron radicans (L.) O. Kuntze]). Poison sumac has severe toxic effects, including dizziness, stupor, and states of excitation, and may indeed be experienced as psychoactive (cf. Roth et al. 1994, 704 f.*).


438 Lobelia nicotianaefolia is also known as wild tobacco (cf. Lobelia inflata).


439 Settlers drank a tea made from the leaves of this strawberry as a nerve tonic (Foster and Duke 1990, 38).


440 This substance has a cannabinoid-like structure (Kindscher 1992, 226*).


441 The use of hemp as an ingredient in smoking blends is a recent development.


442 The leaves were formerly smoked by themselves as a tobacco substitute (Foster and Duke 1990, 44).


443 The Cherokee used the root of this plant when they suffered from “bad memory.” The leaves were also smoked alone (Foster and Duke 1990, 180).


444 In California, this species also has ritual significance as an incense. The leaves were also chewed (Hartwich 1911, 33*).


445 An herbarium specimen bears the note: “The plant has toxic-narcotic properties” (von Reis and Lipp 1982, 228*).


446 Apparently, Demeter had to refuse the sacred sacrament of the wild Dionysos and provided a beer recipe in its place (cf. Ruck 1982*).


447 Unfortunately, the next lines (22 to 26 of them) have been lost. They may have contained further instructions for the drink and may have been destroyed intentionally.


448 The grain-mother Demeter was well versed in the world of plants and said of herself: “For I know the powerful great herbs that are gathered and the talisman plant that wards off possession” (Homeric Hymn to Demeter, line 229 ff.; in Wasson et al. 1998, 75).


449 The Telesterion was quite unsuited for use as a theater (Eyer 1993).


450 The name polei was once used to refer to various plants, including species from the genus Nepeta (cf. Nepeta cataria) (Fuchs 1545, 245*). Polion (= polium) has also been construed as golden germander (Teucrium polium L.) (Baumann 1982, 114*).


451 The symptoms described here suggest the effects of nightshade plants.


452 There are six species of Datura in Australia, of which only one is native. All the others were introduced either inadvertently or purposely as medicinal and decorative plants. Both the native thorn apple (Datura leichhardtii F. Muell.; cf. Datura ssp.) and the imported species (Datura stramonium L., Datura stramonium ssp. ferox) were (are?) used as pituri or pituri substitutes (Dowling and McKenzie 1993, 126 ff.*).


453 There are more than seven hundred species of Eucalyptus in Australia. Eucalyptus gum (crystallized resin), which is exuded from the bark when the wood is injured, can be obtained from almost all of them. The Aborigines use the gum (= mijilypamunuunarrkiypirawokalbajior) of numerous species primarily for medicinal purposes (Barr 1990, 122–25*; Macpherson 1939).


454 I have discussed this problem extensively with Jonathan Ott, Rob Montgomery, and Manuel Torres, who share the views given here.


455 South American snuffs made from Anadenanthera peregrina act in a similar manner. The self-experimentation by and reports of C. Manuel Torres indicate that pure Anadenanthera powder has almost no effects, while the full DMT effects immediately become apparent when the powder is mixed with ash (C. M. Torres, pers. comm.).


456 This species is originally from the West Indies (Zander 1994, 312*).


457 The chrysanthemum flower is a symbol of long life. A “liquor of longevity” is prepared by adding the flowers (flos chrysanthemi), mixed with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., Lycium chinense Mill., and red dates (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.), to sake or rice schnapps. Chrysanthemum flowers contain flavone derivatives, sesquiterpenoids, amino acids, borneol, camphor (cf. Cinnamomum camphora), chrysantheone, and other substances (Paulus and Ding 1987, 183 f.*).


458 Nevertheless, some experimenters have repeatedly reported experiencing mild psychoactive effects from smoking Psilocybe mushrooms.


459 The medicinal use of sneezing powder is also found in South America, where the powdered bark of Myrica stornatatoria (nom. nud.!) is snuffed to clear the mind and to treat headaches (Schultes 1980, 92*).


460 Thorns from Trichocereus atacamensis, which are more than 20 cm long, were used to clean the tubes and prevent them from becoming clogged (cf. Trichocereus spp.).


461 2-CB (4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine), which produces effects somewhere between those of mescaline and MDMA, was discovered by Alexander Shulgin (cf. Shulgin and Shulgin 1991, 503 ff.).


462 Whether this variety was indeed used traditionally to prepare snuffs is questionable (C. Manuel Torres, pers. comm.).


463 A note on an herbarium specimen collected by J. A. Steyermark in Brazil in 1970 includes the remark: “The bark of the tree is used here by the Guaica Indians [= Waika/Yanomamö] as an ingredient in yopo” (von Reis and Lipp 1982, 126*).


464 This species, which has been described for Argentina, is synonymous with Anadenanthera colubrina. Its seeds and pods contain DMT and other tryptamines (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967, 362).


465 It is very likely that this Argentinean species is synonymous with a variety of Anadenanthera colubrina.


466 It is rather unlikely that a snuff made from Banisteriopsis would have psychopharmacological effects.


467 The Peruvian mestizo ayahuasqueros use the species Trichilia tocacheana, a tree known as lupana, to make ayahuasca. They fill ayahuasca, mixed with tobacco juice, into a hollow in the trunk of the tree and allow it to be enriched by the toxic resin that is exuded (Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 435*).


468 The shamans of the Barasana and Makuna used the powdered leaves as a ritual snuff for divination. However, there are no reports demonstrating that this powder exerts any psychoactive effects (Schultes 1980).


469 5-OH-DMT = bufotenine.


470 The urine of people inebriated on psilocybin mushrooms (cf. Psilocybe spp.) can also be used as an entheogen. Twenty-five percent of orally ingested psilocybin ends up in the urine one to two hours after the mushrooms are eaten (J. Ott, pers. comm.).


471 To date, this plant has been found to contain triterpenes and sapogenins with no known psychoactive effects (Kulshreshtha and Rastogi 1973). However, the leaves are the primary ingredient of Brahmi Rasayan, an Ayurvedic nerve tonic that does exert an effect upon the central nervous system (Shukia et al. 1987).


472 In Tibet, dried rhubarb leaves were mixed with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) or smoked as a tobacco substitute (Hartwich 1911, 108*).


473 This plant is from Africa. Its latex is used as a fish poison (Tyler 1966, 284*). Other species contain triterpenes (Domínguez et al. 1974).


474 The aromatic bush Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) contains large amounts of flavonoids with antiandrogenous effects (Bhargava 1989) as well as an essential oil whose primary constituents are sabinene, terpinene-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, globulol, and bis[1,1-dimethyl]-methylphenol. In Ayurvedic medicine, the plant is used as a remedy for feverish and rheumatic complaints (Mallavarapu et al. 1994).


475 This plant, which is also known as kumburu-wel, is used in Southeast Asian folk medicine to treat toothaches and parasitic worms (Macmillan 1991, 423*).


476 The Bodos and Kacharis (tribal peoples of Assam, India) regard this plant as sacred and make offerings to it. The flowers are strung together to make garlands for offerings (Boissya et al. 1981, 221*). The tribal peoples of Bastar (India) believe that Dendrophtoe falcata (L. f.) Etting (Loranthaceae), which grows parasitically on Calotropis gigantea, is able to increase “brain power” (intelligence) (Jain 1965, 245*). In Southeast Asia, where Calotropis gigantea is known as wara, its roots are used as a tonic (Macmillan 1991, 423*).


477 Known as guduchi, this Himalayan plant was referred to in the Sanskrit literature as amrita, “nectar of immortality.” Amrita is also translated as “life-giving drink.”


478 The roots contain desmodium alkaloids and possibly N,N-DMT and other tryptamines (Ghosal and Bhattacharya 1972).


479 In Persian, tary ak means both “poison” and “antidote” and is also a name for opium. The opium-eating Turks were known as theriakis.


480 Nigromantie is a neologism from the Middle Ages that can be traced back to Isidor (ca. 530–636), the archbishop of Seville. It is derived from the word necromancy (“divination of the dead” or “divination by the dead”—i.e., conjuring the dead).


481 From Heinrich Marzell, Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen [Dictionary of German Plant Names], 5 vols. (Leipzig, 1943–1979); Hanns Bächtold-Stäubli, ed., Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens [Hand Dictionary of German Superstitions], 10 vols. (Berlin, 1927–1942).


482 The “iron plant” of antiquity was known as hiera botane, “sacred plant,” and was presumably not identical to Verbena officinalis, because the ancient literature (Pliny 25.105 f.) ascribed it with powerful magical and mind-altering properties (cf. Rätsch 1995, 154–57*). The iron plant is also known by the folk names druidenkraut (“druid plant”), merkurblutkraut (“Mercury’s blood plant”), and sagenkraut (“plant of legend”). Verbena officinalis has no psychoactive properties of any kind.


483 “In the sixteenth century, scholars such as Cardano or Della Porta formulated a different view: animal transformations, flying, and manifestations of the devil were the effects of malnutrition or the use of hallucinogenic substances such as found in plant decoctions or in ointments. These explanations have not yet lost any of their fascinating effects. Yet in and of itself, no form of deprivation, no substance, and no ecstatic technique, is able to provoke the repeated appearance of such complex experiences. In the face of this biological determinism, it is emphatically important to remember that the key to this codified repetition can only be a cultural one. Naturally, the intentional ingestion of psychotropic or hallucinogenic substances, even when they do not explain the ecstasy of the followers of the nocturnal goddess, the werewolves, etc., nevertheless places them in a dimension that is not exclusively mythical. Would it be possible to prove the existence of such ritual frameworks?” (Ginzburg 1990, 296 f.)


484 It is likely that Bacon wrote most, if not all, of the plays attributed to William Shakespeare. This is the reason Shakespeare’s pharmacological details concerning poisons and medicinal plants are so correct (cf. Tabor 1970*).


485 Although the yew tree is regarded almost everywhere as very poisonous, it also finds use in ethnomedicine. In India, a beverage called jya is cooked from a few pieces of the bark and some salt and ghee (clarified butter). It is said to bestow mental power and vitality (Shah and Joshi 1971, 419*).


486 In the literature, one occasionally encounters the claim that hemlock is psychoactive in and of itself. Since both Conium maculatum and Cicuta virosa are among the most well studied of all medicinal and poisonous plants, it can be presumed that any purported psychoactivity would not have escaped the pharmacologists of the past three thousand years. Both hemlocks contain highly toxic alkaloids, furanocoumarins, and bioactive polyacetylenes (Teuscher 1992; Wittstock et al. 1992; Wittstock et al. 1995).


487 Zombies and “voodoo people” number among the figures that Westerners often hallucinate while under the influence of a psychoactive substance, e.g., Datura (Siegel 1981, 325*).


488 In West Africa, a drug known as ibok usiak owo is obtained from the closely related species Albizia zygia. It was used in ordeals and as a truth serum (Davis 1983b, 144). The first part of the drug’s name is reminiscent of that of iboga (see Tabernanthe iboga).


489 Seabrook noted that the food the zombies eat cannot contain salt of any kind; otherwise, the effects of the zombification will be counteracted (1931, 103, 105).


490 The sorcerers, who are able to transform themselves into wolves or other animals, are called loups garous in Haiti, and they are greatly feared by the people (Simpson 1942). It is possible that these sorcerers use a preparation made with cathedral bells (Kalanchoe pinnata[Lam.] Pers.; Crassulaceae), which is known locally as loup garou.


491 Laughing gas (nitrous oxide, nitrous monoxide, N2O) was first produced in 1776 by Joseph Priestley (1733–1804), the theologian and chemist who discovered oxygen. By 1799, Humphrey Davy was suggesting that laughing gas could be used as an anesthesia, although its first successful application for this purpose did not occur until 1844. Today, laughing gas is back in fashion, for it is inhaled at techno-parties and raves (cf. herbal ecstasy). Despite the fact that the substance has been known for a long time, its mechanism of activity has not yet been clarified (see Laughing Gas, ed. Michael Sheldin and Davis Wallechinski [Berkeley, Calif: Ronin Publishing, 1992]).


492 Despite its name, Gymnocactus mandragora (Berger) Backeb. [syn. Neolloydia mandragora (Berger) Anderson] should not be confused with the mandrake (Mandragora officinarum).


493 A study of secretions of the Vietnamese Bufo melanostictus Schneider found only four sterols (Verpoorte et al. 1979).


494 In Africa, Combretum mucronatum (Schum. et Thonn.) is used as an anthelmintic (Ayensu 1978, 90*).


495 The seeds of the Australian tree kurrajong (Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br.) contain 1.8% caffeine. The seeds are traditionally roasted, brewed, and drunk as a stimulant (Bock 1994).


496 This opera, the libretto of which was written by Hugo von Hoffmannsthal, includes a character named Mandryka. Could the author have been making an allusion to Mandragora?


497 Kavapyrones have a similar anesthetic effect to cocaine and its derivatives procaine and lidocaine (cf. Piper methysticum).


498 In addition to codeine, many cough syrups also contain ephedrine, camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), essential oils, and sometimes even extracts of Atropa belladonna and Aconitum napellus. They are thus somewhat reminiscent of witches’ ointmentssoporific sponges, and theriac.


499 The derivative hydroxynorcytisine is also present in the fruit pods of the golden chain tree (Hayman and Gray 1989).


500 It has been discovered that people who suffer from sleep disorders can do without diazepam, and that a combination of hops (Humulus lupulus) and valerian (Valeriana officinalis) can be used as a substitute (Flesch 1996).


501 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, found in the essential oil of hops (Humulus lupulus), has strong sedative properties.


502 In West Africa, Tabernanthe iboga is supposedly preferred over yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimba) as an aphrodisiac (Prins 1988, 6).


503 The Subfamily Plumerioideae (Apocynaceae) is rich in indole alkaloids (Omino and Kokwaro 1993, 174*).


504 This cactus has a very high mescaline content of 0.9% (Schultes and Farnsworth 1982, 159*).


505 Although the prickly pear doubtlessly originated in Mexico, it was introduced to Europe and North Africa at an early date (Dressler 1953, 140*).


506 Because psilocybin mushrooms are sometimes difficult to digest, more time (up to one and a half hours) may pass before the effects become manifest.


507 These results have occasionally been called into question: “Nevertheless, in animal studies the author was able to demonstrate an increase in frequency of copulation and in blood flow through the penis after premedication with yohimbine” (Weyers 1982, 64).