Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care, 4th Edition

A

Introduction

Abdominal Mass

Abdominal Pain

Absent or Diminished Pulse

Acid Phosphatase Elevation

Acidosis (Decreased pH)

Alkaline Phosphatase Elevation

Alkalosis (Increased pH)

Amnesia

Anal Mass

Anemia

Ankle Clonus and Hyperactive and Pathologic ReFlexes

Anorexia

Anosmia or Unusual Odor

Anuria and Oliguria

Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia

Arm Pain

Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, and Lactic Dehydrogenase Elevation

Aural Discharge (Otorrhea)

Auscultatory Signs of Pulmonary Disease

Axillary Mass

B

Back Mass

Baldness

Bleeding Under the Skin

Blurred Vision, Blindness, and Scotomata

Bradycardia

Breast Discharge

Breast Mass or Swelling

Breast Pain

C

Cardiac Arrhythmias

Cardiomegaly

Cervical Bruit

Chest Pain

Chest Wall Mass

Chills

Chorea

Clubbing and Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy

Coma and Somnolence

Constipation

Constricted Pupils (Miosis)

Convulsions

Cough

Crepitus

Cyanosis

D

Dandruff

Decreased Respirations, Apnea, and Cheyne–Stokes Breathing

Delayed Puberty

Delirium

Delusions

Depression, Anxiety, and Other Abnormal Psychic States

Diarrhea, Acute

Diarrhea, Chronic

Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia)

Difficulty Urinating

Dilated Pupils (Mydriasis)

Dizziness

Double Vision

Drop Attacks

Dwarfism

Dysarthria and Speech Disorders

Dysmenorrhea

Dyspareunia

Dyspnea, Tachypnea, and Orthopnea

Dystocia

Dysuria

E

Earache

Edema of the Extremities

Elbow Pain

Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Epiphora

Epistaxis

Euphoria

Excessive Sweating

Exophthalmos

Extremity Mass

Extremity, Hand, and Foot Deformities

Eye Pain

F

Face Mass

Facial Pain

Facial Paralysis

Facies, Abnormal

Failure to Thrive

Fasciculations

Fever

Flank Mass

Flank Pain

Flashes of Light

Flatulence and Borborygmi

Flushed Face (Plethora)

Foot, Heel, and Toe Pain

Forehead Enlargement

Frequency and Urgency of Urination

Frigidity

G

Gait Disturbances

Gangrene

Gigantism

Girdle Pain

Glycosuria

Groin Mass

Groin Pain

Gynecomastia

H

Halitosis and other Breath Odors

Hallucinations

Hand and Finger Pain

Head Deformities

Head Mass

Headaches

Heartburn

Hematemesis and Melena

Hematuria

Hemianopsia

Hemiplegia

Hemoptysis

Hepatomegaly

Hiccoughs

Hip Pain

Hirsutism

Hoarseness

Horner Syndrome

Hypercalcemia

Hypercholesterolemia

Hyperglycemia

Hyperkalemia

Hypermenorrhea

Hypernatremia

Hypertension

Hypertriglyceridemia

Hypoactive Reflexes

Hypoalbuminemia

Hypocalcemia

Hypoglycemia

Hypokalemia

Hypomenorrhea and Amenorrhea

Hyponatremia

Hypotension and Shock

Hypothermia

Hypoxemia

I

Impotence

Incontinence, Fecal

Incontinence, Urinary

Indigestion

Infertility

Insomnia

Intracranial Bruit

J

Jaundice

Jaw Pain

Jaw Swelling

Joint Pain

Joint Swelling

K

Knee Pain

Knee Swelling

Kyphosis

L

Leg Pain

Leukocytosis

Leukopenia

Lip Swelling

Lordosis

Low Back Pain

Lymphadenopathy, Generalized

M

Memory Loss and Dementia

Menstrual Cramps

Meteorism

Miscellaneous Sites of Bleeding

Monoplegia

Mouth Pigmentation

Murmurs

Muscular Atrophy

Muscular Cramps

Musculoskeletal Pain, Generalized

Myoclonus

N

Nail Changes

Nasal Discharge

Nasal Mass or Swelling

Nasal Obstruction

Nausea and Vomiting

Neck Mass

Neck Pain

Nightmares

Nocturia

Nose, Regurgitation of Food Through

Nuchal Rigidity

Nystagmus

O

Obesity

Oral or Lingual Mass

Orbital Discharge

Orbital Mass

P

Pallor of the Face, Nails, or Conjunctiva

Palpitations

Papilledema

Paresthesias, Dysesthesias, and Numbness

Pelvic Mass

Pelvic Pain

Penile Pain

Penile Sores

Periorbital and Facial Edema

Photophobia

Polycythemia

Polydipsia

Polyphagia

Polyuria

Popliteal Swelling

Priapism

Prostatic Mass or Enlargement

Proteinuria

Pruritus

Ptosis

Ptyalism

Pulsatile Mass

Pulse Rhythm Abnormalities

Pyuria

R

Rash, General

Rash, Local

Rectal Bleeding

Rectal Discharge

Rectal Mass

Rectal Pain

Red Eye

Restless Leg Syndrome

Risus Sardonicus

S

Scalp Tenderness

Scoliosis

Sensory Loss

Shoulder Pain

Skin Discharge

Skin Mass

Skin Pigmentation and Other Pigmentary Changes

Skin Thickening

Skin Ulcers

Sleep Apnea

Sleepwalking

Smooth Tongue and other Changes

Sneezing

Sore Throat

Spasticity

Spine Deformities

Splenomegaly

Sputum

Stool Color Changes

Strabismus

Strangury

Stretch Marks

Stridor and Snoring

Swollen Gums and Gum Mass

Swollen Tongue

Syncope

T

Tachycardia

Taste Abnormalities

Testicular Atrophy

Testicular Mass

Testicular Pain

Thrombocytopenia

Tinnitus and Deafness

Tongue Pain

Tongue Ulcers

Toothache

Torticollis

Tremor and Other Involuntary Movements

Trismus (Lock Jaw)

U

Unequal Pulses

Uremia

Urethral Discharge

Urine Color Changes

V

Vaginal Bleeding

Vaginal Discharge

Visible Peristalsis

Vomitus

W

Walking Difficulties

Weakness and Fatigue, Generalized

Weakness or Paralysis of One or More Extremities

Weight Loss

Wheezing

Appendix A. The Laboratory Workup of disease

Appendix B. Answers to Questions on Case Presentations