Harwood-Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine, 6 ed.

The Approach to the Patient in the Emergency Department

SECTION I • Resuscitation

Chapter 1. Airway Management

Chapter 2. Airway Procedures

Chapter 3. Cardiopulmonary Arrest

Chapter 4. Shock

Chapter 5. Vascular Access

SECTION II • High-Risk Chief Complaints

Chapter 6. Chest Pain

Chapter 7. Abdominal Pain

Chapter 8. Shortness of Breath

Chapter 9. Syncope

Chapter 10. Fever

Chapter 11. Altered Mental Status and Coma

Chapter 12. Headache

Chapter 13. Weakness

Chapter 14. Dizziness

SECTION III • Pain Management and Procedural Sedation

Chapter 15. Acute Pain Management

Chapter 16. Chronic Pain Syndromes

Chapter 17. Procedural Sedation and Analgesia

SECTION IV • Trauma

Chapter 18. General Principles of Trauma

Chapter 19. Trauma Airway Management

Chapter 20. Traumatic Shock

Chapter 21. Wound Management

Chapter 22. Head Injuries

Chapter 23. Maxillofacial Injuries

Chapter 24. Dental Injuries

Chapter 25. Eye Trauma

Chapter 26. Blunt Neck Trauma

Chapter 27. Penetrating Neck Trauma

Chapter 28. Cervical Spine Fractures

Chapter 29. Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures

Chapter 30. Spinal Cord Injuries

Chapter 31. Blunt Chest Trauma

Chapter 32. Penetrating Chest Trauma

Chapter 33. Blunt Abdominal Trauma

Chapter 34. Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

Chapter 35. Genitourinary Trauma

Chapter 36. Peripheral Vascular Injuries

Chapter 37. Approach to Musculoskeletal Injuries

Chapter 38. Shoulder Injuries

Chapter 39. Elbow Injuries

Chapter 40. Wrist and Forearm Injuries

Chapter 41. Hand Injuries

Chapter 42. Pelvic Fractures

Chapter 43. Hip and Femur Injuries

Chapter 44. Knee Injuries

Chapter 45. Ankle and Foot Injuries

Chapter 46. Burns

Chapter 47. Replantation

Chapter 48. Acute Compartment Syndrome

Chapter 49. Ballistics

Chapter 50. Blast Injuries

Chapter 51. Hanging and Strangulation Injuries

Chapter 52. Trauma in Pregnancy

Chapter 53. Trauma in Older Adults

SECTION V • Eye Emergencies

Chapter 54. The Eye Examination

Chapter 55. Common Ophthalmic Medications

Chapter 56. The Red Eye

Chapter 57. Corneal Abrasion and Foreign Bodies

Chapter 58. Acute Vision Loss

Chapter 59. Diplopia

Chapter 60. Acute Eye Infections

Chapter 61. Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma

SECTION VI • ENT and Dental Emergencies

Chapter 62. Dental Emergencies

Chapter 63. Head and Neck Infections

Chapter 64. Temporomandibular Pain and Dislocation

Chapter 65. Upper Airway Obstruction

Chapter 66. Sore Throat

Chapter 67. Sinusitis and Rhinitis

Chapter 68. Ear Infections in Adults

Chapter 69. Epistaxis

Chapter 70. Vertigo

Chapter 71. Acute Hearing Loss and Tinnitus

Chapter 72. Complications of Tracheostomies

SECTION VII • Pulmonary Emergencies

Chapter 73. Respiratory Failure

Chapter 74. Pneumonia

Chapter 75. Pleural Effusion

Chapter 76. Asthma

Chapter 77. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chapter 78. Spontaneous Pneumothorax and Pneumomediastinum

Chapter 79. Pulmonary Embolism

Chapter 80. Hemoptysis

Chapter 81. Sarcoidosis

SECTION VIII • Cardiac Emergencies

Chapter 82. Acute Coronary Syndrome

Chapter 83. Congestive Heart Failure and Cor Pulmonale

Chapter 84. Bradydysrhythmias

Chapter 85. Tachydysrhythmias

Chapter 86. Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter–Defibrillators

Chapter 87. Valvular Heart Disease

Chapter 88. Infective Endocarditis

Chapter 89. Acute Pericarditis and Cardiac Tamponade

Chapter 90. Hypertension

SECTION IX • Vascular Emergencies

Chapter 91. Nontraumatic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Disorders

Chapter 92. Thoracic Aortic Dissection and Aneurysm

Chapter 93. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

Chapter 94. Mesenteric Ischemia

Chapter 95. Peripheral Arterial Disease

Chapter 96. Deep Venous Thrombosis and Thrombophlebitis

Chapter 97. Vascular Graft Complications

SECTION X • Gastrointestinal Emergencies

Chapter 98. Esophageal Disorders

Chapter 99. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Chapter 100. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Chapter 101. Peptic Ulcer

Chapter 102. Jaundice

Chapter 103. Acute Diseases of the Biliary Tract

Chapter 104. Hepatitis

Chapter 105. Hepatic Failure and Cirrhosis

Chapter 106. The Liver Transplant Patient

Chapter 107. Pancreatitis

Chapter 108. Appendicitis

Chapter 109. Bowel Obstruction

Chapter 110. Hernias

Chapter 111. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Chapter 112. Diarrhea

Chapter 113. Diverticular Disease

Chapter 114. Anorectal Disorders

Chapter 115. Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies

Chapter 116. Feeding Tubes

SECTION XI • Renal and Urologic Emergencies

Chapter 117. Hematuria

Chapter 118. Acute Kidney Injury

Chapter 119. Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis-Related Emergencies

Chapter 120. The Renal Transplant Patient

Chapter 121. Acute Scrotal Pain

Chapter 122. Penile Disorders

Chapter 123. Urinary Tract Infection

Chapter 124. Prostatitis

Chapter 125. Fournier Gangrene

Chapter 126. Urolithiasis

Chapter 127. Urinary Incontinence and Retention

Chapter 128. Genitourinary Stents and Catheters

SECTION XII • Gynecologic Emergencies

Chapter 129. Pelvic Pain

Chapter 130. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Chapter 131. Vaginal Bleeding in the Nonpregnant Patient

Chapter 132. Vaginitis

Chapter 133. Bartholin Gland Cyst’s and Abscess

Chapter 134. Breast Masses and Infections

Chapter 135. Sexual Assault

SECTION XIII • Obstetric Emergencies

Chapter 136. First-Trimester Vaginal Bleeding

Chapter 137. Ectopic Pregnancy

Chapter 138. Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Chapter 139. Postabortion Complications

Chapter 140. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

Chapter 141. Third-Trimester Vaginal Bleeding

Chapter 142. Emergency Delivery

Chapter 143. Postpartum Emergencies

Chapter 144. Medical Treatment During Pregnancy

SECTION XIV • Musculoskeletal Emergencies

Chapter 145. Hand and Wrist Pain

Chapter 146. Bursitis and Tendinopathy

Chapter 147. Hand Infections

Chapter 148. Low Back Pain

Chapter 149. Foot Disorders

Chapter 150. Monoarticular Arthritis

Chapter 151. Polyarticular Arthritis

SECTION XV • Neurologic Emergencies

Chapter 152. Organic Brain Syndrome

Chapter 153. Headache

Chapter 154. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Chapter 155. Cerebrovascular Disease

Chapter 156. Seizures

Chapter 157. Transient Global Amnesia

Chapter 158. Peripheral Neuropathies

Chapter 159. Bell’s Palsy and Trigeminal Neuralgia

Chapter 160. Myopathies and Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission

Chapter 161. Demyelinating Disease

Chapter 162. Parkinsonism and Other Movement Disorders

SECTION XVI • Psychiatric Emergencies

Chapter 163. Medical Clearance

Chapter 164. Depression and Suicidal Ideation

Chapter 165. Anxiety Disorders and Panic Attack

Chapter 166. Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Chapter 167. The Agitated or Violent Patient

Chapter 168. Factitious Illness, Malingering, and Conversion Disorder

Chapter 169. Bereavement and Grief Reactions

SECTION XVII • Dermatologic Emergencies

Chapter 170. Life-Threatening Dermatoses

Chapter 171. Papulosquamous Eruptions

Chapter 172. Blistering Disorders

Chapter 173. Purpuric Eruptions

Chapter 174. Urticaria

SECTION XVIII • Allergic and Immunologic Emergencies

Chapter 175. Anaphylaxis

Chapter 176. Angioedema

Chapter 177. Drug Allergy and Other Drug Reactions

Chapter 178. Multisystem Autoimmune Disease

SECTION XIX • Infectious Disease Emergencies

Chapter 179. Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Chapter 180. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Chapter 181. Tetanus

Chapter 182. Meningitis and Encephalitis

Chapter 183. Brain Abscess and Other Suppurative CNS Infections

Chapter 184. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 185. Lyme Disease

Chapter 186. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Chapter 187. Other Tick-Borne Diseases

Chapter 188. Tuberculosis

Chapter 189. Infectious Mononucleosis

Chapter 190. Influenza

Chapter 191. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Related Disorders

Chapter 192. Toxic Shock Syndromes

Chapter 193. Parasitic Disease

Chapter 194. Blood and Body Fluid Exposures in the Healthcare Worker

Chapter 195. Food Poisoning

SECTION XX • Hematologic/Oncologic Emergencies

Chapter 196. Bleeding Disorders

Chapter 197. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, and Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome

Chapter 198. Complications of Antithrombotic Therapy

Chapter 199. Sickle Cell Disease

Chapter 200. Anemia

Chapter 201. Transfusion Reactions and Complications

Chapter 202. The Cancer Patient in the Emergency Department

SECTION XXI • Endocrine and Metabolic Emergencies

Chapter 203. Acid–Base Disturbances

Chapter 204. Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 205. Hyperglycemic Crises

Chapter 206. Hypoglycemia

Chapter 207. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Chapter 208. Thyroid Emergencies

Chapter 209. Adrenal and Pituitary Disorders

Chapter 210. Disorders of Sodium and Water Metabolism

Chapter 211. Disorders of Potassium Metabolism

Chapter 212. Disorders of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Metabolism

Chapter 213. Rhabdomyolysis

SECTION XXII • Pediatrics

Chapter 214. General Approach to the Pediatric Emergency Patient

Chapter 215. General Approach to Neonates and Infants Less Than 12 Months of Age

Chapter 216. Newborn Resuscitation

Chapter 217. Pediatric Resuscitation

Chapter 218. Pediatric Airway Management and Rapid-Sequence Intubation

Chapter 219. Vascular Access in Children

Chapter 220. Procedural Sedation, Anxiolysis, and Analgesia

Chapter 221. Neonatal Jaundice

Chapter 222. Fever

Chapter 223. Vomiting

Chapter 224. Diarrhea

Chapter 225. Dehydration

Chapter 226. Failure to Thrive

Chapter 227. Crying, Fussy Infant

Chapter 228. Abdominal Pain

Chapter 229. Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Chapter 230. Constipation

Chapter 231. Cough

Chapter 232. Shortness of Breath

Chapter 233. Apnea and Apparent Life-Threatening Events

Chapter 234. Chest Pain and Palpitations

Chapter 235. Syncope

Chapter 236. Seizures

Chapter 237. Altered Mental Status

Chapter 238. Ataxia

Chapter 239. Pediatric Headache

Chapter 240. Oral Lesions

Chapter 241. Neck Masses

Chapter 242. Limp

Chapter 243. Hematuria and Dysuria

Chapter 244. Vaginal Bleeding and Discharge in Childhood

Chapter 245. General Approach to Pediatric Trauma

Chapter 246. Severe Head Trauma and Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

Chapter 247. Minor Head Trauma

Chapter 248. Sports-Related Concussion

Chapter 249. Evaluation of the Pediatric Cervical Spine

Chapter 250. Thoracic Trauma

Chapter 251. Abdominal Trauma

Chapter 252. Pediatric Fractures

Chapter 253. Pediatric Sports Injuries

Chapter 254. Newborn Problems

Chapter 255. Eye Disorders

Chapter 256. Ear Infections

Chapter 257. Sinusitis

Chapter 258. Lymphadenitis

Chapter 259. Torticollis

Chapter 260. Pharyngitis

Chapter 261. Croup and Other Upper Airway Disorders

Chapter 262. Pertussis

Chapter 263. Asthma

Chapter 264. Bronchiolitis

Chapter 265. Pneumonia

Chapter 266. Arrhythmias in Children

Chapter 267. Cardiac Murmurs

Chapter 268. Congenital Heart Disease and Congestive Heart Failure

Chapter 269. Appendicitis

Chapter 270. Intussusception

Chapter 271. Malrotation and Midgut Volvulus

Chapter 272. Pyloric Stenosis

Chapter 273. Foreign Bodies

Chapter 274. Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Chapter 275. Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders

Chapter 276. Kawasaki Disease

Chapter 277. Cellulitis

Chapter 278. Meningitis and Encephalitis

Chapter 279. Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Chapter 280. Sickle Cell Disease in Children

Chapter 281. Urticarial, Maculopapular Lesions

Chapter 282. Rashes: Vesicular, Pustular, and Scaly Lesions

Chapter 283. Common Pediatric Infestations

Chapter 284. Immunizations

Chapter 285. Nursemaid’s Elbow

Chapter 286. Renal Emergencies

Chapter 287. Genitourinary Disorders

Chapter 288. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Chapter 289. Psychosocial and Behavioral Emergencies

Chapter 290. Child Abuse: Physical, Sexual, and Neglect

Chapter 291. Ventricular Shunt Problems and Technology-Dependent Children

Chapter 292. Pediatric Interfacility Transport

Chapter 293. Death, Catastrophic Illness, and Parental Presence in Critical Cases

Chapter 294. Consent for Care of Children, Adolescents, and Emancipated Minors

SECTION XXIII • Toxicology

Chapter 295. Evaluation of the Poisoned Patient

Chapter 296. General Management of the Poisoned Patient

Chapter 297. Ethanol

Chapter 298. Ethanol Withdrawal

Chapter 299. Ethylene Glycol

Chapter 300. Methanol

Chapter 301. Isopropanol, Acetone, and Other Glycols

Chapter 302. Acetaminophen

Chapter 303. Salicylates

Chapter 304. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Chapter 305. Opioids

Chapter 306. Complications of Injection Drug Use

Chapter 307. Barbiturates

Chapter 308. Benzodiazepines

Chapter 309. Gamma Hydroxybutyrate

Chapter 310. Muscle Relaxants and Other Sedative–Hypnotic Agents

Chapter 311. Phenytoin

Chapter 312. Valproic Acid

Chapter 313. Carbamazepine

Chapter 314. Newer Anticonvulsants

Chapter 315. Antimalarial Drugs

Chapter 316. Herbicides

Chapter 317. Isoniazid

Chapter 318. Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides

Chapter 319. Nicotine, Neonicotinioids, Pyrethrins, and Organochlorine Pesticides

Chapter 320. Rodenticides

Chapter 321. Antidysrhythmic Drugs and Local Anesthetics

Chapter 322. Centrally Acting Antihypertensive Agents

Chapter 323. Beta Blockers

Chapter 324. Calcium Channel Antagonists

Chapter 325. Cardiac Glycosides

Chapter 326. Arsenic and Mercury

Chapter 327. Carbon Monoxide

Chapter 328. Corrosives and Chemical Burns

Chapter 329. Cyanide

Chapter 330. Fluoride and Hydrofluoric Acid

Chapter 331. Hydrocarbons

Chapter 332. Hydrogen Sulfide

Chapter 333. Iron

Chapter 334. Lead

Chapter 335. Methemoglobinemia

Chapter 336. Irritant Gases and Other Toxic Inhalants

Chapter 337. Smoke Inhalation

Chapter 338. Antipsychotic Agents

Chapter 339. Cyclic Antidepressants

Chapter 340. Dystonic Reactions

Chapter 341. Lithium

Chapter 342. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Chapter 343. Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors and the Serotonin Syndrome

Chapter 344. Anticholinergic Agents

Chapter 345. Cocaine

Chapter 346. Hallucinogens

Chapter 347. Phencyclidine and Ketamine

Chapter 348. Amphetamines and Stimulants

Chapter 349. Biologic Warfare Agents

Chapter 350. Chemical Warfare Agents

Chapter 351. Drug Withdrawal

Chapter 352. Botulism

Chapter 353. Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

Chapter 354. Mushrooms

Chapter 355. Common Toxic Plants

Chapter 356. Dietary Supplements and Herbal Medications

Chapter 357. Seafood Toxins

SECTION XXIV • Environmental Emergencies

Chapter 358. Hypothermia

Chapter 359. Cold-Induced Tissue Injuries

Chapter 360. Heat-Related Illness

Chapter 361. High Altitude Illness

Chapter 362. Diving Injuries

Chapter 363. Drowning (Submersion Injuries)

Chapter 364. Electrical Injuries

Chapter 365. Lightning Injuries

Chapter 366. Radiation Injuries

Chapter 367. Crotaline Snake Envenomation

Chapter 368. Elapid Snake Envenomation

Chapter 369. Hymenoptera Envenomation

Chapter 370. Marine Envenomations

Chapter 371. Scorpion Envenomation

Chapter 372. Black Widow Spider Envenomation

Chapter 373. Brown Recluse Spider Envenomation

Chapter 374. Insect, Tick, and Mite Bites and Infestations

Chapter 375. Mammalian Bites and Associated Infections

SECTION XXV • EMS and Special Clinical Considerations

Chapter 376. Emergency Medical Services

Chapter 377. Air Medical Services

Chapter 378. Disaster Planning and Management

Chapter 379. Errors and Patient Safety

Chapter 380. Quality Improvement

Chapter 381. Legal and Ethical Issues

Chapter 382. Regulatory Issues

Chapter 383. Interpersonal Violence

Contributors