The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, 3rd Ed.

REFERENCES

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The references provided are by no means intended to be a complete list for all of the studies reviewed or mentioned in this book. In fact, we have chosen to focus on key studies and comprehensive review articles that readers, especially medical professionals, may find helpful.

We encourage those interested to visit the website of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at www.nlm.nih.gov for additional studies. The NLM Gateway (http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov) is a web-based system that lets users search simultaneously in multiple retrieval systems at the NLM. From this site you can access all of the NLM databases, including the PubMed database. The PubMed database was developed in conjunction with publishers of biomedical literature as a search tool for accessing literature citations and linking to full-text journal articles at websites of participating publishers. Publishers participating in PubMed electronically supply NLM with their citations prior to or at the time of publication. If the publisher has a website that offers full text of its journals, PubMed provides links to that site, as well as sites with other biological data, sequence centers, and so on. User registration, a subscription fee, or some other type of fee may be required to access the full text of articles in some journals.

PubMed provides access to bibliographic information, including MEDLINE, the NLM’s premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. MEDLINE contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,000 medical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries. The file contains more than 12 million citations dating back to the mid-1960s. Coverage is worldwide, but most records are from English-language sources or have English abstracts (summaries). Conducting a search is quite easy, and the site has a link to a tutorial that fully explains the search process.

What Is Natural Medicine?

1. Lust B. Universal naturopathic directory and buyer’s guide. American Naturopathic Association, New York, 1918.

2. Campion F. AMA and U.S. health policy since 1940. Chicago: AMA Publications, 1984.

3. French GL. The continuing crisis in antibiotic resistance. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2010 Nov; 36 suppl 3:S3–S7.

4. Gootz TD. The global problem of antibiotic resistance. Critical Reviews in Immunology 2010; 30(1): 79–93.

5. Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein DR, Singh G. Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340: 1888–1899.

6. Vaithianathan R, Hockey PM, Moore TJ, Bates DW. Iatrogenic effects of COX-2 inhibitors in the US population: findings from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Drug Safety 2009; 32(4): 335–343.

7. Dingle JT. The effect of NSAIDs on human articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 2009; 16: 47–52.

8. Brandt KD. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on chondrocyte metabolism in vitro and in vivo. The American Journal of Medicine 1987; 83 suppl 5A: 29–34.

9. Shield MJ. Anti-inflammatory drugs and their effects on cartilage synthesis and renal function. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 1993; 13: 7–16.

10. Brooks PM, Potter SR, Buchanan WW. NSAID and osteoarthritis—help or hindrance? The Journal of Rheumatology 1982; 9: 3–5.

11. Newman NM, Ling RSM. Acetabular bone destruction related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The Lancet 1985; 2: 11–13.

12. Solomon L. Drug induced arthropathy and necrosis of the femoral head. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1973; 55B: 246–251.

13. Ronningen H, Langeland N. Indomethacin treatment in osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Acta Orthopaedica 1979; 50: 169–174.

14. Bruyere O, Honore A, Ethgen O, et al. Correlation between radiographic severity of knee osteoarthritis and future disease progression. Results from a 3-year prospective, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of glucosamine sulfate. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2003; 1: 1–5.

15. Christgau S, Henrotin Y, Tanko LB, et al. Osteoarthritic patients with high cartilage turnover show increased responsiveness to the cartilage protecting effects of glucosamine sulphate. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2004; 22: 36–42.

16. Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Total joint replacement after glucosamine sulphate treatment in knee osteoarthritis: results of a mean 8-year observation of patients from two previous 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2008 Feb; 16(2): 254–60.

17. Muller-Fassbender H, Bach GL, Haase W, et al. Glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 1994; 2: 61–69.

18. Rovati LC, Giacovelli G, Annefeld M, et al. A large, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study of glucosamine sulfate vs piroxicam and vs their association, on the kinetics of the symptomatic effect in knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 1994; 2 suppl 1: 56.

19. Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998; 48: 469–474.

20. Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Finco MF, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2010 Aug; 69(8): 1459–1464.

21. Pelletier KR. A review and analysis of the health and cost-effective outcome of comprehensive health promotion and disease promotion at the worksite: 1991–1993 update. American Journal of Health Promotion 1993; 8: 50–61.

22. Wilper AP, Woolhandler S, Lasser KE, et al. A national study of chronic disease prevalence and access to care in uninsured U.S. adults. Annals of Internal Medicine 2008; 149: 170–176.

23. Verbrugge LM, Patrick DL. Seven chronic conditions: their impact on U.S. adults’ activity levels and use of medical services. The American Journal of Public Health 1995; 85: 173–182.

24. Oojendijk WTM, Mackenbach JP, Limberger HHB. What is better? An investigation into the use and satisfaction with complementary and official medicine in the Netherlands. Netherlands Institute of Preventive Medicine and the Technical Industrial Organization, London, UK, 1980.

25. Oakley GP. Folic acid–preventable spina bifida and anencephaly. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1993; 269: 1292–1293.

The Healing Power Within

1. Klopfer B. Psychological variables in human cancer. Journal of Projective Techniques 1957; 21: 331–340.

2. Benedetti F. Mechanisms of placebo and placebo-related effects across diseases and treatments. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2008; 48: 33–60.

3. Price DD, Finniss DG, Benedetti F. A comprehensive review of the placebo effect: recent advances and current thought. Annual Review of Psychology 2008; 59: 565–590.

4. Beecher HK. The powerful placebo. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1955; 159: 1602–1606.

5. Benson H, Friedman R. Harnessing the power of the placebo effect and renaming it “remembered wellness.” Annual Review of Medicine 1996; 47: 193–199.

6. Benedetti F, Lanotte M, Lopiano L, Colloca L. When words are painful: unraveling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect. Neuroscience 2007; 147(2): 260–271.

7. Olshansky B. Placebo and nocebo in cardiovascular health: implications for healthcare, research, and the doctor-patient relationship. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007; 49(4): 415–421.

8. O’Hara DP. Is there a role for prayer and spirituality in health care? Medical Clinics of North America 2002; 86(1): 33–46.

9. Pizzorno L. Spirituality and Healing. In A Textbook of Natural Medicine, ed. Pizzorno JE, Murray MT. London: Churchill-Livingston, 2005, 519–532.

10 McNichol T. The new faith in medicine. USA Today, April 7, 1996, 4.

11. Benson H. The relaxation response: therapeutic effect. Science 1997; 278: 1694–1651.

12. Levin J. Spiritual determinants of health and healing: an epidemiologic perspective on salutogenic mechanisms. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2003; 9(6): 48–57.

A Positive Mental Attitude

1. Maruta T, Colligan RC, Malinchoc M, Offord KP. Optimism-pessimism assessed in the 1960s and self-reported health status 30 years later. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2002; 77: 748–753.

2. Taylor SE, Kemeny ME, Reed GM, et al. Psychological resources, positive illusions, and health. American Psychologist 2000; 55: 99–109.

3. Schweizer K, Beck-Seyffer A, Schneider R. Cognitive bias of optimism and its influence on psychological wellbeing. Psychological Reports 1999; 84: 627–636.

4. Segerstrom SC. Optimism, goal conflict, and stressor-related immune change. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2001; 24: 441–467.

5. Maruta T, Colligan RC, Malinchoc M, Offord KP. Optimists vs pessimists: survival rate among medical patients over a 30-year period. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2000; 75: 140–143.

6. Kubzansky LD, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Kawachi I. Is the glass half empty or half full? A prospective study of optimism and coronary heart disease in the normative aging study. Psychosomatic Medicine 2001; 63: 910–916.

7. Peterson C, Seligman M, Valliant G. Pessimistic explanatory style as a risk factor for physical illness: a thirty-five year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988; 55: 23–27.

8. Wood AM, Joseph S. The absence of positive psychological (eudemonic) wellbeing as a risk factor for depression: a ten year cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders 2010; 122: 213–217.

9. Brennan FX, Charnetski CJ. Explanatory style and immunoglobulin A (IgA). Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 2000; 35: 251–255.

10. Kamen-Siegel L, Rodin J, Seligman ME, Dwyer J. Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity in elderly men and women. Health Psychology 1991; 10: 229–235.

11. Imai K, Nakachi K. Personality types, lifestyle, and sensitivity to mental stress in association with NK activity. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2001; 204: 67–73.

12. Segerstrom SC. Personality and the immune system: models, methods, and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2000; 22: 180–190.

13. Jung W, Irwin M. Reduction of natural killer cytotoxic activity in major depression: interaction between depression and cigarette smoking. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999; 61: 263–270.

14. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R. Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: new perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology 2002; 53: 83–107.

15. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: fact or fiction? European Journal of Cancer 1999; 35: 1603–1607.

16. Raikkonen K, Matthews KA, Flory JD, et al. Effects of optimism, pessimism, and trait anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure and mood during everyday life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1999; 76: 104–113.

17. Maslow A. The farther reaches of human nature. New York: Viking, 1971.

18. Seligman M. Learned optimism. New York: Knopf, 1991.

A Health-Promoting Lifestyle

1. Chandler MA, Rennard SI. Smoking cessation. Chest 2010 Feb; 137(2): 428–435.

2. Law M, Tang JL. An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 1933–1941.

3. Nettle H, Sprogis E. Pediatric exercise: truth and/or consequences. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review 2011 Mar; 19(1): 75–80.

4. Farmer ME, Locke BZ, Mosciki EK, et al. Physical activity and depressive symptomatology: the NHANES 1 epidemiologic follow-up study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988; 1328: 1340–1351.

5. Carr DB, Bullen BA, Skrinar GS, et al. Physical conditioning facilitates the exercised-induced secretion of beta-endorphin and beta-lipoprotein in women. The New England Journal of Medicine 1981; 305: 560–565.

6. Lobstein D, Mosbacher BJ, Ismail AH. Depression as a powerful discriminator between physically active and sedentary middle-aged men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1983; 27: 69–76.

7. Blair SN. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 273: 1093–1098.

8. Dement WC, Vaughan C. The promise of sleep: a pioneer in sleep medicine explores the vital connection between health, happiness, and a good night’s sleep. New York: Dell, 2000.

A Health-Promoting Diet

1. Ryde D. What should humans eat? Practitioner 1985; 232: 415–418.

2. Milton K. Nutritional characteristics of wild primate food: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us? Nutrition 1999; 15: 488–498.

3. Cordain L, Eaton SB, Miller JB, et al. The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 56 suppl 1:S42–S52.

4. Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd. Paleolithic vs. modern diets—selected pathophysiological implications. European Journal of Nutrition 2000; 39: 67–70.

5. Trowell H, Burkitt D. Western diseases: their emergence and prevention. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.

6. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer. II. Mechanisms. Cancer Causes and Control 1991; 2: 427–442.

7. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996; 96: 1027–1039.

8. La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Fruit and vegetables, and human cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1998; 7: 3–8.

9. Van Duyn MA, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000; 100: 1511–1521.

10. Baris D, Zahm SH. Epidemiology of lymphomas. Current Opinion in Oncology 2000; 12: 383–394.

11. Blair A, Zahm SH. Agricultural exposures and cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 1995; 103 suppl 8: 205–208.

12. Mao Y, Hu J, Ugnat AM, White K. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada. Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Annals of Oncology 2000; 11 suppl 1: 69–73.

13. Aronson KJ, Miller AB, Woolcott CG, et al. Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2000; 9: 55–63.

14. Jaga K, Brosius D. Pesticide exposure: human cancers on the horizon. Reviews on Environmental Health 1999; 14: 39–50.

15. Lu C, Knutson DE, Fisker-Andersen J, Fenske RA. Biological monitoring survey of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among preschool children in the Seattle metropolitan area. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001; 109(3): 299–303.

16. Consumers Union of United States. Do you know what you’re eating? An analysis of U.S. government of data of pesticide residues in foods. Washington, D.C.: Consumers Union, 1999.

17. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, et al. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76: 266S–273S.

18. Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76: 274S–280S.

19. Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 71: 1455–1461.

20. Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, et al. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009 Mar 23; 169(6): 562–571.

21. Bingham SA. High-meat diets and cancer risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1999; 58: 243–248.

22. Segasothy M, Phillips PA. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases? QJM 1999; 92: 531–544.

23. Zheng W, Gustafson DR, Sinha R, et al. Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 1724–1729.

24. Blot WJ, Henderson BE, Boice JD Jr. Childhood cancer in relation to cured meat intake: review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition and Cancer 1999; 34: 111–118.

25. Preston-Martin S, Pogoda JM, Mueller BA, et al. Maternal consumption of cured meats and vitamins in relation to pediatric brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1996; 5: 599–605.

26. Bougnoux P. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 1999; 2: 121–126.

27. Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Medicine 2002; 112: 298–304.

28. Fraser GE. Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event. Clinical Cardiology 1999; 22 suppl: 11–15.

29. Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 288: 2554–2560.

30. Alarcon de la Lastra C, Barranco MD, Motilva V, Herrerias JM. Mediterranean diet and health: biological importance of olive oil. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2001; 7: 933–950.

31. Whelton PK, He J. Potassium in preventing and treating high blood pressure. Seminars in Nephrology 1999; 19: 494–499.

32. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH–Sodium Collaborative Research Group. The New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 3–10.

33. Jansson B. Potassium, sodium, and cancer: a review. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology 1996; 15: 65–73.

34. Boris M, Mandel FS. Foods and additives are common causes of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1994; 72: 462–468.

35. Lessof MH. Reactions to food additives. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 1995; 25 suppl 1: 27–28.

36. Groten JP, Butler W, Feron VJ, et al. An analysis of the possibility for health implications of joint actions and interactions between food additives. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2000; 31: 77–91.

37. Simon RA. Adverse reactions to food additives. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 2003; 3: 62–66.

38. Lasky T. Foodborne illness—old problem, new relevance. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 593–598.

39. Tauxe RV. Emerging foodborne pathogens. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2002; 78: 31–41.

40. Kleiner SM. Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 99: 200–206.

Supplementary Measures

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. NHANES 2007–2008. www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/nhanes2007–2008/nhanes07_08.htm.

2. Davis DR, Epp MD, Riordan HD. Changes in USDA food composition data for 43 garden crops, 1950 to 1999. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2004; 23: 669–682.

3. Thomas D. A study on the mineral depletion of the foods available to US as a nation over the period 1940 to 1991. Nutrition and Health 2003; 17: 85–115.

4. Havsteen BH. The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2002; 96: 67–202.

5. Calder PC, Yaqoob P. Understanding omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Postgraduate Medicine 2009 Nov; 121(6): 148–157.

6. Prentice A. Vitamin D deficiency: a global perspective. Nutrition Reviews 2008 Oct; 66(10 suppl 2):S153–S164.

7. Goldstein D. The epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2009 Aug; 24(4): 345–346.

8. Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Apr; 87(4): 1080S–1086S.

9. Semba RD, Houston DK, Ferrucci L, et al. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling women. Nutrition Research 2009; 29(8): 525–523

10. Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, et al. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2011; 26(10): 2341–2357.

A Cellular Approach to Health

1. Schmitz G, Ecker J. The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Progress in Lipid Research 2008 Mar; 47(2): 147–155.

2. Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, King I, et al. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1995 Nov 1; 274(17): 1363–1367.

3. Block RC, Harris WS, Reid KJ, et al. EPA and DHA in blood cell membranes from acute coronary syndrome patients and controls. Atherosclerosis 2008 Apr; 197(2): 821–828.

4. Lemaitre RN, King IB, Raghunathan TE, et al. Cell membrane trans-fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. Circulation 2002 Feb 12; 105(6): 697–701.

5. Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 73: 1019–1026.

6. Rivellese AA, De Natale C, Lilli S. Type of dietary fat and insulin resistance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2002; 967: 329–335.

7. Ramel A, Martinéz A, Kiely M, et al. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults. Diabetologia 2008 Jul; 51(7): 1261–1268.

8. Abete I, Parra D, Crujeiras AB, et al. Specific insulin sensitivity and leptin responses to a nutritional treatment of obesity via a combination of energy restriction and fatty fish intake. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2008 Dec; 21(6): 591–600.

9. Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 May; 63 suppl 2:S5–S21.

10. Wilson JX. Regulation of vitamin C transport. Annual Review of Nutrition 2005; 25: 105–125.

11. Biolo G, Williams BD, Fleming RY, Wolfe RR. Insulin action on muscle protein kinetics and amino acid transport during recovery after resistance exercise. Diabetes 1999 May; 48(5): 949–957.

12. Christensen NJ, Hilsted J. Insulin facilitates transport of macromolecules and nutrients to muscles. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1993 Dec; 17 suppl 3:S83–S85.

13. Bonadonna RC, Saccomani MP, Cobelli C, et al. Effect of insulin on system A amino acid transport in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1993 Feb; 91(2): 514–521.

14. Duarte AI, Santos MS, Seiça R, de Oliveira CR. Insulin affects synaptosomal GABA and glutamate transport under oxidative stress conditions. Brain Research 2003 Jul 4; 977(1): 23–30.

15. Longo N. Insulin stimulates the Na+,K(+)-ATPase and the Na+/K+/Cl- cotransporter of human fibroblasts. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1996 May 22; 1281(1): 38–44.

16. Tiwari S, Riazi S, Ecelbarger CA. Insulin’s impact on renal sodium transport and blood pressure in health, obesity, and diabetes. American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology 2007 Oct; 293(4):F974–F984.

17. Bhopal RS, Rafnsson SB. Could mitochondrial efficiency explain the susceptibility to adiposity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in South Asian populations? International Journal of Epidemiology 2009 Aug; 38(4): 1072–1081.

18. Richter C, Park JW, Ames BN. Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA is extensive. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988 Sep; 85(17): 6465–6467.

19. Lee HC, Wei YH. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA mutation, and apoptosis in aging. Experimental Medicine and Biology (Maywood) 2007 May; 232(5): 592–606.

20. Aliev G, Palacios HH, Walrafen B, et al. Brain mitochondria as a primary target in the development of treatment strategies for Alzheimer disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 2009 Oct; 41(10): 1989–2004.

21. Palmieri L, Papaleo V, Porcelli V, et al. Altered calcium homeostasis in autism-spectrum disorders: evidence from biochemical and genetic studies of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier AGC1. Molecular Psychiatry 2010; 15: 38–52.

22. Myhill S, Booth NE, McLaren-Howard J. Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 2009; 2(1): 1–16.

23. Di Donato S. Multisystem manifestations of mitochondrial disorders. Journal of Neurology 2009 May; 256(5): 693–710.

24. Finsterer J. Central nervous system manifestations of mitochondrial disorders. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2006 OctZS114(4): 217–238.

25. Monroe RK, Halvorsen SW. Environmental toxicants inhibit neuronal Jak tyrosine kinase by mitochondrial disruption. Neurotoxicology 2009 Jul; 30(4): 589–598.

26. Lim S, Ahn SY, Song IC, Chung MH. Chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, causes mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. PLoS One 2009; 4(4):e5186.

27. Lee HK, Cho YM, Kwak SH, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic syndrome—looking for environmental factors. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2010; 1800(3): 282–289.

28. Przedborski S, Jackson-Lewis V, Muthane U, et al. Chronic levodopa administration alters cerebral mitochondrial respiratory chain activity Annals of Neurology 1993; 34: 715–723.

29. Kupsch K, Hertel S, Kreutz-mann P, et al. Impairment of mitochondrial function by minocycline. FEBS Journal 2009 Mar; 276(6): 1729–1738.

30. Golomb BA, Evans MA. Statin adverse effects: a review of the literature and evidence for a mitochondrial mechanism. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 2008; 8(6): 373–418.

31. Quinzii CM, DiMauro S, Hirano M. Human coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Neurochemical Research 2007; 32: 723–727.

32. Quinzii CM, Hirano M. Coenzyme Q and mitochondrial disease. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 2010 Jun; 16(2): 183–188.

33. Miles MV, Horn PS, Tang PH, et al. Age-related changes in plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations and redox state in apparently healthy children and adults. Clinica Chimica Acta 2004; 34: 139–144.

34. Rundek T, Naini A, Sacco R, et al. Atorvastatin decreases the coenzyme Q10 level in the blood of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Archives of Neurology 2004; 61(6): 889–892.

35. Mortensen SA, Leth A, Agner A, Rohde M. Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Mol Aspects Med 1997; 18:S137–S144.

36. Bonakdar RA, Guarneri E. Coenzyme Q10. American Family Physician 2005; 72: 1065–1070.

37. Littarru GP, Tiano L. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Molecular Biotechnology 2007; 37: 31–37.

38. Kumar A, Kaur H, Devi P, Mohan V. Role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in cardiac disease, hypertension and Ménière-like syndrome. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2009; 124: 259–268.

39. Ochiai A, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, et al. Improvement in intestinal coenzyme q10 absorption by food intake. Yakugaku Zasshi 2007 Aug; 127(8): 1251–1254.

40. Bhagavan HN, Chopra RK. Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations. Mitochondrion 2007; 7 suppl:S78–S88.

41. Hosoe K, Kitano M, Kishida H, et al. Study on safety and bioavailability of ubiquinol (Kaneka QH) after single and 4-week multiple oral administration to healthy volunteers. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2007 Feb; 47(1): 19–28.

42. Beg S, Javed S, Kohli K. Bioavailability enhancement of coenzyme Q10: an extensive review of patents. Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation 2010 Nov; 4(3): 245–255.

43. Takeda R, Sawabe A, Nakano R, et al. Effect of various food additives and soy constituents on high CoQ10 absorption. Japanese Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science 2011; 64(4): 614–620.

44. Vormann J, Worlitschek M, Goedecke T, Silver B. Supplementation with alkaline minerals reduces symptoms in patients with chronic low back pain. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2001; 15(2–3): 179–183.

Cancer Prevention

1. Greenlee RT, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA. Cancer statistics, 2000. CA: A The Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2000; 50: 7–33.

2. Hackshaw AK, Law MR, Wald NJ. The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke. BMJ 1997; 315: 980–988.

3. Thune I, Furberg AS. Physical activity and cancer risk: dose-response and cancer, all sites and site-specific. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2001; 33 suppl 6:S530–S550.

4. Hardman AE. Physical activity and cancer risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2001; 60(1): 107–113.

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7. Sturm R, Wells KB. Does obesity contribute as much to morbidity as poverty or smoking? Public Health 2001; 115: 229–235.

8. Lash TL, Aschengrau A. Active and passive cigarette smoking and the occurrence of breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149: 5–12.

9. Caplan LS, Schoenfeld ER, O’Leary ES, Leske MC. Breast cancer and electromagnetic fields: a review. Annals of Epidemiology 2000; 10(1): 31–44.

10. Terry P, Lichtenstein P, Feychting M, et al. Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. The Lancet 2001; 357(9270): 1764–1766.

11. Singh PN, Fraser GE. Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 148: 761–774.

12. Zheng W, Gustafson DR, Sinha R, et al. Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 1724–1729.

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14. Silverman DT, Swanson CA, Gridley G, et al. Dietary and nutritional factors and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 1710–1719.

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17. Levi F, Pasche C, La Vecchia C, et al. Food groups and colorectal cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 79: 1283–1287.

18. Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Augustin L, et al. Dietary glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. Annals of Oncology 2001; 12: 173–178.

19. Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Pahor M, et al. Chronically depressed mood and cancer risk in older persons. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 1888–1893.

20. Bruske-Hohlfeld I, Mohner M, Ahrens W, et al. Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 1999; 36: 405–414.

21. Johnson K. Dairy products linked to ovarian cancer risk. Family Practice News 2000 June 15: 8.

22. Chan JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 1998; 9: 559–566.

23. Levi F, Pasche C, La Vecchia C, et al. Food groups and colorectal cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 79: 1283–1287.

24. La Vecchia C, Favero A, Franceschi S. Monounsaturated and other types of fat, and the risk of breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1998; 7(6): 461–464.

25. Zhong L, Goldberg MS, Gao YT, Jin F. Lung cancer and indoor air pollution arising from Chinese-style cooking among nonsmoking women living in Shanghai, China. Epidemiology 1999; 10: 488–494.

26. Prescott E, Gronbaek M, Becker U, Sorensen TI. Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer: influence of type of alcoholic beverage. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149: 463–470.

27. Garland M, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, et al. Alcohol consumption in relation to breast cancer risk in a cohort of United States women 25–42 years of age. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1999; 8: 1017–1021.

28. Mannisto S, Virtanen M, Kataja V, et al. Lifetime alcohol consumption and breast cancer: a case-control study in Finland. Public Health Nutrition 2000; 3: 11–18.

29. Garland CF, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? International Journal of Epidemiology 1980 Sep; 9(3): 227–231.

30. Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007; 167: 1730–1737.

31. Trump DL, Deeb KK, Johnson CS. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy. The Cancer Journal 2010 Jan–Feb; 16(1): 1–9.

32. Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998; 129(7): 517–524.

33. Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men. The New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340: 1390–1397.

34. Combs GF Jr, Clark LC, Turnbull BW. Reduction of cancer risk with an oral supplement of selenium. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 1997; 10: 227–234.

35. van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA. Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1999; 472: 159–168.

36. Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1999; 91: 605–613.

37. Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 1998; 9: 553–557.

38. Messina MJ. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70 suppl 3: 439S–450S.

39. Kristal AR, Stanford JL, Cohen JH, et al. Vitamin and mineral supplement use is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1999; 8: 887–892.

40. Hardman AE. Physical activity and cancer risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2001; 60(1): 107–113.

41. Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92(1): 61–68.

42. Clinton SK. The dietary antioxidant network and prostate carcinoma. Cancer 1999; 86: 1629–31.

43. Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Prospective study of dietary supplements, macronutrients, micronutrients, and risk of bladder cancer in US men. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152: 1145–1153.

44. Inoue M, Tajima K, Mizutani M, et al. Regular consumption of green tea and the risk of breast cancer recurrence: follow-up study from the hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC), Japan. Cancer Letters 2001; 167: 175–182.

45. Setiawan VW, Zhang ZF, Yu GP, et al. Protective effect of green tea on the risks of chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. International Journal of Cancer 2001; 92: 600–604.

46. Nakachi K, Matsuyama S, Miyake S, et al. Preventive effects of drinking green tea on cancer and cardiovascular disease: epidemiological evidence for multiple targeting prevention. Biofactors 2000; 13: 49–54.

47. Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 72: 1047–1052.

48. German JB, Walzem RL. The health benefits of wine. Annual Review of Nutrition 2000; 20: 561–593.

49. Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, et al. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007 Jun; 85(6): 1586–1591.

Detoxification and Internal Cleansing

1. Passwater RA, Cranton EM. Trace elements, hair analysis and nutrition. New Canaan, Conn.: Keats, 1983.

2. Rutter M, Russell-Jones R, eds. Lead versus health: sources and effects of low level lead exposure. New York: John Wiley, 1983.

3. Yost KJ. Cadmium, the environment and human health. An overview. Experentia 1984; 40: 157–164.

4. Gerstner BG, Huff JE. Clinical toxicology of mercury. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1977; 2: 471–526.

5. Nation JR, Hare MF, Baker DM, et al. Dietary administration of nickel: effects on behavior and metallothionein levels. Physiology & Behavior 1985; 34: 349–353.

6. Toxicologic consequences of oral aluminum (editorial). Nutrition Reviews 1987; 45: 72–74.

7. Marlowe M, Cossairt A, Welch K, Errara J. Hair mineral content as a predictor of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities 1984; 17: 418–421.

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17. Sterling TD, Arundel AV. Health effects of phenoxy herbicides. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 1986; 12: 161–173.

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20. Talska G. Genetically based n-acetyltransferase metabolic polymorphism and low-level environmental exposure to carcinogens. Nature 1994; 369: 154–156.

21. Gallagher JE, Everson RB, Lewtas J, et al. Comparison of DNA adduct levels in human placenta from polychlorinated biphenyl exposed women and smokers in which CYP 1A1 levels are similarly elevated. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1994; 14: 183–192.

22. Campbell ME, Grant DM, Inaba T, Kalow W. Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducable cytochrome P-450 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 1987; 15: 237–249.

23. Beecher CWW. Cancer preventive properties of varieties of Brassica oleracea. A review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; 59 suppl: 1166S–1170S.

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31. Jain A, Buist NR, Kennaaway NG, et al. Effect of ascorbate or N-acetylcysteine treatment in a patient with hereditary glutathione synthetase deficiency. Journal of Pediatrics 1994; 124: 229–233.

32. Kleinveld HA, Demacker PNM, Stalenhoef AFH. Failure of N-acetylcysteine to reduce low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1992; 43: 639–642.

33. Quick AJ. Clinical value of the test for hippuric acid in cases of disease of the liver. Archives of Internal Medicine 1936; 57: 544–556.

34. Frezza M, Pozzato G, Chiesa L, et al. Reversal of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in women after high dose S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) administration. Hepatology 1984; 4: 274–278.

35. Gregus S, Oguro T, Klaassen CD. Nutritionally and chemically induced impairment of sulfate activation and sulfation of xenobiotics in vivo. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 92: 169–177.

36. Barzatt R, Beckman JD. Inhibition of phenol sulfotransferase by pyridoxal phosphate. Biochemical Pharmacology 1994; 47: 2087–2095.

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38. Bombardieri G. Effects of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) in the treatment of Gilbert’s syndrome. Current Therapeutic Research 1985; 37: 580–585.

39. Birkmayer JGD, Beyer W. Biological and clinical relevance of trace elements. Ärztl Lab 1990; 36: 284–287.

40. Di Padova C, Triapepe T, Di Padova F, et al. S-adenosyl-L-methionine antagonizes oral contraceptive-induced bile cholesterol supersaturation in healthy women: preliminary report of a controlled randomized trial. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 1984; 79: 941–944.

41. Flora SJS, Singh S, Tandon SK. Prevention of lead intoxication by vitamin B complex. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete 1984; 30: 409–411.

42. Shakman RA. Nutritional influences on the toxicity of environmental pollutants: a review. Archives of Environmental Health 1974; 28: 105–133.

43. Flora SJS, Jain VK, Behari JR, Tandon SK. Protective role of trace metals in lead intoxication. Toxicology Letters 1982; 13: 51–56.

44. Wisniewska-Knypl J, Sokal JA, Klimczark J, et al. Protective effect of methionine against vinyl chloride-mediated depression of non-protein sulfhydryls and cytochrome P-450. Toxicology Letters 1981; 8: 147–152.

45. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, Tuma DJ. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 1993; 17: 552–555.

46. Zeisel SH, Da Costa KA, Franklin PD, et al. Choline, an essential nutrient for humans. The FASEB Journal 1991; 5: 2093–2098.

47. Hikino H, Kiso Y, Wagner H, Fiebig M. Antihepatotoxic actions of flavonolignans from Silybum marianum fruits. Planta Medica 1984; 50: 248–250.

48. Vogel G, Trost W. Studies on pharmacodynamics, site and mechanism of action of silymarin, the antihepatotoxic principle from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert. Arzneimittelforschung 1975; 25: 179–185.

49. Valenzuela A, Aspillaga M, Vial S, Guerra R. Selectivity of silymarin on the increase of the glutathione content in different tissues of the rat. Planta Medica 1989; 55: 420–422.

50. Sarre H. Experience in the treatment of chronic hepatopathies with silymarin. Arzneimittelforschung 1971; 21: 1209–1212.

51. Canini F, Bartolucci L, Cristallini E, et al. [Use of silymarin in the treatment of alcoholic hepatic steatosis.] La Clinica Terapeutica 1985; 114: 307–314.

52. Salmi HA, Sarna S. Effect of silymarin on chemical, functional, and morphological alteration of the liver. A double-blind controlled study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 1982; 17: 417–421.

53. Boari C, Gennari P, Violante FS, et al. Occupational toxic liver diseases. Therapeutic effects of silymarin. Minnesota Medicine 1985; 72: 2679–2688.

54. Ferenci P, Dragosics H, Frank H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Journal of Hepatology 1989; 9: 105–113.

55. Imamura M, Tung T. A trial of fasting cure for PCB poisoned patients in Taiwan. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 1984; 5: 147–153.

56. Kilburn K, Warsaw RH, Shields MG. Neurobehavioral dysfunction in firemen exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Possible improvement after detoxification. Archives of Environmental Health 1989; 44: 345–350.

Digestion and Elimination

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3. Sun J. D-limonene: safety and clinical applications. Alternative Medicine Review 2007 Sep; 12(3): 259–264.

4. Howden CW, Hunt RH. Spontaneous hypochlorhydria in man: possible causes and consequences. Digestive Diseases 1986; 4(1): 26–32.

5. Rawls WB, Ancona VC. Chronic urticaria associated with hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria. The Review of Gastroenterology 1951; 18: 267–271.

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7. De Witte TJ, Geerdink PJ, Lamers CB, et al. Hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1979; 38: 14–17.

8. Ryle JA, Barber HW. Gastric analysis in acne rosacea. The Lancet 1920; 2: 1195–1196.

9. Ayres S. Gastric secretion in psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis herpetiformis. Archives of Dermatology 1929;Jul: 854–859.

10. Dotevall G, Walan A. Gastric secretion of acid and intrinsic factor in patients with hyper and hypothyroidism. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1969; 186: 529–533.

11. Howitz J, Schwartz M. Vitiligo, achlorhydria, and pernicious anemia. The Lancet 1971; 1: 1331–1334.

12. Howden CW, Hunt RH. Relationship between gastric secretion and infection. Gut 1987; 28: 96–107.

13. Rafsky HA, Weingarten M. A study of the gastric secretory response in the aged. Gastroenterology 1947 May: 348–352.

14. Davies D, James TG. An investigation into the gastric secretion of a hundred normal persons over the age of sixty. British Medical Journal 1930; 1: 1–14.

15. Baron JH. Studies of basal and peak acid output with an augmented histamine test. Gut 1963; 4: 136–144.

16. Mojaverian P, Ferguson RK, Vlasses PH, et al. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition. Gastroenterology 1985; 89: 392–397.

17. Atherton JC. The pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori–induced gastro-duodenal diseases. Annual Review of Pathology 2006; 1: 63–96.

18. Ghoshal UC, Chourasia D. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Helicobacter pylori: what may be the relationship? Journal of Neurogastroenterology & Motility 2010 Jul; 16(3): 243–250.

19. Sarker SA, Gyr K. Non-immunological defense mechanisms of the gut. Gut 1992; 33: 987–993.

20. Williams C. Occurrence and significance of gastric colonization during acid-inhibitory therapy. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology 2001 Jun; 15(3): 511–521.

21. Shibata T, Imoto I, Taguchi Y, et al. High acid secretion may protect the gastric mucosa from injury caused by ammonia produced by Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1996; 11: 674–680.

22. Rokkas T, Papatheodorou G, Karameris A, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric juice vitamin C levels: impact of eradication. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1995; 40: 615–621.

23. Phull PS, Price AB, Thorniley MS, et al. Vitamin E concentrations in the human stomach and duodenum: correlation with Helicobacter pylori infection. Gut 1996; 39: 31–35.

24. Baik SC, Youn HS, Chung MH, et al. Increased oxidative DNA damage in Helicobacter pylori–infected human gastric mucosa. Cancer Research 1996; 56: 1279–1282.

25. Beil W, Birkholz C, Sewing KF. Effects of flavonoids on parietal cell acid secretion, gastric mucosal prostaglandin production and helicobacter pylori growth. Arzneimittelforschung 1995; 45: 697–700.

26. Marshall BJ, Valenzuela JE, McCallum RW, et al. Bismuth subsalicylate suppression of Helicobacter pylori in nonulcer dyspepsia. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1993; 38: 1674–1680.

27. Kang JY, Tay HH, Wee A, et al. Effect of colloidal bismuth subcitrate on symptoms and gastric histology in non-ulcer dyspepsia: a double blind placebo controlled study. Gut 1990; 31: 476–480.

28. May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, et al. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung 1996; 46: 1149–1153.

29. May B, Kohler S, Schneider B. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2000; 14: 1671–1677.

30. Taylor JR, Gardner TB, Waljee AK, et al. Systematic review: efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme supplements for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2010 Jan; 31(1): 57–72.

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33. Bures J, Cyrany J, Kohoutova D, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2010 Jun 28; 16(24): 2978–2990.

34. Watanabe A, Obata T, Nagashima H. Berberine therapy of hypertyraminemia in patients with liver cirrhosis. Acta Medica Okayama 1982; 36: 277–281.

Heart and Cardiovascular Health

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2. Qiao Q, Tervahauta M, Nissinen A, et al. Mortality from all causes and from coronary heart disease related to smoking and changes in smoking during a 35-year follow-up of middle-aged Finnish men. European Heart Journal 2000; 21: 1621–1626.

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19. Alarcon de la Lastra C, Barranco MD, Motilva V, et al. Mediterranean diet and health: biological importance of olive oil. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2001; 7: 933–950.

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22. Harris WS. The omega-3 index as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Jun; 87(6): 1997S–2002S.

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25. Skulas-Ray AC, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, et al. Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 Feb; 93(2): 243–252.

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26. Cutler RG. Carotenoids and retinol: their possible importance in determining longevity of primate species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1984; 81: 7627–7631.

27. de la Iglesia R, Milagro FI, Campión J, et al. Healthy properties of proanthocyanidins. Biofactors 2010 May–Jun; 36(3): 159–168.

28. Khan N, Mukhtar H. Tea polyphenols for health promotion. Life Sciences 2007 Jul 26; 81(7): 519–533.

29. Gertz HJ, Kiefer M. Review about Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 (ginkgo). Current Pharmaceutical Design 2004; 10(3): 261–264.

30. Kaschel R. Ginkgo biloba: specificity of neuropsychological improvement—a selective review in search of differential effects. Human Psychopharmacology 2009 Jul; 24(5): 345–370.

31. Agarwal B, Baur JA. Resveratrol and life extension. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2011 Jan; 1215: 138–143.

32. Patel KR, Scott E, Brown VA, et al. Clinical trials of resveratrol. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2011 Jan; 1215: 161–169.

33. Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007; 167(16): 1730–1737.

34. Holick MF. The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences. Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135(11): 2739S–2748S.

35. Richards JB, Valdes AM, Gardner JP, et al. Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 86(5): 1420–1425.

36. Baker WL, Karan S, Kenny AM. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on muscle strength and physical function in older adults: a systematic review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2011 Jun; 59(6): 997–1002.

37. Sorwell KG, Urbanski HF. Dehydroepiandrosterone and age-related cognitive decline. Age (Dordrecht) 2010 Mar; 32(1): 61–67.

38. Buford TW, Willoughby DS. Impact of DHEA(S) and cortisol on immune function in aging: a brief review. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 2008 Jun; 33(3): 429–433.

39. Weiss EP, Villareal DT, Fontana L, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans. Aging 2011 May; 3(5): 533–542.

40. Karasek M. Does melatonin play a role in aging processes? Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2007; 58 suppl: 105–113.

41. Chokroverty S. Sleep and neurodegenerative diseases. Seminars in Neurology 2009 Sep; 29(4): 446–467.

42. Dhand R, Sohal H. Good sleep, bad sleep! The role of daytime naps in healthy adults. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 2006 Nov; 12(6): 379–382.

43. Tanaka H, Shirakawa S. Sleep health, lifestyle and mental health in the Japanese elderly: ensuring sleep to promote a healthy brain and mind. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2004 May; 56(5): 465–477.

Silent Inflammation

1. Windgassen EB, Funtowicz L, Lunsford TN, et al. C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: an update for clinicians. Postgraduate Medicine 2011 Jan; 123(1): 114–119.

2. Cushman M, Arnold AM, Psaty BM, et al. C-reactive protein and the 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease in older men and women: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation 2005 Jul 5; 112(1): 25–31.

3. Dayer E, Dayer JM, Roux-Lombard P. Primer: the practical use of biological markers of rheumatic and systemic inflammatory diseases. Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2007 Sep; 3(9): 512–520.

4. Hamer M, Stamatakis E. The accumulative effects of modifiable risk factors on inflammation and haemostasis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2008 Oct; 22(7): 1041–1043.

5. Brooks GC, Blaha MJ, Blumenthal RS. Relation of C-reactive protein to abdominal adiposity. American Journal of Cardiology 2010 Jul 1; 106(1): 56–61.

6. Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, et al. Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002 Mar; 75(3): 492–498.

7. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: the ATTICA Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2004 Jul 7; 44(1): 152–158.

8. Nanri A, Yoshida D, Yamaji T, et al. Dietary patterns and C-reactive protein in Japanese men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 May; 87(5): 1488–1496.

9. Chun OK, Chung SJ, Claycombe KJ. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations are inversely associated with dietary flavonoid intake in U.S. adults. Journal of Nutrition 2008 Apr; 138(4): 753–760.

10. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental Medicine and Biology (Maywood) 2008 Jun; 233(6): 674–688.

11. Schmitz G, Ecker J. The opposing effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Progress in Lipid Research 2008 Mar; 47(2): 147–155.

12. Handschin C, Spiegelman BM. The role of exercise and PGClalpha in inflammation and chronic disease. Nature 2008 Jul 24; 454(7203): 463–469.

13. Nicklas BJ, Hsu FC, Brinkley TJ, et al. Exercise training and plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in elderly people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2008 Nov; 56(11): 2045–2052.

14. Campbell KL, Campbell PT, Ulrich CM, et al. No reduction in C-reactive protein following a 12-month randomized controlled trial of exercise in men and women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2008 Jul; 17(7): 1714–1718.

15. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi S, et al. Variations in C-reactive protein, plasma free radicals and fibrinogen values in patients with osteoarthritis treated with Pycnogenol. Redox Report 2008; 13(6): 271–276.

16. Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, et al. Effects of grape seed extract in type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabetic Medicine 2009 May; 26(5): 526–531.

17. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review 2009 Jun; 14(2): 141–153.

18. Marczylo TH, Verschoyle RD, Cooke DN, et al. Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 2007 Jul; 60(2): 171–177.

19. Appendino G, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, et al. Efficacy and safety of Meriva, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Alternative Medicine Review 2010 Dec; 15(4): 337–344.

20. Sasaki H, Sunagawa Y, Takahashi K, et al. Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2011; 34(5): 660–665.

Stress Management

1. Benson H. The relaxation response. New York: William Morrow, 1975.

2. Selye H. The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

3. Holmes TH, Rahe RH. The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1967; 11: 213–218.

4. Törnhage CJ. Salivary cortisol for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Neuroimmunomodulation 2009; 16(5): 284–289.

5. Lewis JG. Steroid analysis in saliva: an overview. The Clinical Biochemist Reviews 2006 Aug; 27(3): 139–146.

6. Stetler C, Miller GE. Blunted cortisol response to awakening in mild to moderate depression: regulatory influences of sleep patterns and social contacts. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2005 Nov; 114(4): 697–705.

7. Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Hohagen F. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004 Oct; 29(9): 1184–1191.

8. Steptoe A, Butler N. Sports participation and emotional wellbeing in adolescents. The Lancet 1996; 347: 1789–1792.

9. Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. Western Journal of Medicine 1992; 157: 544–553.

10. Monteiro MG, Schuckit MA, Irwin M. Subjective feelings of anxiety in young men after ethanol and diazepam infusions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1990; 51: 12–16.

11. Winokur A, Maislin G, Phillips JL, et al. Insulin resistance after oral glucose tolerance testing in patients with major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1988; 145: 325–330.

12. Wright JH, Jacisin JJ, Radin NS, et al. Glucose metabolism in unipolar depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry 1978; 132: 386–393.

13. Rowe AH, Rowe A Jr. Food allergy: its manifestations and control and the elimination diets: a compendium. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1972.

14. Abdoua AM; Higashiguchia S, Horiea K, et al. Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans. Biofactors 2006; 26: 201–208.

15. Bhattacharya SK, Mitra SK. Anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng roots: an experimental study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1991; 34: 87–92.

16. Davydov M, Krikorian AD. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000; 72: 345–393.

17. Hallstrom C, Fulder S, Carruthers M. Effect of ginseng on the performance of nurses on night duty. Comparative Medicine East & West 1982; 6: 277–282.

18. Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine 2003; 10: 95–105.

19. Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue—a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine 2000; 7: 365–371.

20. Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine 2000; 7: 85–89.

21. Olsson EM, von Schéele B, Panossian AG. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Medica 2009 Feb; 75(2): 105–112.

22. Auddy B, Hazra J, Mitra A, et al. A standardized Withania somnifera extract significantly reduces stress-related parameters in chronically stressed humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Journal of the American Neutraceutical Association 2008; 11: 50–56.

23. Buford TW, Willoughby DS. Impact of DHEA(S) and cortisol on immune function in aging: a brief review. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 2008 Jun; 33(3): 429–433.

24. Bellarosa C, Chen PY. The effectiveness and practicality of occupational stress management interventions: a survey of subject matter expert opinions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 1997; 2: 247–262.

25. Williams KA, Kolar MM, Reger BE, et al. Evaluation of a wellness-based mindfulness stress reduction intervention: a controlled trial. American Journal of Health Promotion 2001; 15: 422–432.

Obesity and Weight Management

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2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999–2008. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2010; 303(3): 235–241.

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19. Leibel RL, Hirsch J. Diminished energy requirements in reduced obese patients. Metabolism 1984; 33: 164–170.

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21. Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Brain serotonin, carbohydrate-craving, obesity and depression. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1996; 398: 35–41.

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23. Goodwin GM, Cowen PJ, Fairburn CG, et al. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan and dieting. BMJ 1990; 300: 1499–1500.

24. Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, et al. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. The New England Journal of Medicine 2011 Mar 31; 364(13): 1218–1229.

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28. Dennis EA, Dengo AL, Comber DL, et al. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults. Obesity 2010 Feb; 18(2): 300–307.

29. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. The New England Journal of Medicine 2003; 348: 2082–2090.

30. Hays NP, Starling RD, Liu X, et al. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2004; 164: 210–217.

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33. Howarth NC, Saltz-man E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews 2001; 59: 129–139.

34. Spiller GA. Dietary fiber in health and nutrition. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1994.

35. Krotkiewski M. Effect of guar on body weight, hunger ratings and metabolism in obese subjects. British Journal of Nutrition 1984; 52: 97–105.

36. Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. International Journal of Obesity 1984; 8: 289–293.

37. Biancardi G, Palmiero L, Ghirardi PE. Glucomannan in the treatment of overweight patients with osteoarthrosis. Current Therapeutic Research 1989; 46: 908–912.

38. El-Shebini SM, Hanna LM, Topouzada ST, et al. The role of pectin as a slimming agent. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 1988; 4: 255–262.

39. Rossner S, von Zwigbergk D, Ohlin A, et al. Weight reduction with dietary fibre supplements. Results of two double-blind studies. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1987; 222: 83–88.

40. Rigaud D, Ryttig KR, Leeds AR, et al. Mild overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fiber supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity 1990; 14: 763–771.

41. Abdelhameed AS, Ang S, Morris GA, et al. An analytical ultracentrifuge study on ternary mixtures of konjac glucomannan supplemented with sodium alginate and xanthan gum. Carbohydrate Polymers 2010; 81: 141–148.

42. Harding SE, Smith IH, Lawson CJ, et al. Studies on macromolecular interactions in ternary mixtures of konjac glucomannan, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. Carbohydrate Polymers 2010; 10: 1016–1020.

43. Brand-Miller JC, Atkinson FS, Gahler RJ, et al. Effects of PGX, a novel functional fibre, on acute and delayed postprandial glycaemia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Dec; 64(12): 1488–1493.

44. Jenkins AL, Kacinik V, Lyon MR, Wolever TMS. Reduction of postprandial glycemia by the novel viscous polysaccharide PGX in a dose-dependent manner, independent of food form. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2010; 29(2): 92–98.

45. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 9–14.

46. Reimer RA, Pelletier X, Carabin IG, et al. Increased plasma PYY levels following supplementation with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX in healthy adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Oct; 64(10): 1186–1191.

47. Lyon MR, Reichert RG. The effect of a novel viscous polysaccharide along with lifestyle changes on short-term weight loss and associated risk factors in overweight and obese adults: an observational retrospective clinical program analysis. Alternative Medicine Review 2010 Apr; 15(1): 68–75.

48. Noakes M, Foster PR, Keogh JB, et al. Meal replacements are as effective as structured weight-loss diets for treating obesity in adults with features of metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition 2004; 134: 1894–1899.

49. Ashley JM, St Jeor ST, Perumean-Chaney S, et al. Meal replacements in weight intervention. Obesity Research 2001; 9 suppl 4: 312S–320S.

50. Ditschuneit HH, Flechtner-Mors M. Value of structured meals for weight management: risk factors and long-term weight maintenance. Obesity Research 2001; 9 suppl 4: 284S–289S.

51. Allison DB, Gadbury G, Schwartz LG, et al. A novel soy-based meal replacement formula for weight loss among obese individuals: a randomized controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 57: 514–522.

52. Treyzon L, Chen S, Hong K, et al. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutrition Journal 2008 Aug 27; 7: 23.

53. Davis LM, Coleman C, Kiel J, et al. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal 2010 Mar 11; 9: 11.

54. Mertz W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. Journal of Nutrition 1993; 123: 626–633.

55. Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose tolerance, and diabetes. Biological Trace Element Research 1992; 32: 19–24.

56. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Metabolism 1987; 36: 351–355.

57. McCarthy MF. Hypothesis: sensitization of insulin-dependent hypothalamic glucoreceptors may account for the fat-reducing effects of chromium picolinate. Journal of Optimal Nutrition 1993; 21: 36–53.

58. Evans GW, Pouchnik DJ. Composition and biological activity of chromium-pyridine carboxylate complexes. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 1993; 49: 177–187.

59. Evans GW. Chromium picolinate is an efficacious and safe supplement. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1993; 3: 117–122.

60. Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Anderson RA, et al. Effects of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older women. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2002; 12: 125–135.

61. Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2001; 20: 293–306.

62. Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. The effects of oral 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior in obese adult female subjects. Journal of Neural Transmission 1989; 76: 109–117.

63. Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1991; 294: 591–593.

64. Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cascino A, et al. Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 56: 863–867.

65. Chee H, Romsos DR, Leveille GA. Influence of (-)-hydroxycitrate on lipogenesis in chickens and rats. Journal of Nutrition 1977; 107: 112–119.

66. Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. I. Lipogenesis. Lipids 1974; 9: 121–128.

67. Rao RN, Sakariah KK. Lipid-lowering and antiobesity effect of (-)-hydroxycitric acid. Nutrition Research 1988; 8: 209–212.

68. Preuss HG, Garis RI, Bramble JD, et al. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 2005; 25(3): 133–144.

69. Baba N, Bracco EF, Hashim SA. Enhanced thermogenesis and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding with diet containing medium chain triglyceride. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982; 35: 678–682.

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72. Seaton TB, Welle SL, Warenko MK, et al. Thermic effect of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in man. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986; 44: 630–634.

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Acne

1. Pochi PE. Acne: endocrinologic aspects. Cutis 1982; 30: 212–214, 216–217, 219.

2. Schiavone FE, Rietschel RL, Squotas D, Harris R. Elevated free testosterone levels in women with acne. Archives of Dermatology 1983; 119: 799–802.

3. Darley CR, Moore JW, Besser GM, et al. Androgen status in women with late onset or persistent acne vulgaris. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 1984; 9: 28–35.

4. Takayasu S, Wakimoto H, Itami S, Sano S. Activity of testosterone 5-alpha-reductase in various tissues of human skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1980; 74: 187–191.

5. Sansone G, Reisner RM. Differential rates of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in acne and normal human skin—a possible pathogenic factor in acne. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1971; 56: 366–372.

6. Goulden V, McGeown CH, Cunliffe WJ. The familial risk of adult acne: a comparison between first-degree relatives of affected and unaffected individuals. British Journal of Dermatology 1999 Aug; 141(2): 297–300.

7. Juhlin L, Michaelsson G. Fibrin microclot formation in patients with acne. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1983; 63: 538–540.

8. Bowe WP, Logan AC. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis—back to the future? Gut Pathogens 2011 Jan 31; 3(1): 1.

9. Cordain L, Lindeberg S, Hurtado M, et al. Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization. Archives of Dermatology 2002; 138: 1584–1590.

10. Danby FW. Nutrition and acne. Clinics in Dermatology 2010 Nov–Dec; 28(6): 598–604.

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12. Spencer EH, Ferdowsian HR, Barnard ND. Diet and acne: a review of the evidence. International Journal of Dermatology 2009 Apr; 48(4): 339–347.

13. Melnik BC, Schmitz G. Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Experimental Dermatology 2009 Oct; 18(10): 833–841.

14. Semon H, Herrmann F. Some observations on the sugar metabolism in acne vulgaris, and its treatment by insulin. British Journal of Dermatology 1940; 52: 123–128.

15. Grover RW, Arikan N. The effect of intralesional insulin and glucagon in acne vulgaris. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1963; 40: 259–261.

16. Kader MM, El-Mofty AM, Ismail AA, Bassili F. Glucose tolerance in blood and skin of patients with acne vulgaris. Indian Journal of Dermatology 1977; 22: 139–149.

17. Berra B, Rizzo AM. Glycemic index, glycemic load: new evidence for a link with acne. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2009 Aug; 28 suppl: 450S–454S.

18. Kappas A, Anderson K, Conney A, et al. Nutrition-endocrine interactions: induction of reciprocal changes in the delta 4–5 alpha-reduction of testosterone and the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of estradiol by dietary macronutrients in man. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1983; 80: 7646–7649.

19. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly patients. Diabetes 1980; 29: 919–925.

20. McCarty M. High-chromium yeast for acne? Medical Hypotheses 1984; 14: 307–310.

21. Kilgman AM, Mills OH Jr, Leyden JJ, et al. Oral vitamin A in acne vulgaris: a preliminary report. International Journal of Dermatology 1981; 20: 278–285.

22. Michaelsson G, Juhlin L, Ljunghall K. A double-blind study of the effect of zinc and oxytetracycline in acne vulgaris. British Journal of Dermatology 1977; 97: 561–566.

23. Weimar VM, Puhl SC, Smith WH, tenBroeke JE. Zinc sulphate in acne vulgaris. Archives of Dermatology 1978; 114: 1776–1778.

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and HIV Infection

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8. Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, et al. A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. The New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 351: 23–32.

9. Winkler P, Ellinger S, Boetzer AM, et al. Lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in HIV-seropositive and healthy subjects during long-term ingestion of fruit juices or a fruit-vegetable-concentrate rich in polyphenols and antioxidant vitamins. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 58: 317–325.

10. Arendt BM, Boetzer AM, Lemoch H, et al. Plasma antioxidant capacity of HIV-seropositive and healthy subjects during long-term ingestion of fruit juices or a fruit-vegetable-concentrate containing antioxidant polyphenols. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 55: 786–792.

11. Ichimura T, Otake T, Mori H, Maruyama S. HIV-1 protease inhibition and anti-HIV effect of natural and synthetic water-soluble lignin-like substances. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biodiversity 1999; 63: 2202–2204.

12. Hendricks KM, Dong KR, Tang AM, et al. High-fiber diet in HIV-positive men is associated with lower risk of developing fat deposition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 78: 790–795.

13. Carroccio A, Di Prima L, Di Grigoli C, et al. Exocrine pancreatic function and fat malabsorption in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 1999; 34: 729–734.

14. Koch J, Garcia-Shelton YL, Neal EA, et al. Steatorrhea: a common manifestation in patients with HIV/AIDS. Nutrition 1996; 12: 507–510.

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17. Hummelen R, Changalucha J, Butamanya NL, et al. Effect of 25 weeks probiotic supplementation on immune function of HIV patients. Gut Microbes 2011 Mar–Apr; 2(2): 80–85.

18. Williams SB, Bartsch G, Muurahainen N, et al. Protein intake is positively associated with body cell mass in weight-stable HIV-infected men. Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133: 1143–1146.

19. Agin D, Gallagher D, Wang J, et al. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body cell mass, muscle strength, and quality of life in women with HIV. AIDS 2001; 15: 2431–2440.

20. Micke P, Beeh KM, Buhl R. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. European Journal of Nutrition 2002; 41: 12–18.

21. Villamor E, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth. Pediatrics 2002; 109:E6.

22. Filteau SM, Rollins NC, Coutsoudis A, et al. The effect of antenatal vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on gut integrity of infants of HIV-infected South African women. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001; 32: 464–470.

23. Coodley GO, Nelson HD, Loveless MO, Folk C. Beta-carotene and HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1993; 6: 272–276.

24. Ullrich R, Schneider T, Heise W, et al. Serum carotene deficiency in HIV-infected patients. Berlin Diarrhoea/Wasting Syndrome Study Group. AIDS 1994; 8: 661–665.

25. Falguera M, Perez-Mur J, Piug T, Cao G. Study of the role of vitamin B12 and folinic acid supplementation in preventing hemologic toxicity of zidovudine. European Journal of Haematology 1995; 55: 97–102.

26. Herzlich BC, Ranginwala M, Nawabi I, Herbert V. Synergy of inhibition of DNA synthesis in human bone marrow by azidothymidine plus deficiency of folate and/or vitamin B12? American Journal of Hematology 1990; 33: 177–183.

27. Arici C, Tebaldi A, Quinzan GP, et al. Severe lactic acidosis and thiamine administration in an HIV-infected patient on HAART. International Journal of STD & AIDS 2001; 12: 407–409.

28. Shoji S, Furuishi K, Misumi S, et al. Thiamine disulfide as a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (type-1) production. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1994; 205: 967–975.

29. Muri RM, Von Overbeck J, Furrer J, Ballmer PE. Thiamin deficiency in HIV-positive patients: evaluation by erythrocyte transketolase activity and thiamin pyrophosphate effect. Clinical Nutrition 1999; 18: 375–378.

30. Baum MK, Mantero-Atienza E, Shor-Posner G, et al. Association of vitamin B6 status with parameters of immune function in early HIV-1 infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1991; 4: 1122–1132.

31. Trakatellis A, Dimitriadou A, Trakatelli M. Pyridoxine deficiency: new approaches in immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Postgraduate Medicine J 1997; 73: 617–622.

32. Folkers K, Morita M, McRee J Jr. The activities of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin B6 for immune responses. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1993; 193: 88–92.

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34. Herzlich BC, Schiano TD. Reversal of apparent AIDS dementia complex following treatment with vitamin B12. Journal of Internal Medicine 1993; 233: 495–497.

35. Tang AM, Graham NM, Chandra RK, Saah AJ. Low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations are associated with faster human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression. Journal of Nutrition 1997; 127: 345–351.

36. Rule SA, Hooker M, Costello C, et al. Serum vitamin B12 and transcobalamin levels in early HIV disease. American Journal of Hematology 1994; 47: 167–171.

37. Burkes RL, Cohen H, Krailo M, et al. Low serum cobalamin levels occur frequently in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome and related disorders. European Journal of Haematology 1987; 38: 141–147.

38. Harakeh S, Jariwalla RJ. Ascorbate effect on cytokine stimulation of HIV production. Nutrition 1995; 11 suppl 5: 684–687.

39. Allard JP, Aghdassi E, Chau J, et al. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. AIDS 1998; 12: 1653–1659.

40. Edeas MA, Claise C, Vergnes L, et al. Protective effects of the lipophilic redox conjugate tocopheryl succinyl-ethyl ferulate on HIV replication. FEBS Letters 1997; 418: 15–18.

41. de la Asunción JG, Del Olmo ML, Gómez-Cambronero LG, et al. AZT induces oxidative damage to cardiac mitochondria: protective effect of vitamins C and E. Life Sciences 2004; 76: 47–56.

42. Tang AM, Graham NM, Semba RD, Saah AJ. Association between serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 1997; 11: 613–620.

43. Pacht ER, Diaz P, Clanton T, et al. Serum vitamin E decreases in HIV-seropositive subjects over time. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1997; 130: 293–296.

44. Wasserman P, Rubin DS. Highly prevalent vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in an urban cohort of HIV-infected men under care. AIDS Patient Care and STDs 2010 Apr; 24(4): 223–227.

45. Haug CJ, Aukrust, Haug P, et al. Severe deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human immunodeficiency virus infection: association with immunological hyperactivity and only minor changes in calcium homeostasis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism1998 Nov; 83(11): 3832–3838.

46. Davis DA, Branca AA, Pallenberg AJ, et al. Inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus–1 protease and human immuno-deficiency virus–1 replication by bathocuproine disulfonic acid CU1+Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 1995; 322: 127–134.

47. Baum MK, Javier JJ, Mantero-Atienza E, et al. Zidovudine-associated adverse reactions in a longitudinal study of asymptomatic HIV-1-infected homosexual males. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1991; 4: 1218–1226.

48. Beach RS, Mantero-Atienza E, Shor-Posner G, et al. Specific nutrient abnormalities in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. AIDS 1992; 6: 701–708.

49. Moreno Díaz MT, Ruiz López MD, Navarro Alarcón M, et al. [Magnesium deficiency in patients with HIV-AIDS.] Nutrición Hospitalaria 1997; 12: 304–308.

50. Seguro AC, de Araujo M, Seguro FS, et al. Effects of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia on zidovudine (AZT) and didanosine (ddI) nephrotoxicity in rats. Clinical Nephrology 2003; 59: 267–272.

51. Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007 Jan 22; 167(2): 148–154.

52. Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Lai S, et al. High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1997; 15: 370–374.

53. Shor-Posner G, Lecusay R, Miguez MJ, et al. Psychological burden in the era of HAART: impact of selenium therapy. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 2003; 33: 55–69.

54. Burbano X, Miguez-Burbano MJ, McCollister K, et al. Impact of a selenium chemoprevention clinical trial on hospital admissions of HIV-infected participants. HIV Clinical Trials 2002; 3: 483–491.

55. Rayman MP. The argument for increasing selenium intake. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002; 61: 203–215.

56. Mocchegiani E, Muzzioli M. Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections. Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130 suppl 5S: 1424S–1431S.

57. Koch J, Neal EA, Schlott MJ, et al. Zinc levels and infections in hospitalized patients with AIDS. Nutrition 1996; 12: 515–518.

58. Mocchegiani E, Veccia S, Ancarani F, et al. Benefit of oral zinc supplementation as an adjunct to zidovudine (AZT) therapy against opportunistic infections in AIDS. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 1995; 17: 719–727.

59. Pace GW, Leaf CD. The role of oxidative stress in HIV disease. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 1995; 19: 523–528.

60. de la Asunción JG, Del Olmo ML, Sastre J, et al. AZT treatment induces molecular and ultrastructural oxidative damage to muscle mitochondria. Prevention by antioxidant vitamins. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1998; 102: 4–9.

61. de la Asunción JG, Del Olmo ML, Gómez-Cambronero LG, et al. AZT induces oxidative damage to cardiac mitochondria: protective effect of vitamins C and E. Life Sciences 2004; 76: 47–56.

62. Breitkreutz R, Pittack N, Nebe CT, et al. Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: two randomized trials. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2000; 78: 55–62.

63. Akerlund B, Jarstrand C, Lindeke B, et al. Effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment on HIV-1 infection: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1996; 50: 457–461.

64. Spada C, Treitinger A, Reis M, et al. The effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation upon viral load, CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte count and hematocrit in individuals undergoing antiretroviral treatment. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2002; 40: 452–455.

65. Witschi A, Junker E, Schranz C, et al. Supplementation of N-acetylcysteine fails to increase glutathione in lymphocytes and plasma of patients with AIDS. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1995; 11: 141–143.

66. Grieb G. [Alpha-lipoic acid inhibits HIV replication.] Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten 1992; 15: 243–244.

67. Suzuki YJ, Aggarwal BB, Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation in human T cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1992; 189: 1709–1715.

68. Fuchs J, Schofer H, Milbradt R, et al. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43: 1359–1362.

69. Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Nara Y, et al. Biochemical deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in HIV-infection and exploratory treatment. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1988; 153: 888–896.

70. Folkers K, Hanioka T, Xia LJ, et al. Coenzyme Q10 increases T4/T8 ratios of lymphcytes in ordinary subjects and relevance to patients having the AIDS related complex. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1991; 176: 786–791.

71. Mintz M. Carnitine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology 1995; 10 suppl 2:S40–S44.

72. De Simone C, Famularo G, Tzantzoglou S, et al. Carnitine depletion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with AIDS: effect of oral L-carnitine. AIDS 1994; 8: 655–660.

73. Virmani MA, Biselli R, Spadoni A, et al. Protective actions of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on the neurotoxicity evoked by mitochondrial uncoupling or inhibitors. Pharmacological Research 1995; 32: 383–389.

74. Claessens YE, Cariou A, Monchi M, et al. Detecting life-threatening lactic acidosis related to nucleoside-analog treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and treatment with L-carnitine. Critical Care Medicine 2003; 31: 1042–1047.

75. De Simone C, Tzantzoglou S, Famularo G, et al. High dose L-carnitine improves immunologic and metabolic parameters in AIDS patients. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 1993; 15: 1–12.

76. Scarpini E, Sacilotto G, Baron P, et al. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV+ patients. Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 1997; 2: 250–252.

77. Li CJ, Zhang LJ, Dezube BJ, et al. Three inhibitors of human type 1 immunodeficiency virus: long terminal repeat, directed gene expression, and virus replication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993; 90: 1839–1841.

78. Mazumder A, Raghavan K, Weinstein J, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 integrase by curcumin. Biochemical Pharmacology 49: 1165–1170, 1995.

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32. Finley JW, Penland JG. Adequacy or deprivation of dietary selenium in healthy men: clinical and psychological findings. The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 1998; 11: 11–27.

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66. Hazlewood LC, Wood LG, Hansbro PM, Foster PS. Dietary lycopene supplementation suppresses Th2 responses and lung eosinophilia in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2011 Jan; 22(1): 95–100.

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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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15. Kenney J, Groth E, Benbrook C. Worst first: high risk insecticide uses, children’s foods and safer alternatives. Washington, D.C.: Consumers Union of the United States, 1999.

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30. Kozielec T, Starobrat HB. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnesium Research 1997; 10: 143–148.

31. Starobrat HB, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnesium Research 1997; 10: 149–156.

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35. Arnold LE, DiSilvestro RA. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2005; 15: 619–627.

36. Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Arnulf I, Mouren M. Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2004 Dec; 158(12): 1113–1115.

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38. Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Arnulf I, et al. Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Pediatric Neurology 2008 Jan; 38(1): 20–26.

39. Pelsser L, Buitelaar J, Savelkoul H. ADHD as a (non) allergic hypersensitivity disorder: a hypothesis. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2009 Mar; 20(2): 107–112.

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43. Uhlig T, Merkenschlager A, Brandmaier R, Egger J. Topographic mapping of brain electrical activity in children with food-induced attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder. European Journal of Pediatrics 1997; 156: 557–561.

44. Nsouli T, Nsouli S, Linde R, et al. Role of food allergy in serous otitis media. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1994; 73: 215–219.

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46. Marcotte A, Thacher P, Butters M, et al. Parental report of sleep problems in children with attentional and learning disorders. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 1998; 19: 178–186.

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50. Egger J, Carter C, Graham P, et al. Controlled trial of oligoantigenic treatment in the hyperkinetic syndrome. The Lancet 1985; 1: 540–545.

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52. Egger J, Stolla A, McEwen L. Controlled trial of hyposensitisation in children with food-induced hyperkinetic syndrome. The Lancet 1992; 339: 1150–1153.

53. Salminen S, Isolauri E, Salminen E. Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilizing the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains and future challenges. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1996; 70: 347–358.

54. Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1997; 99: 179–185.

55. Dvoráková M, Sivonová M, Trebatická J, et al. The effect of polyphenolic extract from pine bark, pycnogenol on the level of glutathione in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Redox Report 2006; 11(4): 163–172.

56. Chovanová Z, Muchová J, Sivonová M, et al. Effect of polyphenolic extract, pycnogenol, on the level of 8-oxoguanine in children suffering from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Free Radical Research 2006 Sep; 40(9): 1003–1010.

57. Dvoráková M, Jezová D, Blazícek P, et al. Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol). Nutritional Neuroscience 2007 Jun–Aug; 10(3–4): 151–157.

58. Trebatická J, Kopasová S, Hradecná Z, et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, pycnogenol. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2006 Sep; 15(6): 329–335.

59. Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, et al. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience 2001; 26: 221–228.

60. Niederhofer H. Ginkgo biloba treating patients with attention-deficit disorder. Phytotherapy Research 2010 Jan; 24(1): 26–27.

61. Lyon M, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alternative Medicine Review 2011; 16(4);348–354.

62. Gevensleben H, Holl B, Heinrich H, et al. Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2010 Sep; 19(9): 715–724.

63. Bakhshayesh A, Hansch S, Wyschkon A, Rezai M, Esser G. Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2011 Sep; 20(9): 481–491.

64. Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S. The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 2002; 27: 231–249.

65. Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, et al. Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 2003; 28: 1–12.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

1. Elder JH. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: an overview with clinical implications. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2008 Dec–2009 Jan; 23(6): 583–588.

2. Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G. Gluten-and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008 Apr 16; 2:CD003498.

3. Elder JH, Shankar M, Shuster J, et al. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: results of a preliminary double blind clinical trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2006 Apr; 36(3): 413–420.

4. Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM. The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 2009 Oct–Dec; 21(4): 205–211.

5. de Magistris L, Familiari V, Pascotto A, et al. Alterations of the intestinal barrier in patients with autism spectrum disorders and in their first-degree relatives. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2010 Oct; 51(4): 418–24.

6. Bent S, Bertoglio K, Hendren RL. Omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2009; 39(8): 1135–1154.

7. Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schäfer MR, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Biological Psychiatry 2007 Feb 15; 61(4): 551–553.

8. Bent S, Bertoglio K, Ashwood P, et al. A pilot randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2011 May; 41(5): 545–554.

9. Politi P, Cena H, Comelli M, et al. Behavioral effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in young adults with severe autism: an open label study. Archives of Medical Research 2008 Oct; 39(7): 682–685.

10. Rimland B, Callaway E, Dreyfuss P. The effects of high doses of vitamin B6 on autistic children: a double-blind crossover study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1979; 135: 472–475.

11. Lelord G, Callaway E, Muh J. Clinical and biological effects of high doses of vitamin B6 and magnesium on autistic children. Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 1982; 4: 27–44.

12. Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Ernouf D, et al. Behavioral and biochemical effects of oral magnesium, vitamin B6 and magnesium. Vitamin B6 administration in autistic children. Magnesium Bulletin 1981; 3: 23–24.

13. Martineau J, Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Lelord G. Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biological Psychiatry 1985 May; 20(5): 467–478.

14. Murza KA, Pavelko SL, Malani MD, Nye C. Vitamin B6–magnesium treatment for autism: the current status of the research. Magnesium Research 2010 Jun; 23(2): 115–117.

15. Frye RE, Huffman LC, Elliott GR. Tetrahydrobiopterin as a novel therapeutic intervention for autism. Neurotherapeutics 2010 Jul; 7(3): 241–249.

16. Doyen C, Mighiu D, Kaye K, et al. Melatonin in children with autistic spectrum disorders: recent and practical data. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2011 May; 20(5): 231–239.

17. Rossignol DA, Frye RE. Melatonin in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2011 Sep; 53(9): 783–792.

18. Wright B, Sims D, Smart S, et al. Melatonin versus placebo in children with autism spectrum conditions and severe sleep problems not amenable to behaviour management strategies: a randomised controlled crossover trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2011 Feb; 41(2): 175–184.

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20. Garstang J, Wallis M. Randomized controlled trial of melatonin for children with autistic spectrum disorders and sleep problems. Child: Care, Health and Development 2006 Sep; 32(5): 585–589.

21. Andersen IM, Kaczmarska J, McGrew SG, Malow BA. Melatonin for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology 2008 May; 23(5): 482–485.

22. Chez MG, Buchanan CP, Aimonovitch MC, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology 2002; 17: 833–837.

23. Horvath K, Stefanatos G, Sokolski K, et al. Improved social and language skills after secretin administration in patients with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of the Association for Academic Minority Physicians 1998; 9: 9–15.

24. Levy SE, Hyman SL. Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 2005; 11: 131–142.

25. Williams KW, Wray JJ, Wheeler DM. Intravenous secretin for autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 Mar 24; 3:CD003495.

Boils

1. Altman PM. Australian tea tree oil. Australian Journal of Pharmacy 1988; 69: 276–278.

2. Feinblatt HM. Cajeput-type oil for the treatment of furunculosis. Journal of the National Medical Association 1960; 52: 32–34.

3. Hahn FE, Ciak J. Berberine. Antibiotics 1976; 3: 577–588.

4. Johnson CC, Johnson G, Poe CF. Toxicity of alkaloids to certain bacteria. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1952; 8: 71–78.

Breast Cancer (Prevention)

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3. Lipworth L, Bailey LR, Trichopoulos D. History of breast-feeding in relation to breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000 Feb 16; 92(4): 302–312.

4. Haller CA, Simpser E. Breastfeeding: 1999 perspective. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 1999; 11: 379–383.

5. Lynch BM, Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM. Physical activity and breast cancer prevention. Recent Results in Cancer Research 2011; 186: 13–42.

6. Schmitz KH. Exercise for secondary prevention of breast cancer: moving from evidence to changing clinical practice. Cancer Prevention Research 2011 Apr; 4(4): 476–480.

7. Mock V, Dow KH, Meares CJ, et al. Effects of exercise on fatigue, physical functioning, and emotional distress during radiation therapy for breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 1997; 24: 991–1000.

8. Schwartz AL, Mori M, Gao R, et al. Exercise reduces daily fatigue in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2001; 33: 718–723.

9. Demark-Wahnefried W, Rimer BK, Winer EP. Weight gain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1997; 97: 519–526.

10. Hauner H, Hauner D. The impact of nutrition on the development and prognosis of breast cancer. Breast Care 2010; 5(6): 377–381.

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12. Zheng W, Gustafson DR, Sinha R, et al. Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 1724–1729.

13. Wendel M, Heller AR. Anticancer actions of omega-3 fatty acids—current state and future perspectives. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 2009 May; 9(4): 457–470.

14. Bartsch H, Nair J, Owen RW. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancers of the breast and colorectum: emerging evidence for their role as risk modifiers. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 2209–2218.

15. Rose DP. Dietary fatty acids and breast cancer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 66 suppl: 998S–1003S.

16. Bougnoux P, Maillard V, Chajes V. Omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio and breast cancer. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 2005; 94: 158–165.

17. Klein V, Chajes V, Germain E, et al. Low alpha-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer 2000; 36: 335–340.

18. Bougnoux P, Koscielny S, Chajes V, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer 1994; 70: 330–334.

19. Thompson LU, Seidl MM, Rickard SE, et al. Antitumorigenic effect of a mammalian lignan precursor from flaxseed. Nutrition and Cancer 1996; 26: 159–165.

20. Saarinen NM, Wärri A, Airio M, et al. Role of dietary lignans in the reduction of breast cancer risk. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2007 Jul; 51(7): 857–866.

21. Haggans CJ, Hutchins AM, Olson BA, et al. Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women. Nutrition and Cancer 1999; 33: 188–195.

22. Thompson LU, Chen JM, Li T, et al. Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 2005 May 15; 11(10): 3828–3835.

23. Dong JY, Qin LQ. Soy isoflavones consumption and risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2011 Jan; 125(2): 315–323.

24. Nagata C. Factors to consider in the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk. Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 20(2): 83–79.

25. Messina M. Soy, soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones), and breast cancer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70: 574–75.

26. Zeligs M. Diet and estrogen status: the cruciferous connection. Journal of Medicinal Food 1998; 1: 67–81.

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28. Michnovicz JJ. Increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation in obese women using oral indole-3-carbinol. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1998; 22(3): 227–229.

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34. Davis S, Mirick DK, Stevens RG. Night shift work, light at night, and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001; 93: 1557–1562.

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Bronchitis and Pneumonia

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2. Nuorti JC, Butler JC, Farley MM, et al. Cigarette smoking and invasive pneumococcal disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 681–689.

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5. Garau J. Treatment of drug-resistant pneumococcal pneumonia. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2002; 2: 404–415.

6. Felmingham D. Evolving resistance patterns in community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens: first results from the PROTEKT global surveillance study. Prospective resistant organism tracking and epidemiology for the ketolide telithromycin. Journal of Infection 2002; 44 suppl A: 3–10.

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13. Kim CE, Griffiths WJ, Taylor PW. Components derived from Pelargonium stimulate macrophage killing of Mycobacterium species. Journal of Applied Microbiology Apr 2009; 106(4): 1184–1193.

14. Michaelis M, Doerr HW, Cinatl J Jr. Investigation of the influence of EPs® 7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides, on replication of a broad panel of respiratory viruses. Phytomedicine 2011 Mar 15; 18(5): 384–386.

15. Agbabiaka TB, Guo R, Ernst E. Pelargonium sidoides for acute bronchitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine May 2008; 15(5): 378–385.

16. Matthys H, Lizogub VG, Malek FA, Kieser M. Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 tablets in patients with acute bronchitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study with a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides. Current Medical Research & Opinion 2010 Jun; 26(6): 1413–1422.

17. Kamin W, Maydannik V, Malek FA, Kieser M. Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in children and adolescents with acute bronchitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2010 Mar; 48(3): 184–191.

18. Sieben A, Prenner L, Sorkalla T, et al. Alpha-hederin, but not hederacoside C and hederagenin from Hedera helix, affects the binding behavior, dynamics, and regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors. Biochemistry 2009 Apr 21; 48(15): 3477–3482.

19. Stauss-Grabo M, Atiye S, Warnke A, et al. Observational study on the tolerability and safety of film-coated tablets containing ivy extract (Prospan® cough tablets) in the treatment of colds accompanied by coughing. Phytomedicine 2011 Apr 15; 18(6): 433–436.

20. Hecker M, Runkel F, Voelp A. [Treatment of chronic bronchitis with ivy leaf special extract—multicenter post-marketing surveillance study in 1,350 patients.] Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde 2002 Apr; 9(2): 77–84.

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25. Klenner FR. Virus pneumonia and its treatment with vitamin C. Southern Medicine and Surgery 1948 Feb; 110(2): 36–38.

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31. Bjorkqvist M, Wiberg B, Bodin L, et al. Bottle-blowing in hospital-treated patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1997; 29: 77–82.

32. Westerdahl E, Lindmark B, Almgren SO, et al. Chest physiotherapy after coronary artery bypass graft surgery—a comparison of three different deep breathing techniques. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2001; 33: 79–84.

Candidiasis, Chronic

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18. Sullivan A, Nord CE. The place of probiotics in human intestinal infections. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2002; 20: 313–319.

19. Hahn FE, Ciak J. Berberine. Antibiotics 1976; 3: 577–588.

20. Amin AH, Subbaiah TV, Abbasi KM. Berberine sulfate. Antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1969; 15: 1067–1076.

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26. Gupte S. Use of berberine in treatment of giardiasis. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1975; 129: 866.

27. Bhakat MP, Nandi N, Pal HK, et al. Therapeutic trial of berberine sulphate in non-specific gastroenteritis. Indian Medical Journal 1974; 68: 19–23.

28. Kamat SA. Clinical trial with berberine hydrochloride for the control of diarrhoea in acute gastroenteritis. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1967; 15: 525–529.

29. Desai AB, Shah KM, Shah DM. Berberine in the treatment of diarrhoea. Indian Pediatrics 1971; 8: 462–465.

30. Sharma R, Joshi CK, Goyal RK. Berberine tannate in acute diarrhoea. Indian Pediatrics 1970; 7: 496–501.

31. Choudhry VP, Sabir M, Bhide VN. Berberine in giardiasis. Indian Pediatrics 1972; 9: 143–146.

32. Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio choleraeJournal of Infectious Diseases 1987; 155: 979–984.

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34. Moore GS, Atkins RD. The fungicidal and fungistatic effects of an aqueous garlic extract on medically important yeast-like fungi. Mycologia 1977; 69: 341–348.

35. Sandhu DK, Warraich MK, Singh S. Sensitivity of yeasts isolated from cases of vaginitis to aqueous extracts of garlic. Mykosen 1980; 23: 691–698.

36. Prasad G, Sharma VD. Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) treatment against experimental candidiasis in chicks. British Veterinary Journal 1980; 136: 448–451.

37. Stiles JC, Sparks W, Ronzio RA. The inhibition of Candida albicans by oregano. Journal of Applied Nutrition 1995; 47: 96–102.

38. Vazquez JA, Zawawi AA. Efficacy of alcohol-based and alcohol-free melaleuca oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS. HIV Clinical Trials 2002; 3: 379–385.

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40. Ota C, Unterkircher C, Fantinato V, et al. Antifungal activity of propolis on different species of Candida. Mycoses 2001; 44: 375–378.

41. D’Auria FD, Tecca M, Scazzocchio F, et al. Effect of propolis on virulence factors of Candida albicans. Journal of Chemotherapy 2003; 15: 454–460.

42. Martins RS, Pereira ES Jr, Lima SM, et al. Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis. Journal of Oral Science 2002; 44: 41–48.

Canker Sores

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2. Hasan AA, Ciancio S. Association between ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the emergence of aphthous-like ulcers. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology 2009 Jan; 11(1): 155–159.

3. Wilson CWM. Food sensitivities, taste changes, aphthous ulcers and atopic symptoms in allergic disease. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1980; 44: 302–307.

4. Bays RA, Hamerlinck F, Cormane RH. Immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in recurrent aphthous ulcers in man. Archives of Oral Biology 1977; 22: 147–153.

5. Wray D, Vlagopoulos TP, Siraganian RP. Food allergens and basophil histamine release in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 1982; 54: 388–395.

6. Nolan A, Lamey PJ, Milligan KA. Recurrent aphthous ulceration and food sensitivity. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 1991; 20: 473–475.

7. Ferguson R, Basu MK, Asquith P, Cooke WT. Jejunal mucosal abnormalities in patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration. British Medical Journal 1976; 1: 11–13.

8. Ferguson MM, Wray D, Carmichael HA, et al. Celiac disease associated with recurrent aphthae. Gut 1980; 21: 223–226.

9. Wray D. Gluten-sensitive recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1981; 26: 737–740.

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11. O’Farrelly C, O’Mahony D, Graeme-Cook F, et al. Gliadin antibodies identify gluten-sensitive oral ulceration in the absences of villous atrophy. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 1991; 20: 476–478.

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13. Wray D, Ferguson MM, Hutcheon AW, Daag JH. Nutritional deficiencies in recurrent aphthae. Journal of Oral Pathology 1978; 7: 418–423.

14. Nolan A, McIntosh WB, Allam BF, Lamey PJ. Recurrent aphthous ulceration. Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 status and response to replacement therapy. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 1991; 20: 389–391.

15. Arikan S, Durusoy C, Akalin N, et al. Oxidant/antioxidant status in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Diseases Oct 2009; 15(7): 512–515.

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19. Carrozzo M. Vitamin B12 for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Evidence-Based Dentistry 2009; 10(4): 114–115.

20. Orbak R, Cicek Y, Tezel A, Dogru Y. Effects of zinc treatment in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Dental Materials Journal 2003; 22: 21–29.

21. Yasui K, Kurata T, Yashiro M, et al. The effect of ascorbate on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Acta Paediatrica 2010 Mar; 99(3): 442–445.

22. Das SK, Das V, Gulati AK, Singh VP. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1989; 37: 647.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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2. Viera AJ. Management of carpal tunnel syndrome. American Family Physician 2003: 68: 265–72,279–80.

3. O’Connor D, Marshall S, Massy-Westropp N. Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003(1):CD003219.

4. Cook AC, Szabo RM, Birkholz SW, King EF. Early mobilization following carpal tunnel release. A prospective randomized study. The Journal of Hand Surgery: British & European Volume 1995 Apr; 20(2): 228–230.

5. Jeffrey SL, Belcher HJ. Use of arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2002 Mar–Apr; 8(2): 66–68.

6. Hochberg J. A randomized prospective study to assess the efficacy of two cold-therapy treatments following carpal tunnel release. Journal of Hand Therapy 2001 Jul–Sep; 14(3): 208–215.

7. Gravlee, JR, Van Durme DJ. Braces and splints for musculoskeletal conditions. American Family Physician 2007 Feb 1; 75(3): 342–348.

8. Walker WC, Metzler M, Cifu DX, Swartz Z. Neutral wrist splinting in carpal tunnel syndrome: a comparison of night-only versus full-time wear instructions. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2000; 81: 424–429.

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11. Folkers K, Wolaniuk A, Vadhanavikit S. Enzymology of the response of carpal tunnel syndrome to riboflavin and to combined riboflavin and pyridoxine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1984; 81: 7076–7078.

12. Spooner GR, Desai HB, Angel JF, et al. Using pyridoxine to treat carpal tunnel syndrome: randomized control trial. Canadian Family Physician 1993; 39: 2122–2127.

13. Stransky M, Rubin A, Lava NS, Lazaro RP. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with vitamin B6: a double-blind study. Southern Medical Journal 1989; 82: 841–842.

14. Yang CP, Hsieh CL, Wang NH, et al. Acupuncture in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. The Clinical Journal of Pain 2009 May; 25(4): 327–333.

15. Chen GS. The effect of acupuncture treatment on carpal tunnel syndrome. American Journal of Acupuncture 1990; 18: 5–9.

Cataracts

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2. Ringvold A, Johnsen H, Blika S. Senile cataract and ascorbic acid loading. Acta Ophthalmologica 1985; 63: 277–280.

3. Atkinson DT. Malnutrition as an etiological factor in senile cataract. Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat Monthly 1952; 31: 79–83.

4. Rathbun W, Hanson S. Glutathione metabolic pathway as a scavenging system in the lens. Ophthalmic Research 1979; 11: 172–176.

5. Swanson AA, Truesdale AW. Elemental analysis in normal and cataractous human lens tissue. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1971; 45: 1488–1496.

6. Karaküçük S, Ertugrul Mirza G, Faruk Ekinciler O. Selenium concentrations in serum, lens, and aqueous humour of patients with senile cataract. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 1995; 73: 329–332.

7. Taylor A. Cataract: relationships between nutrition and oxidation. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1993; 12: 138–146.

8. Taylor A, Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, et al. Long-term intake of vitamins and carotenoids and odds of early age-related cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 75: 540–549.

9. Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, Hankinson SE, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities. Archives of Ophthalmology 2001; 119: 1009–1019.

10. Kuzniarz M, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, et al. Use of vitamin supplements and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2001; 132: 19–26.

11. Valero MP, Fletcher AE, De Stavola BL, et al. Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population. Journal of Nutrition 2002; 132: 1299–1306.

12. Granado F, Olmedilla B, Blanco I. Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health. British Journal of Nutrition 2003; 90: 487–502.

13. Hankinson SE, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, et al. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study. BMJ 1992; 305: 335–339.

14. Brown L, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70: 517–524.

15. Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Seddon JM, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70: 509–516.

16. Lyle BJ, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BE, et al. Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149: 801–809.

17. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, et al. Lutein, but not alpha-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-y double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Nutrition 2003; 19: 21–24.

18. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Sesso HD, et al. Age-related cataract in a randomized trial of vitamins E and C in men. Archives of Ophthalmology 2010 Nov; 128(11): 1397–1405.

19. McNeil JJ, Robman L, Tikellis G, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology 2004; 111: 75–84.

20. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Archives of Ophthalmology 2001; 119: 1439–1452.

21. Whanger P, Weswig P. Effects of selenium, chromium and antioxidants on growth, eye cataracts, plasma cholesterol and blood glucose in selenium deficient, vitamin E supplemented rats. Nutrition Reports International 1975; 12: 345–358.

22. Rao GN, Cotlier E. The enzymatic activities of GTP cyclohydrolase, sepiapterin reductase, dihydropteridine reductase and dihydrofolate reductase; and tetrahydrobiopterin content in mammalian ocular tissues and in human senile cataracts. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology—Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 1985; 80B: 61–66.

23. Skalka H, Prchal J. Cataracts and riboflavin deficiency. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981; 34: 861–863.

24. Prchal JT, Conrad ME, Skalka HW. Association of pre-senile cataracts with heterozygosity for galactosemic states and riboflavin deficiency. The Lancet 1978; 1: 12–13.

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28. Christen WG, Manson JE, Glynn RJ, et al. A randomized trial of beta carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians. Archives of Ophthalmology 2003 Mar; 121(3): 372–378.

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Celiac Disease

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3. Tack GJ, Verbeek WH, Schreurs MW, Mulder CJ. The spectrum of celiac disease: epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2010 Apr; 7(4): 204–13

4. Dewar D, Pereira SP, Ciclitira PJ. The pathogenesis of coeliac disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 2004; 36: 17–24.

5. Persson LA, Ivarsson A, Hernell O. Breast-feeding protects against celiac disease in childhood—epidemiological evidence. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2002; 503: 115–123.

6. Ivarsson A, Hernell O, Stenlund H, et al. Breast-feeding protects against celiac disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 75: 914–921.

7. Faellstroem SP, Winberg J, Andersen HJ. Cow’s milk induced malabsorption as a precursor of gluten intolerance. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1965; 54: 101–115.

8. Ludvigsson JF, Montgomery SM, Ekbom A, et al. Small-intestinal histopathology and mortality risk in celiac disease. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2009 Sep 16; 302(11): 1171–1178.

9. Rubio-Tapia A, Kyle RA, Kaplan EL, et al. Increased prevalence and mortality in undiagnosed celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2009 Jul; 137(1): 88–93.

10. Green PH, Fleischauer AT, Bhagat G, et al. Risk of malignancy in patients with celiac disease. The American Journal of Medicine 2003; 115: 191–195.

11. Dohan FC, Harper EH, Clark MH, et al. Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare? Biological Psychiatry 1984; 19: 385–399.

12. Dohan FC, Gasberger JC. Relapsed schizophrenics: earlier discharge from the hospital after cereal-free, milk-free diet. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1973; 130: 685–688.

13. Ludvigsson JF, Osby U, Ekbom A, Montgomery SM. Coeliac disease and risk of schizophrenia and other psychosis: a general population cohort study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2007 Feb; 42(2): 179–185.

14. Paroli E. Opioid peptides from food (the exorphins). World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 1988; 55: 58–97.

15. Ludvigsson JF, Reutfors J, Osby U, et al. Coeliac disease and risk of mood disorders—a general population-based cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders 2007 Apr; 99(1–3): 117–126.

16. Hu WT, Murray JA, Greenaway MC, et al. Cognitive impairment and celiac disease. Archives of Neurology 2006 Oct; 63(10): 1440–6.

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18. Saalman R, Dahlgren UI, Fallstrom SP, et al. Avidity progression of dietary antibodies in healthy and coeliac children. Clinical & Experimental Immunology 2003; 134: 328–334.

19. Hallert C, Svensson M, Tholstrup J, Hultberg B. Clinical trial: B vitamins improve health in patients with coeliac disease living on a gluten-free diet. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2009 Apr 15; 29(8): 811–816.

20. Janatuinen EK, Kemppainen TA, Julkunen RJ, et al. No harm from five year ingestion of oats in coeliac disease. Gut 2002; 50(3): 332–335.

21. Hollen E, Holmgren Peterson K, Sundqvist T, et al. Coeliac children on a gluten-free diet with or without oats display equal anti-avenin antibody titres. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2006; 41(1): 42–47.

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24. Peraaho M, Kaukinen K, Mustalahti K, et al. Effect of an oats-containing gluten-free diet on symptoms and quality of life in coeliac disease: a randomized study. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2004; 39(1): 27–31.

25. Love AHG, Elmes M, Golden M, et al. Zinc deficiency and celiac disease. In Perspectives in coeliac disease. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Coeliac Disease, ed. McNicholl B, McCarthy CF, Fottrell PF. Baltimore: University Press, 1978, 335–342.

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Cerebral Vascular Insufficiency

1. Mahe G, Ronziere T, Laviolle B, et al. An unfavorable dietary pattern is associated with symptomatic ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2010 Jul; 52(1): 62–68.

2. Barnett HJM, Barnes RW, Robertson JT. The uncertainties surrounding carotid endarterectomy. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1992; 268: 3120–3121.

3. NASCET Collaborators. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325: 445–453.

4. Easton JD, Wilterdink JL. Carotid endarterectomy: trials and tribulations. Annals of Neurology 1994; 35: 5–17.

5. Ederle J, Dobson J, Featherstone RL, et al. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2010 Mar 20; 375(9719): 985–997.

6. Ederle J, Bonati LH, Dobson J, et al. Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial. The Lancet Neurology2009 Oct; 8(10): 898–907.

7. Bazan HA, Lu Y, Thoppil D, et al. Diminished omega-3 fatty acids are associated with carotid plaques from neurologically symptomatic patients: implications for carotid interventions. Vascular Pharmacology 2009 Nov–Dec; 51(5–6): 331–336.

8. Cawood AL, Ding R, Napper FL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from highly concentrated n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability. Atherosclerosis 2010 Sep; 212(1): 252–259.

9. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1992; 34: 352–358.

10. Engelsen J, Nielsen JD, Winther K. Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in stable, long-term warfarin treated outpatients: a randomised, double blind, placebo-crossover trial. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2002; 87: 1075–1076.

11. Bone KM. Potential interaction of Ginkgo biloba leaf with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs: what is the evidence? Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2008 Jul; 52(7): 764–771.

Cervical Dysplasia

1. de Vet HC, Sturmans F. Risk factors for cervical dysplasia: implications for prevention. Public Health 1994; 108: 241–249.

2. Moore TO, Moore AY, Carrasco D. Human papillomavirus, smoking, and cancer. Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery 2001 Jul–Aug; 5(4): 323–328.

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4. Lyon JL, Gardner JW, West DW, et al. Smoking and carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. The American Journal of Public Health 1983; 73: 558–562.

5. Marshall JR, Graham S, Byers T, et al. Diet and smoking in the epidemiology of cancer of the cervix. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1983; 70: 847–851.

6. Clarke EA, Hatcher J, McKeown Eyssen GE, Lickrish GM. Cervical dysplasia: association with sexual behavior, smoking, and oral contraceptive use? American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985; 151: 612–616.

7. Orr JW Jr, Wilson K, Bodiford C, et al. Nutritional status of patients with untreated cervical cancer. II. Vitamin assessment. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985; 151: 632–635.

8. Orr JW Jr, Wilson K, Bodiford C, et al. Nutritional status of patients with untreated cervical cancer. I. Biochemical and immunologic assessment. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985; 151: 625–631.

9. Tomita L, Filho A, Costa M, et al. Diet and serum micronutrients in relation to cervical neoplasia and cancer among low-income Brazilian women. International Journal of Cancer 2009; 126: 703–714.

10. Ghosh C, Baker J, Moysich K, et al. Dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 2008; 60(3): 331–341.

11. Hwang J, Kim M, Lee J. Dietary supplements reduce the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 2010; 20(3): 398–403.

12. La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Decarli A, et al. Dietary vitamin A and the risk of invasive cervical cancer. International Journal of Cancer 1984; 34: 319–322.

13. Romney SL, Palan PR, Duttagupta C, et al. Retinoids and the prevention of cervical dysplasias. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1981; 141: 890–894.

14. Wylie-Rosett JA, Romney SL, Slagle NS, et al. Influence of vitamin A on cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Nutrition and Cancer 1984; 6: 49–57.

15. Dawson E, Nosovitch J, Hannigan E. Serum vitamin and selenium changes in cervical dysplasia. Federation Proceedings 1984; 43: 612.

16. Romney SL, Palan PR, Basu J, Mikhail M. Nutrients antioxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of cervical dysplasias and cancer. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 1995; 23 suppl: 96–103.

17. Keefe K, Schell M, Brewer C, et al. A randomized, double blind, phase III trial using oral beta-carotene supplementation for women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiology 2001; 10: 1029–1035.

18. Romeny, S, Ho, G, Palan P, et al. Effects of beta-carotene and other factors on outcome of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus infection. Gynecology Oncology 1997; 65: 483–492.

19. Fairley, C, Tabrizi S, Chen S, et al. A randomized clinical trial of beta-carotene vs. placebo for the treatment of cervical HPV infections. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 1996; 6: 225–230.

20. de Vet, H, Knipschild P, Willebrand D, et al. The effect of beta-carotene on the regression and progression of cervical dysplasia: a clinical experiement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1991; 44: 273–283.

21. Mackerras, D, Irwig L, Simpson J, et al. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 79: 1448–1453.

22. Meyskens FL Jr, Surwit E, Moon TE, et al. Enhancement of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II (moderate dysplasia) with topically applied all-trans-retinoic acid: a randomized trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1994; 86: 539–543.

23. Graham V, Surwit ES, Weiner S, Meyskens FL Jr. Phase II trial of beta-all-trans-retinoic acid for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia delivered via a collagen sponge and cervical cap. Western Journal of Medicine 1986; 145: 192–195.

24. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Romney SL, Wylie-Rosett J, et al. Dietary vitamin C and uterine cervical dysplasia. American Journal of Epidemiology 1981; 114: 714–724.

25. Romney SL, Duttagupta C, Basu J, et al. Plasma vitamin C and uterine cervical dysplasia. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985; 151: 978–980.

26. Kim SY, Kim JW, Ko YS, et al. Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant trace elements in serum of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 2003; 47(2): 126–130.

27. Van Niekerk W. Cervical cytological abnormalities caused by folic acid deficiency. Acta Cytologica 1966; 10: 67–73.

28. Kitay DZ, Wentz WB. Cervical cytology in folic acid deficiency of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1969; 104: 931–938.

29. Streiff RR. Folate deficiency and oral contraceptives. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1970; 214: 105–108.

30. Whitehead N, Reyner F, Lindenbaum J. Megaloblastic changes in the cervical epithelium: association with oral contraceptive therapy and reversal with folic acid. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1973; 226: 1421–1424.

31. Butterworth CE Jr, Hatch KD, Macaluso M, et al. Folate deficiency and cervical dysplasia. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1992; 267: 528–533.

32. Harper JM, Levine AJ, Rosenthal DL, et al. Erythrocyte folate levels, oral contraceptive use and abnormal cervical cytology. Acta Cytologica 1994; 38: 324–330.

33. Butterworth CE Jr, Hatch KD, Soong SJ, et al. Oral folic acid supplementation for cervical dysplasia. A clinical intervention trial. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1992; 166: 803–809.

34. Butterworth CE Jr, Hatch KD, Gore H, et al. Improvement in cervical dysplasia associated with folic acid therapy in users of oral contraceptives. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982; 35: 73–82.

35. Flatley JE, McNeir K, Balasubramani L, et al. Folate status and aberrant DNA methylation are associated with HPV infection and cervical pathogenesis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2009 Oct; 18(10): 2782–2789.

36. Piyathilake CJ, Macaluso M, Alvarez RD, et al. Lower risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with high plasma folate and sufficient vitamin B12 in the post–folic acid fortification era. Cancer Prevention Research. 2009 Jul; 2(7): 658–664.

37. Zeligs M. Diet and estrogen status: the cruciferous connection. Journal of Medicinal Food 1998; 1: 67–81.

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39. Bell M, Crowley-Nowick P, Bradlow H, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN. Gynecology Oncology 2000; 78: 123–129.

40. Del Priore G, Gudipudi DK, Montemarano N, et al. Oral diindolylmethane (DIM): pilot evaluation of a nonsurgical treatment for cervical dysplasia. Gynecology Oncology 2010 Mar; 116(3): 464–467.

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

1. Holmes GP, Kaplan J, Gantz N, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a working case definition. Annals of Internal Medicine 1988; 108: 387–389.

2. Bates DW, Schmitt W, Buchwald D, et al. Prevalence of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in a Primary Care practice. Archives of Internal Medicine 1993; 153(24)2759–2765.

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5. Caligiuri M, Murray C, Buchwald D, et al. Phenotypic and functional deficiency of natural killer cells in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The Journal of Immunology 1987; 139: 3306–3313.

6. Gupta S, Vayuvegula B. A comprehensive immunological analysis in chronic fatigue syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1991; 33: 319–327.

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8. Buchwald D, Garrity DL. Comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and multiple chemical sensitivities. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994; 154: 2049–2053.

9. Prins JB, Bos E, Huibers MJ, et al. Social support and the persistence of complaints in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2004; 73: 174–182.

10. Sharpe M, Hawton K, Simkin S, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy for the chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. BMJ 1996; 312: 22–26.

11. Deale A, Chalder T, Marks L, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1997; 154: 408–414.

12. Tintera JW. The hypoadrenocortical state and its management. New York State Journal of Medicine 1955; 55: 1869–1876.

13. Demitrack MA. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a disease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis? Annals of Medicine 1994; 26: 1–3.

14. Roberts AD, Wessely S, Chalder T, et al. Salivary cortisol response to awakening in chronic fatigue syndrome. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2004; 184: 136–141.

15. Cleare AJ. The HPA axis and the genesis of chronic fatigue syndrome. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 2004; 15: 55–59.

16. Demitrack MA, Dale JK, Straus SE, et al. Evidence for impaired activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1991; 73: 1224–1234.

17. Seaton A, Jeelinek EH, Kennedy P. Major neurological disease and occupational exposure to organic solvents. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1992; 305: 707–712.

18. Rutter M, Russell-Jones R, eds. Lead versus health: sources and effects of low level lead exposure. New York: John Wiley, 1983.

19. Bland JS, Barrager E, Reedy RG, et al. A medical food-supplemented detoxification program in the management of chronic health problems. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 1995; 1: 62–71.

20. Rigden S, Barrager E, Bland JS. Evaluation of the effect of a modified entero-hepatic resuscitation program in chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Journal of Advancement in Medicine 1998; 11(4): 247–262.

21. Rowe AH, Rowe A Jr. Food allergy: its manifestations and control and the elimination diets: a compendium. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1972.

22. Breneman JC. Basics of food allergy. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1977.

23. Estler CJ, Ammon HP, Herzog C. Swimming capacity of mice after prolonged treatment with psychostimulants. I. Effects of caffeine on swimming performance and cold stress. Psychopharmacology 1978; 58: 161–166.

24. Greden JF, Fontaine P, Lubetsky M, et al. Anxiety and depression associated with caffeinism among psychiatric inpatients. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1978; 135: 963–966.

25. Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. Western Journal of Medicine 1992; 157: 544–553.

26. Hughes JR, Higgins ST, Bickel WK, et al. Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers. Archives of General Psychiatry 1991; 48: 611–617.

27. Behan PO, Behan WM, Horrobin D. Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the postviral fatigue syndrome. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1990; 82: 209–216.

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29. Manuel Y, Keenoy B, Moorkens G, et al. Magnesium status and parameters of the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with chronic fatigue: effects of supplementation with magnesium. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2000; 19: 374–382.

30. Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. The Lancet 1991; 337: 757–760.

31. Ahlborg H, Ekelund LG, Nilsson CG. Effect of potassium-magnesium aspartate on the capacity for prolonged exercise in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1968; 74: 238–245.

32. Hicks JT. Treatment of fatigue in general practice: a double blind study. Clinical Medicine 1964 Jan; 71: 85–90.

33. Friedlander HS. Fatigue as a presenting symptom: management in general practice. Current Therapeutic Research 1962; 4: 441–449.

34. Shaw DL Jr, Chesney MA, Tullis IF, et al. Management of fatigue: a physiologic approach. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1962; 243: 758–769.

35. Gullestad L, Oystein Dolva L, Birkeland K, et al. Oral versus intravenous magnesium supplementation in patients with magnesium deficiency. Magnesium and Trace Elements 1991; 10: 11–16.

36. Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, et al. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1990; 9: 48–45.

37. Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Amantadine and L-carnitine treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology 1997; 35: 16–23.

38. Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, et al. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is related to fatigue, autonomic and neurocognitive symptoms and is another factor explaining the early mortality in ME/CFS due to cardiovascular disorder. Neuroendocrinology Letters 2009; 30(4): 470–476.

39. LaManca JJ, Sisto SA, DeLuca J, et al. Influence of exhaustive treadmill exercise on cognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome. The American Journal of Medicine 1998; 105:S59–S65.

40. Farmer ME, Locke BZ, Moscicki EK, et al. Physical activity and depressive symptoms: the NHANES 1 Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988; 1328: 1340–1351.

41. Fiatarone MA, Morley JE, Bloom ET, et al. The effect of exercise on natural killer cell activity in young and old subjects. The Journals of Gerontology 1989; 44:M37–M45.

42. Makinnon LT. Exercise and natural killer cells. What is their relationship? Sports Medicine 1989; 7: 141–149.

43. Sun XS, Xu Y, Xia YJ. Determination of E-rosette-forming lymphocytes in aged subjects with taichiquan exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1989; 10: 217–219.

44. Friedberg F. Does graded activity increase activity? A case study of chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2002; 33: 203–215.

45. Wallman KE, Morton AR, Goodman C, et al. Randomised controlled trial of graded exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome. The Medical Journal of Australia 2004; 180: 444–448.

46. Bohn B, Nebe CT, Birr C. Flow-cytometric studies with Eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent. Arzneimittelforschung 1987; 37: 1193–1196.

47. Olsson EM, von Schéele B, Panossian AG. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Medica 2009 Feb; 75(2): 105–512.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

1. Hoogendoorn M, Feenstra TL, Hoogenveen RT, Rutten-van Mölken MPMH. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD. Thorax 2010; 65(8): 711–718.

2. Stav D, Raz M. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on air trapping in COPD: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Chest 2009 Aug; 136(2): 381–386.

3. Rolla G, Bucca C, Bugiani M, et al. Hypomagnesemia in chronic obstructive lung disease: effect of therapy. Magnesium and Trace Elements 1990; 9: 132–136.

4. Fiaccadori E, Del Canale S, Coffrini E, et al. Muscle and serum magnesium in pulmonary intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Medicine 1988; 16: 751–760.

5. Skorodin MS, Tenholder MF, Yetter B, et al. Magnesium sulfate in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 496–500.

Common Cold

1. Sanchez A, Reeser J, Lau H, et al. Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1973; 26: 1180–1184.

2. Ringsdorf WM Jr, Cheraskin E, Ramsay RR Jr. Sucrose, neutrophilic phagocytosis and resistance to disease. Dental Survey 1976; 52: 46–48.

3. Bernstein J, Alpert S, Nauss K, et al. Depression of lymphocyte transformation following oral glucose ingestion. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1977; 30: 613

4. Pauling L. Vitamin C and the common cold. San Francisco: Freeman, 1970.

5. Douglas RM, Hemilä H, Chalker E, Treacy B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 Jul 18; 3:CD000980.

6. Katz E, Margalith E. Inhibition of vaccinia virus maturation by zinc chloride. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1981; 19: 213–217.

7. Hemilä H. Zinc lozenges may shorten the duration of colds: a systematic review. The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal 2011; 5: 51–58.

8. Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Mason P. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996; 125: 142–144.

9. Zarembo JE, Godfrey JC, Godfrey NJ. Zinc (II) in saliva: determination of concentrations produced by different formulations of zinc gluconate lozenges containing common excipients. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1992; 81: 128–130.

10. Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2000; 44: 1708–1709.

11. Goel V, Lovlin R, Barton R, et al. Efficacy of a standardized echinacea preparation (Echinilin) for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2004; 29: 75–83.

12. Melchart D, Linde K, Worku F, et al. Immunomodulation with Echinacea—a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Phytomedicine 1994; 1: 245–254.

13. Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, et al. Echinacea for treating the common cold: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010 Dec 21; 153(12): 769–777.

14. Melchart D, Linde K, Fischer P, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000; 2:CD000530.

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20. Lizogub VG, Riley DS, Heger M. Efficacy of a Pelargonium sidoides preparation in patients with the common cold: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing 2007 Nov–Dec; 3(6): 573–584.

Congestive Heart Failure

1. Gorelik O, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Feder I, et al. Dietary intake of various nutrients in older patients with congestive heart failure. Cardiology 2003; 99: 177–181.

2. Gottlieb SS, Baruch L, Kukin ML. Prognostic importance of serum magnesium concentration in patients with congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1990; 16: 827–831.

3. Gottlieb SS. Importance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. American Journal of Cardiology 1989; 63: 39G–42G.

4. Cohen N, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Zaidenstein R, et al. Serum magnesium aberrations in furosemide (frusemide) treated patients with congestive heart failure: pathophysiological correlates and prognostic evaluation. Heart 2003; 89: 411–416.

5. Oladapo OO, Falase AO. Serum and urinary magnesium during treatment of patients with chronic congestive heart failure. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2000; 29: 301–303.

6. Cohen N, Alon I, Almoznino-Sarafian D, et al. Metabolic and clinical effects of oral magnesium supplementation in furosemide-treated patients with severe congestive heart failure. Clinical Cardiology 2000; 23: 433–436.

7. Crippa G, Sverzellati E, Giorgi-Pierfranceschi M, et al. Magnesium and cardiovascular drugs: interactions and therapeutic role. Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna 1999; 14: 40–45.

8. Chen MF, Chen LT, Gold M. Plasma and erythrocyte thiamin concentration in geriatric outpatients. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1996; 15: 231–236.

9. Leslie D, Gheorghiade M. Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure. American Heart Journal 1996; 131: 1248–1250.

10. Mendoza CE, Rodriguez F, Rosenberg DG. Reversal of refractory congestive heart failure after thiamine supplementation: report of a case and review of literature. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2003; 8: 313–316.

11. Zenuk C, Healey J, Donnelly J, et al. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure patients receiving long term furosemide therapy. The Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2003; 10: 184–188.

12. Goa KL, Brogden RN. L-carnitine: a preliminary review of its pharmacokinetics, and its therapeutic use in ischemic cardiac disease and primary and secondary carnitine deficiencies in relationship to its role in fatty acid metabolism. Drugs 1987; 34: 1–24.

13. Mancini M, Rengo F, Lingetti M, et al. Controlled study on the therapeutic efficacy of propionyl-L-carnitine in patients with congestive heart failure. Arzneimittelforschung 1992; 42: 1101–1104.

14. Pucciarelli G, Matsursi M, Latte S, et al. [The clinical and hemodynamic effects of propionyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of congestive heart failure.] La Clinica Terapeutica 1992; 141: 379–384.

15. Rizos I. Three-year survival of patients with heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and L-carnitine administration. American Heart Journal 2000; 139(2 part 3):S120–S123.

16. Ishiyama T, Morital Y, Toyama S, et al. A clinical study of the effect of coenzyme Q on congestive heart failure. Japanese Heart Journal 1976; 17: 32–42.

17. Tsuyusaki T, Noro C, Kikawada R. Mechanocardiography of ischemic or hypertensive heart failure. In Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q, vol. 2, ed. Yamamura Y, Folkers K, Ito Y. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, 273–288.

18. Judy WV, Stogsdill WW, Folkers K. Myocardial effects of co-enzyme Q10 in primary heart failure. In Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q, vol. 4, ed. Folkers K, Yamamura Y. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1984, 353–367.

19. Vanfraechem JHP, Picalausa C, Folkers K. Coenzyme Q10 and physical performance in myocardial failure. In Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q, vol. 4, ed. Folkers K, Yamamura Y. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1984: 281–290.

20. Hofman-Bang C, Rehnquist N, Swedberg K, et al. Coenzyme Q10 as an adjunctive treatment of congestive heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure 1995; 1: 101–107.

21. Morisco C, Trimarco B, Condorelli M. Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure. A long-term multicenter randomized study. Clinical Investigation 1993; 71(8 suppl):S134–S136.

22. Baggio E, Gandini R, Plancher AC. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 1994; 15:S287–S294.

23. Khatta M, Alexander BS, Krichten CM, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000; 132: 636–640.

24. Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. Supplemental ubiquinol in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. Biofactors 2008; 32(1–4): 119–128.

25. Rector TS, Bank A, Mullen KA, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure. Circulation 1996; 93: 2135–2141.

26. Hambrecht R, Hilbrich L, Erbs S, et al. Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: additional effects of exercise training and oral L-arginine supplementation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2000; 35: 706–713.

27. Watanabe G, Tomiyama H, Doba N. Effects of oral administration of L-arginine on renal function in patients with heart failure. Journal of Hypertension 2000; 18: 229–234.

28. Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, et al. L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction with Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2006 Jan 4; 295(1): 58–64.

29. Leuchtgens H. Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 in NYHA II heart failure: a placebo controlled randomized double-blind study. Fortschritte der Medizin 1993; 111: 352–354.

30. Tauchert M, Ploch M, Hubner WD. Effectiveness of the Hawthorn Extract LI 132 compared to ACE inhibitor Captopril: multicentre double-blind study with 132 NYHA Stage II. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1994; 136 suppl 1:S27–S33.

31. Zick SM, Vautaw BM, Gillespie B, Aaronson KD. Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic Heart Failure (HERB CHF) trial. European Journal of Heart Failure 2009 Oct; 11(10): 990–999.

32. Bharani A, Ganguly A, Bhargava KD. Salutary effect of Terminalia arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology 1995; 49: 191–199.

Constipation

1. Suares NC, Ford AC. Systematic review: the effects of fibre in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011 Apr; 33(8): 895–901.

2. Attaluri A, Donahoe R, Valestin J, Brown K, Rao SS. Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011 Apr; 33(7): 822–828.

3. Iacono G, Cavataio F, Montalto G, et al. Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children. The New England Journal of Medicine 1998; 339(16): 1100–1104.

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

1. Jung C, Hugot JP. Inflammatory bowel diseases: the genetic revolution. Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 2009 Jun; 33 suppl 3:S123–S130.

2. Khor B, Gardet A, Xavier RJ. Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 2011 Jun 15; 474(7351): 307–317.

3. Chassaing B, Darfeuille-Michaud A. The commensal microbiota and enteropathogens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology 2011 May; 140(6): 1720–1728.

4. Shaw SY, Blanchard JF, Bernstein CN. Association between the use of antibiotics and new diagnoses of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2011 Dec; 106(12): 2133–2142.

5. Hou JK, Abraham B, El-Serag H. Dietary intake and risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of the literature. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2011 Apr; 106(4): 563–573.

6. Asakura H, Suzuki K, Kitahora T, Morizane T. Is there a link between food and intestinal microbes and the occurrence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis? Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2008 Dec; 23(12): 1794–1801.

7. Cashman KD, Shanahan F. Is nutrition an aetiological factor for inflammatory bowel disease? European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2003 Jun; 15(6): 607–613.

8. Thornton JR, Emmett PM, Heaton KW. Diet and Crohn’s disease: characteristics of the pre-illness diet. British Medical Journal 1979; 279: 762–764.

9. Reif S, Klein I, Lubin F, et al. Pre-illness dietary factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1997; 40: 754–760.

10. Sakamoto N, Kono S, Wakai K, et al. Dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a multicenter case-control study in Japan. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2005 Feb; 11(2): 154–163.

11. Persson PG, Ahlbom A, Hellers G. Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 47–52.

12. Shoda R, Matsueda K, Yamato S, Umeda N. Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn’s disease in Japan. Increased dietary intake of w-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn’s disease in Japan. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996; 63: 741–745.

13. Meyers S, Janowitz HD. “Natural history” of Crohn’s disease: an analytical review of the placebo lesson. Gastroenterology 1984; 87: 1189–1192.

14. Mekhjian HS, Switz DM, Melnyk CS, et al. Clinical features and natural history of Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 898–906.

15. Malchow H, Ewe K, Brandes JW, et al. European Cooperative Crohn’s Disease Study (ECCDS): results of drug treatment. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 249–266.

16. Calder PC. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammatory processes and inflammatory bowel diseases. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2008 Aug; 52(8): 885–897.

17. Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Compieri M, et al. Effect of an enteric-coated fish oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334: 1557–1560.

18. Loeschke K, Ueberschaer B, Pietsch A, et al. W-3 fatty acids only delay early relapse of ulcerative colitis in remission. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1996; 41: 2087–2094.

19. Feagan BG, Sandborn WJ, Mittmann U, et al. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the maintenance of remission in Crohn disease: the EPIC Randomized Controlled Trials. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2008 Apr 9; 299(14): 1690–1697.

20. Podolsky DK, Isselbacher KJ. Glycoprotein composition of colonic mucosa. Specific alterations in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1984; 87: 991–998.

21. Kim YS, Byrd JC. Ulcerative colitis: a specific mucin defect? Gastroenterology 1984; 87: 1193–1195.

22. Boland CR, Lance P, Levin B, et al. Abnormal goblet cell glycoconjugates in rectal biopsies associated with an increased risk of neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis: early results of a prospective study. Gut 1984; 25: 1364–1371.

23. Hentges DJ, ed. Human intestinal microflora in health and disease. New York: Academic Press, 1983.

24. Mottet NK. On animal models for inflammatory bowel disease [editorial]. Gastroenterology 1972; 62: 1269–1271.

25. Bentiz KR, Goldberg L, Coulston F. Intestinal effect of carrageenans in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1973; 11: 565–575.

26. Bonfils S. Carrageenan and the human gut. The Lancet 1970; 2: 414.

27. Saller R, Meier R, Brignoli R. The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases. Drugs 2001; 61: 2035–2063.

28. Valentini L, Schulzke JD. Mundane, yet challenging: the assessment of malnutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2011 Feb; 22(1): 13–15.

29. Zachos M, Tondeur M, Griffiths AM. Enteral nutritional therapy for inducing remission of Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001; 3:CD000542.

30. Rajendran N, Kumar D. Role of diet in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2010 Mar 28; 16(12): 1442–1448.

31. Mishkin S. Dairy sensitivity, lactose malabsorption, and elimination diets in inflammatory bowel disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997 Feb; 65(2): 564–567.

32. Voitk AJ, Echave V, Feller JH, et al. Experience with elemental diet in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Is this primary therapy? Archives of Surgery 1973; 107: 329–333.

33. Borok G, Segal I. Inflammatory bowel disease. Individualized dietary therapy. South African Family Practice 1995; 16: 393–399.

34. Jones VA, Workman E, Freeman AH, et al. Crohn’s disease: maintenance of remission by diet. The Lancet 1985; 2: 177–180.

35. Galvez J, Rodríguez-Cabezas ME, Zarzuelo A. Effects of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2005 Jun; 49(6): 601–608.

36. Lih-Brody L, Powell SR, Collier KP, et al. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defenses in mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1996 Oct; 41(10): 2078–2086.

37. Romier B, Schneider YJ, Larondelle Y, During A. Dietary polyphenols can modulate the intestinal inflammatory response. Nutrition Reviews 2009 Jul; 67(7): 363–378.

38. Fleming CR, Huizenga KA, McCall JT, et al. Zinc nutrition in Crohn’s disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1981; 26: 865–870.

39. Scrimgeour AG, Condlin ML. Zinc and micronutrient combinations to combat gastrointestinal inflammation. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2009 Nov; 12(6): 653–660.

40. Franklin JL, Rosenberg IH. Impaired folic acid absorption in inflammatory bowel disease: effects of salicylazosulfapyridine (Azulfidine). Gastroenterology 1973; 64: 517–525.

41. Carruthers LB. Chronic diarrhea treated with folic acid. The Lancet 1946; 1: 849–850.

42. Filipsson S, Hulten L, Lindstedt G. Malabsorption of fat and vitamin B12 before and after intestinal resection for Crohn’s disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 1978; 13: 529–536.

43. Harries AD, Brown R, Heatley RV, et al. Vitamin D status in Crohn’s disease: association with nutrition and disease activity. Gut 1985; 26: 1197–1203.

44. Jørgensen SP, Agnholt J, Glerup H, et al. Clinical trial: vitamin D3 treatment in Crohn’s disease—a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2010 Aug; 32(3): 377–383.

45. Hallert C, Bjorck I, Nyman M, et al. Increasing fecal butyrate in ulcerative colitis patients by diet: controlled pilot study. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2003 Mar; 9(2): 116–121.

46. Seidner DLH, Lashner BAH, Brzezinski AH, et al. An oral supplement enriched with fish oil, soluble fiber, and antioxidants for corticosteroid sparing in ulcerative colitis: a randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2005 Apr; 3(4): 358–369.

47. Bamba T, Kanauchi O, Andoh A, Fujiyama Y. A new prebiotic from germinated barley for nutraceutical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2002 Aug; 17(8): 818–824.

48. Kanauchi O, Mitsuyama K, Homma T, et al. Treatment of ulcerative colitis patients by long-term administration of germinated barley foodstuff: multi-center open trial. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2003 Nov; 12(5): 701–704.

49. Hanai H, Kanauchi O, Mitsuyama K, et al. Germinated barley foodstuff prolongs remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2004 May; 13(5): 643–647.

50. Furrie E, Macfarlane S, Kennedy A, et al. Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut 2005 Feb; 54(2): 242–249.

51. Cain AM, Karpa KD. Clinical utility of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2011 Jan–Feb; 17(1): 72–79.

52. Guandalini S. Update on the role of probiotics in the therapy of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 2010 Jan; 6(1): 47–54.

53. Hegazy SK, El-Bedewy MM. Effect of probiotics on pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation in ulcerative colitis. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2010 Sep 7; 16(33): 4145–4151.

54. Sood A, Midha V, Makharia GK, et al. The probiotic preparation VSL#3 induces remission in patients with mild-to-moderately active ulcerative colitis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2009 Nov; 7(11): 1202–1209.

55. Fujimori S, Gudis K, Mitsui K, et al. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of synbiotic versus probiotic or prebiotic treatment to improve the quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis. Nutrition 2009 May; 25(5): 520–525.

56. Tsuda Y, Yoshimatsu Y, Aoki H, et al. Clinical effectiveness of probiotics therapy (BIO-THREE) in patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2007 Nov; 42(11): 1306–1311.

57. Guslandi M, Mezzi G, Sorghi M, Testoni PA. Saccharomyces boulardii in maintenance treatment of Crohn’s disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2000; 45: 1462–1464.

58. Guandalini S. Use of Lactobacillus-GG in paediatric Crohn’s disease. Digestive and Liver Disease 2002; 34 suppl 2:S63–S65.

59. Wahed M, Corser M, Goodhand JR, Rampton DS. Does psychological counseling alter the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease? Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2010 Apr; 16(4): 664–669.

60. Jobin C, Bradham CA, Russo MP, et al. Curcumin blocks cytokine-mediated NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory gene expression by inhibiting inhibitory factor I-kappa B kinase activity. The Journal of Immunology 1999; 163(6): 3474–3483.

61. Sugimoto K, Hanai H, Tozawa K, et al. Curcumin prevents and ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 2002; 123(6): 1912–1922.

62. Jian YT, Mai GF, Wang JD, et al. Preventive and therapeutic effects of NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin in rats colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2005; 11(12): 1747–1752.

63. Zhang M, Deng C, Zheng J, et al. Curcumin inhibits trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. International Immunopharmacology 2006; 6(8): 1233–1242.

64. Holt PR, Katz S, Kirshoff R. Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2005; 50(11): 2191–2193.

65. Hanai H, Iida T, Takeuchi K, et al. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2006; 4(12): 1502–1506.

66. Ammon HPH. [Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.] Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 2002; 152(15–16): 373–378.

67. Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, et al. Effects of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in patients with chronic colitis. Planta Medica 2001 Jul; 67(5): 391–395.

68. Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. European Journal of Medical Research 1997 Jan; 2(1): 37–43.

69. Gerhardt H, Seifert F, Buvari P, et al. [Therapy of active Crohn disease with Boswellia serrata extract H 15.] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 2001 Jan; 39(1): 11–17.

70. Langmead L, Makins RJ, Rampton DS. Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2004 Mar 1; 19(5): 521–527.

71. Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2004 Apr 1; 19(7): 739–747.

72. Robinson M. Medical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease for the 21st century. European Journal of Surgery 1998 suppl; 582: 90–98.

73. Tibble JA, Bjarnason I. Noninvasive investigation of inflammatory bowel disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2001; 7: 460–465.

74. Best WR, Becktel JM, Singleton JW, Kern F. Development of a Crohn’s disease activity index. Gastroenterology 1976; 70: 439–444.

Cystitis and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder

1. Nickel JC. Interstitial cystitis: a chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Medical Clinics of North America 2004; 88: 467–481.

2. Bogart LM, Berry SH, Clemens JQ. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome and similar diseases in women: a systematic review. Journal of Urology 2007; 177: 450–456.

3. Driscoll A, Teichman JMH. How do patients with interstitial cystitis present? Journal of Urology 2001; 166: 2118–2120.

4. Herati A, Shorter B, Tai J, et al. Differences in food sensitivities between IC/PBS and CP/CPPS. Journal of Urology 2009; 181 suppl 4: 60.

5. Shorter B, Lesser M, Moldwin R, Kushner, L. Effect of comestibles on symptoms of interstitial cystitis. Journal of Urology 2007; 178(1): 145–152.

6. Aziz-Fam A. Use of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in bilharzial bladder lesions. International Surgery 1973; 58: 451–452.

7. Etrebi A, Ibrahim A and Zaki K. Treatment of bladder ulcer with asiaticoside. The Journal of the Egyptian Medical Association 1975; 58: 324–327.

8. Munday PE, Savage S. Cymalon in the management of urinary tract symptoms. Genitourinary Medicine 1990; 66: 461.

9. Spooner JB. Alkalinization in the management of cystitis. Journal of International Medical Research 1984; 12: 30–34.

10. Guay DR. Cranberry and urinary tract infections. Drugs 2009; 69: 775–807.

11. Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Journal of Urology 1984; 131: 1013–1016.

12. Schmidt DR, Sobota AE. An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios 1988; 55: 173–181.

13. Habash MB, Van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, et al. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1999; 45: 691–694.

14. Sharon N, Ofek I. Fighting infectious diseases with inhibitors of microbial adhesion to host tissues. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2002; 42 suppl: 267–272.

15. Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. The Canadian Journal of Urology 2002; 9: 1558–1562.

16. Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, et al. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271: 751–754.

17. Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2011 Jan; 52(1): 23–30.

18. Kraemer RJ. Cranberry juice and the reduction of ammoniacal odor of urine. Southwest Medicine 1964; 45: 211–212.

19. DuGan CR, Cardaciotto PS. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 1966; 8: 467–470.

20. Parejo I, Viladomat F, Bastida J, et al. A single extraction step in the quantitative analysis of arbutin in bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochemical Analysis 2001; 12: 336–339.

21. Larsson B, Jonasson A, Fianu S. Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Current Therapeutic Research 1993; 53: 441–443.

22. Amin AH, Subbaiah TV, Abbasi KM. Berberine sulfate: antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1969; 15: 1067–1076.

23. Johnson CC, Johnson G, Poe CF. Toxicity of alkaloids to certain bacteria. II. Berberine, physostigmine, and sanguinarine. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1952; 8: 71–78.

Depression

1. Seligman M. Learned optimism. New York: Knopf, 1991.

2. Peterson C, Seligman M, Vaillant G. Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: a thirty-five year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988; 55: 23–27.

3. Moncrieff J, Cohen D. Do antidepressants cure or create abnormal brain states? PLoS Med 2006 Jul; 3(7):e240.

4. Middleton H, Moncrieff J. “They won’t do any harm and might do some good”: time to think again on the use of antidepressants? British Journal of General Practice 2011 Jan; 61(582): 47–49.

5. Möller HJ. Is there evidence for negative effects of antidepressants on suicidality in depressive patients? A systematic review. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 2006 Dec; 256(8): 476–496.

6. Fournier JC, DeRubeis RJ, Hollon SD, et al. Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: a patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2010; 303(1): 47–53.

7. Schwartz TL, Nihalani N, Jindal S, et al. Psychiatric medication-induced obesity: a review. Obesity Reviews 2004; 5(2): 115–121.

8. Raeder MB, Bjelland I, Emil Vollset S, Steen VM. Obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: the Hordaland Health Study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2006; 67(12): 1974

9. Jarrett RB, Rush AJ. Short-term psychotherapy of depressive disorders: current status and future directions. Psychiatry 1994; 57: 115–132.

10. Robins CJ, Hayes AM. An appraisal of cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1993; 61: 205–214.

11. Evans M, Hollon SD, DeRubeis RJ, et al. Differential relapse following cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 1992; 49: 802–808.

12. Gold M, Pottash A, Extein I. Hypothyroidism and depression, evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1981; 245: 1919–1922.

13. Joffe R, Roy-Byrne P, Udhe T, et al. Thyroid function and affective illness: a reappraisal. Biological Psychiatry 1984; 19: 1685–1691.

14. Altar C, Bennett B, Wallace R, et al. Glucocorticoid induction of tryptophan oxygenase. Attenuation by intragastrically administered carbohydrates and metabolites. Biochemical Pharmacology 1983; 32: 979–984.

15. Schottenfeld RS, Cullen MR. Organic affective illness associated with lead intoxication. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1984; 141: 1423–1426.

16. Rutter M, Russell-Jones R, eds. Lead versus health: sources and effects of low level lead exposure. New York: John Wiley, 1983.

17. Seaton A, Jellinek EH, Kennedy P. Major neurological disease and occupational exposure to organic solvents. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 1992; 305: 707–712.

18. Nunes EV, Levin FR. Treatment of depression in patients with alcohol or other drug dependence: a meta-analysis. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2004; 291: 1887–1896.

19. Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. Western Journal of Medicine 1992; 157: 544–553.

20. Gilliland K, Bullock W. Caffeine: a potential drug of abuse. Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse 1984; 3: 53–73.

21. Greden J, Fontaine P, Lubetsky M, et al. Anxiety and depression associated with caffeinism among psychiatric inpatients. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1978; 135: 963–966.

22. Neil JF, Himmelhoch JM, Mallinger AG, et al. Caffeinism complicating hypersomnic depressive episodes. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1978; 19: 377–385.

23. Charney D, Heninger G, Jatlow P. Increased anxiogenic effects of caffeine in panic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 1985; 42: 233–243.

24. Bolton S, Null G. Caffeine, psychological effects, use and abuse. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1981; 10: 202–211.

25. Kreitsch K. Prevalence, presenting symptoms, and psychological characteristics of individuals experiencing a diet-related mood disturbance. Behavior Therapy 1985; 19: 593–594.

26. Christensen L. Psychological distress and diet—effects of sucrose and caffeine. Journal of Applied Nutrition 1988; 40: 44–50.

27. Martin JE, Dubbert PM. Exercise applications and promotion in behavioral medicine: current status and future directions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1982; 50: 1004–1017.

28. Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, et al. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 158: 1139–1147.

29. Weyerer S, Kupfer B. Physical exercise and psychological health. Sports Medicine 1994; 17: 108–116.

30. Carr DB, Bullen BA, Skrinar GS, et al. Physical conditioning facilitates the exercise-induced secretion of beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin in women. The New England Journal of Medicine 1981; 305: 560–563.

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190. Younes H, Alphonse JC, Behr S, et al. Role of fermentable carbohydrate supplements with a low-protein diet in the course of chronic renal failure: experimental bases. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 1999; 33: 633–646.

191. Gaede P, Poulsen HE, Parving HH, et al. Double-blind, randomised study of the effect of combined treatment with vitamin C and E on albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine 2001; 18: 756–760.

192. Parving HH, Hovind P. Microalbuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: evidence with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for treating early and preventing clinical nephropathy. Current Hypertension Reports 2002; 4: 387–393.

Diarrhea

1. Leob H, Vandenplas Y, Wursch P, Guesry P. Tannin-rich carob pod for the treatment of acute-onset diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr = Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1989; 8: 480–485.

2. Hostettler M, Steffen R, Tschopp A. Efficacy of tolerability of insoluble carob fraction in the treatment of travellers’ diarrhea. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research 1995; 13: 155–158.

3. Majamaa H, Isolauri E, Saxelin M, et al. Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1995; 20: 333–338.

4. Goossens D, Jonkers D, Stobberingh E, et al. Probiotics in gastroenterology: indications and future perspectives. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2003 suppl; 239: 15–23.

5. Guandalini S. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2011 Nov; 45 suppl:S149–S153.

6. Allen SJ, Martinez EG, Gregorio GV, Dans LF. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 Nov 10; 11:CD003048.

7. Zoppi G, Deganello A, Benoni G, et al. Oral bacteriotherapy in clinical practice. I. The use of different preparations in infants treated with antibiotics. European Journal of Pediatrics 1982; 139: 18–21.

8. Gotz VP, Romankiewics JA, Moss J. Prophylaxis against ampicillin-associated diarrhea with a lactobacillus preparation. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1979; 36: 754–757.

9. Ahuja MC, Khamar B. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: a controlled study comparing plain antibiotic with those containing protected lactobacilli. Journal of Indian Medical Association 2002; 100: 334–335.

10. Na X, Kelly C. Probiotics in Clostridium difficile infection. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 45 suppl:S154–S158

11. Gupte S. Use of berberine in the treatment of giardiasis. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1975; 129: 866.

12. Bhakat MP. Therapeutic trial of Berberine sulphate in nonspecific gastroenteritis. Indian Medical Journal 1974; 68: 19–23.

13. Kamat SA. Clinical trial with berberine hydrochloride for the control of diarrhoea in acute gastroenteritis. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1967; 15: 525–529.

14. Desai AB, Shah KM, Shah DM. Berberine in the treatment of diarrhoea. Indian Pediatrics 1971; 8: 462–465.

15. Sharma R, Joshi CK, Goyal RK. Berberine tannate in acute diarrhea. Indian Pediatrics 1970; 7: 496–501.

16. Choudry VP, Sabir M, Bhide VN. Berberine in giardiasis. Indian Pediatrics 1972; 9: 143–146.

17. Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1987; 155: 979–984.

18. Tai YH, Feser JF, Mernane WG, et al. Antisecretory effects of berberine in rat ileum. American Journal of Physiology 1981; 241:G253–G258.

19. Swabb EA, Tai YH, Jordan L. Reversal of cholera toxin-induced secretion in rat ileum by luminal berberine. American Journal of Physiology 1981; 241:G248–G252.

20. Akhter MH, Sabir M, Bhide NK. Possible mechanism of antidiarrhoeal effect of berberine. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1979; 70: 233–241.

21. Joshi PV, Shirkhedkar AA, Prakash K, Maheshwari VL. Antidiarrheal activity, chemical and toxicity profile of Berberis aristataPharmacology and Biology. 2011 Jan; 49(1): 94–100.

22. Subbotina MD, Timchenko VN, Vorobyov MM, et al. Effect of oral administration of tormentil root extract (Potentilla tormentilla) on rotavirus diarrhea in children: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2003; 22: 706–711.

Ear Infection (Otitis Media)

1. MacIntyre EA, Chen CM, Herbarth O, Early-life otitis media and incident atopic disease at school age in a birth cohort. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010 Dec; 29(12):e96–e99.

2. Kleinman LC, Kosecoff J, Dubois RW, et al. The medical appropriateness of tympanostomy tubes proposed for children younger than 16 years in the United States. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271: 1250–1255.

3. Bluestone CD. Otitis media in children: to treat or not to treat? The New England Journal of Medicine 1982; 306: 1399–1404.

4. van Buchem FL, Dunk JH, van’t Hof MA. Therapy of acute otitis media: myringotomy, antibiotics, or neither? The Lancet 1981; 2: 883–887.

5. Williams RL, Chalmers TC, Stange KC, et al. Use of antibiotics in preventing recurrent acute otitis media and in treating otitis media with effusion. A meta-analytic attempt to resolve the brouhaha. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1993; 270: 1344–1351.

6. Rosenfeld RM, Vertrees JE, Carr J, et al. Clinical efficacy of antimicrobial drugs for acute otitis media: metaanalysis of 5400 children from thirty-three randomized trials. Journal of Pediatrics 1994; 124: 355–367.

7. Froom J, Culpepper L, Jacobs M, et al. Antimicrobials for acute otitis media? A review from the International Primary Care Network. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 98–102.

8. Del Castillo F, Baquero-Artigao F, Garcia-Perea A. Influence of recent antibiotic therapy on antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with acute otitis media in Spain. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1998; 17: 94–97.

9. Rovers MM, Schilder AG, Zielhuis GA, et al. Otitis media. The Lancet 2004; 363: 465–473.

10. Mandel EM, Casselbrant ML, Rockette HE, et al. Systemic steroid for chronic otitis media with effusion in children. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 1071–1080.

11. Hannley MT, Denneny JC III, Holzer SS. Use of ototopical antibiotics in treating three common ear diseases. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery 2000; 122: 934–940.

12. Woodhead M. Antibiotic resistance. British Journal of Hospital Medicine 1996; 56: 314–315.

13. Cates C. An evidence based approach to reducing antibiotic use in children with acute otitis media: controlled before and after study. BMJ 1999; 318: 715–716.

14. Saarinen UM. Prolonged breast feeding as prophylaxis for recurrent otitis media. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1982; 71: 567–571.

15. Uhari M, Mäntysaari K, Niemelä M. A meta-analytic review of the risk factors for acute otitis media. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996; 22: 1079–1083.

16. Editor. Breast feeding prevents otitis media. Nutrition Reviews 1983; 41: 241–242.

17. Hasselbalch H, Jeppesen DL, Engelmann MD, et al. Decreased thymus size in formula-fed infants compared with breastfed infants. Acta Paedriatrica 1996; 85: 1029–1032.

18. Ramakrishnan JB. The role of food allergy in otolaryngology disorders. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 2010 Jun; 18(3): 195–199.

19. McMahan JT, Calenoff E, Croft DJ, et al. Chronic otitis media with effusion and allergy: modified RAST analysis of 119 cases. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery 1981; 89: 427–431.

20. Van Cauwenberge PB. The role of allergy in otitis media with effusion. Therapeutische Umschau 1982; 39: 1011–1016.

21. Bellionin P, Cantani A, Salvinelli F. Allergy: a leading role in otitis media with effusion. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 1987; 15: 205–208.

22. Hurst DS. Association of otitis media with effusion and allergy as demonstrated by intradermal skin testing and eosinophil protein levels in both middle ear effusions and mucosal biopsies. The Laryngoscope 1996; 106: 1128–1137.

23. Nsouli TM, Nsouli SM, Linde RE, et al. Role of food allergy in serous otitis media. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1994; 73: 215–219.

24. Sarrell EM, Cohen HA, Kahan E. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 574–579.

25. Sarrell EM, Mandelberg A, Cohen HA. Efficacy of naturopathic extracts in the management of ear pain associated with acute otitis media. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2001; 155: 796–799.

26. Uhari M, Kontiokari T, Koskela M, et al. Xylitol chewing gum in prevention of acute otitis media: double blind randomised trial. BMJ 1996; 313: 1180–1184.

27. Uhari M, Kontiokari T, Niemela M. A novel use of xylitol sugar in preventing acute otitis media. Pediatrics 1998; 102: 879–884.

28. Lovejoy HM, McGuirt WF, Ayres PH, et al. Effects of low humidity on the rat middle ear. The Laryngoscope 1994; 104: 1055–1058.

Endometriosis

1. Giudice LC. Clinical practice. Endometriosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2010 Jun 24; 362(25): 2389–2398.

2. Weuve J, Hauser R, Calafat AM, et al. Association of exposure to phthalates with endometriosis and uterine leiomyomata: findings from NHANES, 1999–2004. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010 Jun; 118(6): 825–832.

3. Missmer SA, Chavarro JE, Malspeis S, et al. A prospective study of dietary fat consumption and endometriosis risk. Human Reproduction 2010 Jun; 25(6): 1528–1535.

4. Gazvani MR, Smith L, Haggarty P, et al. High omega-3: omega-6 fatty acid ratios in culture medium reduce endometrial-cell survival in combined endometrial gland and stromal cell cultures from women with and without endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility 2001; 76: 717–722.

5. Kappas A, Anderson KE, Conney AH, et al. Nutrition-endocrine interactions: induction of reciprocal changes in the delta 4-5 alpha-reduction of testosterone and the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of estradiol by dietary macronutrients in man. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1983; 80: 7646–7649.

6. Goldin BR, Adlercreutz H, Dwyer JT, et al. Effect of diet on excretion of estrogens in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cancer Research 1981; 41: 3771–3773.

7. Michnovicz JJ, Bradlow HL. Altered estrogen metabolism and excretion in humans following consumption of indole-3-carbinol. Nutrition and Cancer 1991; 16: 59–66.

8. Leibovitz BE, Mueller JA. Bioflavonoids and polyphenols: medical applications. Journal of Optimal Nutrition 1993; 2: 17–35.

9. Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Kawakami N, Shimizu H. Soy product intake and premenopausal hysterectomy in a follow-up study of Japanese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001 Sep; 55(9): 773–777.

10. Tremblay L. Reproductive toxins conference—pollution prevention network. Endometriosis Association Newsletter 1996; 17: 13–15.

11. Mathias JR, Franklin R, Quast DC, et al. Relation of endometriosis and neuromuscular disease of the gastrointestinal tract: new insights. Fertility and Sterility 1998 Jul; 70(1): 81–88.

12. Grodstein F, Goldman MB, Ryan L, Cramer DW. Relation of female infertility to consumption of caffeinated beverages. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 137: 1353–1360.

13. Kohama T, Herai K, Inoue M. Effect of French maritime pine bark extract on endometriosis as compared with leuprorelin acetate. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 2007; 52(8): 703–708.

14. Wuttke W, Jarry H, Christoffel V, et al. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)—pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine 2003 May; 10(4): 348–357.

Erectile Dysfunction

1. Hatzimouratidis K. Epidemiology of male sexual dysfunction. American Journal of Men’s Health 2007 Jun; 1(2): 103–125.

2. Shin D, Pregenzer G Jr, Gardin JM. Erectile dysfunction: a disease marker for cardiovascular disease. Cardiology in Review 2011 Jan–Feb; 19(1): 5–11.

3. Heidelbaugh JJ. Management of erectile dysfunction. American Family Physician 2010 Feb 1; 81(3): 305–312.

4. Safarinejad MR. Safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 supplementation in early chronic Peyronie’s disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study. International Journal of Impotence Research 2010 Sep–Oct; 22(5): 298–309.

5. White JR, Case DA, McWhirter D, Mattisson AM. Enhanced sexual behavior in exercising men. Archives of Sexual Behavior 1990; 19: 193–209.

6. Sommer F, Goldstein I, Korda JB. Bicycle riding and erectile dysfunction: a review. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2010 Jul; 7(7): 2346–2358.

7. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BJU International 1999 Feb; 83(3): 269–273.

8. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. International Journal of Impotence Research 2008 Mar–Apr; 20(2): 173–180.

9. Ledda A, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, et al. Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU International 2010 Oct; 106(7): 1030–1033.

10. Aoki H, Nagao J, Ueda T, et al. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and l-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytotherapy Research 2012 Feb; 26(2): 204–207.

11. Cormio L, De Siati M, Lorusso F, et al. Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction. Urology 2011 Jan; 77(1): 119–122.

12. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Urology 1998; 159: 433–436.

13. Betz J, White KD, der Marderosian AH. Chemical analysis of 26 commercial yohimbe products. Journal of AOAC International 1995; 78(5): 1189–1194.

14. Waynberg J. Aphrodisiacs: contribution to the clinical validation of the traditional use of Ptychopetalum guyanna. Presented at the First International Congress on Ethnopharmacology, Strasbourg, France, June 5–9, 1990.

15. Jang DJ, Lee MS, Shin BC, et al. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2008 Oct; 66(4): 444–450.

16. Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. Journal of Urology 2002; 168: 2070–2073.

17. Zanoli P, Zavatti M, Montanari C, Baraldi M. Influence of Eurycoma longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 Nov 12; 126(2): 308–313.

18. Ang HH, Lee KL, Kiyoshi M. Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology 2004; 15(3–4): 303–309.

19. Hamzah S, Yusof A. The ergogenic effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack: a pilot study. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2003; 37: 464–470.

20. Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP. The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction—an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. Phytomedicine 2008; 15(1–2): 44–54.

21. Rogerson S, Riches CJ, Jennings C, et al. The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2007; 21(2): 348–353.

22. Steels E, Rao A, Vitetta L. Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation. Phytotherapy Research 2011 Sep; 25(9): 1294–1300.

23. Sikora R, Sohn M, Deutz et al. Ginkgo biloba extract in the therapy of erectile dysfunction. Journal of Urology 1989; 141: 188A.

24. Sohn M, Sikora R. Ginkgo biloba extract in the therapy of erectile dysfunction. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy 1991; 17: 53–61.

25. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 1998; 24: 139–143.

26. Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Human Psychopharmacology 2002 Aug; 17(6): 279–284.

Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

1. Barnes, KC. An update on the genetics of atopic dermatitis: scratching the surface in 2009. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2010 Jan; 125(1): 16–29.

2. Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M. Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. The Lancet 1995; 346: 1065–1069.

3. Isolauri E, Tahvanainen A, Peltola T, et al. Breast-feeding of allergic infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1999; 134: 27–32.

4. Arvola T, Moilanen E, Vuento R, et al. Weaning to hypoallergenic formula improves gut barrier function in breastfed infants with atopic eczema. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2004; 38: 92–96.

5. Cant AJ, Bailes JA, et al. Effect of maternal dietary exclusion on breast fed infants with eczema: two controlled studies. British Medical Journal 1986; 293: 231–233.

6. Burks AW, Williams LW, Mallory SB, et al. Peanut protein as a major cause of adverse food reaction in patients with atopic dermatitis. Allergy Proceedings 1989; 10: 265–269.

7. Lever R, MacDonald C, Waugh P, et al. Randomised controlled trial of advice on an egg exclusion diet in young children with atopic eczema and sensitivity to eggs. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 1998; 9: 13–19.

8. de Maat-Bleeker F, Bruijnzeel-Koomen C. Food allergy in adults with atopic dermatitis. Monographs in Allergy 1996; 32: 157–163.

9. Van Bever HP, Docx M, Stevens WJ. Food and food additives in severe atopic dermatitis. Allergy 1989; 44: 588–594.

10. Sampson HA, Scanlon SM. Natural history of food hypersensitivity in children with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Pediatrics 1989; 115: 23–27.

11. Savolainen J, Lammintausta K, Kalimo K, et al. Candida albicans and atopic dermatitis. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 1993; 23: 332–339.

12. Adachi A, Horikawa T, Ichihashi M, et al. [Role of Candida allergen in atopic dermatitis and efficacy of oral therapy with various antifungal agents.] Arerugi 1999 Jul; 48(7): 719–725.

13. Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y, et al. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2000; 30: 1604–1610.

14. Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1997; 99: 179–185.

15. Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2003; 111: 389–395.

16. Osborn DA, Sinn JK. Probiotics in infants for prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 Oct 17; 4:CD006475.

17. Stewart JCM, Morse PF, Moss M, et al. Treatment of severe and moderately severe atopic dermatitis with evening primrose oil (Epogam): a multi-center study. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 1991; 2: 9–15.

18. Hederos CA, Berg A. Epogam evening primrose oil treatment in atopic dermatitis and asthma. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1996; 75: 494–497.

19. Fiocchi A, Sala M, Signoroni P, et al. The efficacy and safety of gamma-linolenic acid in the treatment of infantile atopic dermatitis. Journal of International Medical Research 1994; 22: 24–32.

20. Berth-Jones J, Graham-Brown RA. Placebo-controlled trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in atopic dermatitis. The Lancet 1993; 341: 1557–1560.

21. Takwale A, Tan E, Agarwal S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of borage oil in adults and children with atopic eczema: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. BMJ 2003; 327: 1385.

22. Soyland E, Funk J, Rajka G, et al. Dietary supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis. A double-blind, multicentre study. British Journal of Dermatology 1994; 130: 757–764.

23. Kremmyda LS, Vlachava M, Noakes PS, et al. Atopy risk in infants and children in relation to early exposure to fish, oily fish, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: a systematic review. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology 2011 Aug; 41(1): 36–66.

24. Atherton DJ, Sheehan MP, Rustin MH, et al. Treatment of atopic eczema with traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Pediatric Dermatology 1992; 9: 373–375.

25. Sheehan MP, Rustin MH, Atherton DJ, et al. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal therapy in adult atopic dermatitis. The Lancet 1992; 340: 13–17.

26. Sheehan MP, Atherton DJ. A controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicinal plants in widespread non-exudative atopic eczema. British Journal of Dermatology 1992; 126: 179–184.

27. Evans FQ. The rational use of glycyrrhetinic acid in dermatology. The British Journal of Clinical Practice 1958; 12: 269–274.

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

1. Peters F, Schuth W, Scheurich B, Breckwoldt M. Serum prolactin levels in patients with fibrocystic breast disease. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1984; 64: 381–385

2. Boyle CA, Berkowitz GS, LiVolsi VA, et al. Caffeine consumption and fibrocystic breast disease: a case-control epidemiologic study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1984; 72: 1015–1019.

3. Minton JP, Abou-Issa H, Reiches N, Roseman JM. Clinical and biochemical studies on methylxanthine-related fibrocystic breast disease. Surgery 1981; 90: 299–304.

4. Minton JP, Foecking MK, Webster DJT, Matthews RH. Caffeine, cyclic nucleotides, and breast disease. Surgery 1979; 86: 105–109.

5. Ernster VL, Mason L, Goodson WH III, et al. Effects of caffeine-free diet on benign breast disease: a random trial. Surgery 1982; 91: 263–267.

6. Lubin F, Ron E, Wax Y, et al. A case-control study of caffeine and methylxanthine in benign breast disease. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1985; 253: 2388–2392.

7. Shairer C, Brinton LA, Hoover RN. Methylxanthine and benign breast disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 1986; 124: 603–611.

8. Marshall J, Graham S, Swanson M. Caffeine consumption and benign breast disease: a case-control comparison. The American Journal of Public Health 1982; 72: 610–612.

9. Baghurst PA, Rohan TE. Dietary fiber and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders of the breast. International Journal of Cancer 1995; 63: 481–485.

10. Petrakis NL, King EB. Cytological abnormalities in nipple aspirates of breast fluid from women with severe constipation. The Lancet 1981; 2: 1203–1204.

11. Goldin B, Aldercreutz H, Dwyer JT, et al. Effect of diet on excretion of estrogens in pre-and post-menopausal women. Cancer Research 1981; 41: 3771–3773.

12. Goldin B, Gorback S. The effect of milk and lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984; 39: 756–761.

13. Boyd NF, McGuire V, Shannon P, et al. Effect of a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on symptoms of cyclical mastopathy. The Lancet 1988; 2: 128–132.

14. Rose DP, Boyar AP, Cohen C, Strong LE. Effect of a low-fat diet on hormone levels in women with cystic breast disease. I. Serum steroids and gonadotropins. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1987; 78: 623–626.

15. Pye J, Mansel RE, Hughes LE. Clinical experience of drug treatment for mastalgia. The Lancet 1985; 2: 373–377.

16. Pashby N, Mansel RE, Hughes LE, et al. A clinical trial of evening primrose oil in mastalgia. British Journal of Surgery 1981; 68: 801–824.

17. Shannon J, King IB, Lampe JW, et al. Erythrocyte fatty acids and risk of proliferative and nonproliferative fibrocystic disease in women in Shanghai, China. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Jan; 89(1): 265–276.

18. London RS, Sundaram G, Manimekalai S, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double-blind study. II. Endocrine correlates. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1984; 3: 351–356.

19. London R, Sundaram G, Manimekalai S, et al. Mammary dysplasia: endocrine parameters and tocopherol therapy. Nutrition Research 1982; 7: 243.

20. London R, Sundaram GS, Schultz M, et al. Endocrine parameters and alpha-tocopherol therapy of patients with mammary dysplasia. Cancer Research 1981; 41: 3811–3813.

21. Myer EC, Sommers DK, Reitz CJ, Mentis H. Vitamin E and benign breast disease. Surgery 1990; 107: 549–551.

22. London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, et al. The effect of vitamin E on mammary dysplasia: a double-blind study. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985; 65: 104–106.

23. Bespalov V, Barash N, Ivanova O, et al. [Study of an antioxidant dietary supplement “Karinat” in patients with benign breast disease.] Voprosy Onkologii 2004; 50: 467–472.

24. Eskin BA, Bartushka DG, Dunn MR, et al. Mammary gland dysplasia in iodine deficiency. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1967; 200: 691–695.

25. Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Canadian Journal of Surgery 1993; 36: 453–460.

26. Mielens ZE, Rozitis J Jr, Sansone VJ Jr. The effect of oral iodides on inflammation. Texas Reports on Biology & Medicine 1968; 26: 117–121.

27. Estes NC. Mastodynia due to fibrocystic disease of the breast controlled with thyroid hormone. The American Journal of Surgery 1981; 142: 764–766.

28. Loch E, Selle H, Boblitz N. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a phytopharmaceutical formulation containing Vitex agnus castus. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 2000; 9: 315–320.

29. Halaska M, Beles P, Gorkow C, Sieder C. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast 1000; 8: 175–181.

30. Atmaca M, Kumru S, Tezcan E. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Human Psychopharmacology 2003; 18: 191–195.

31. Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. British Medical Journal 2001; 322: 134–137.

Food Allergy

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2. Sampson HA. Update on food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2004; 113: 805–819.

3. Sicherer S, Sampson H. Food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006; 117:S470–S475.

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10. AAAI Board of Directors. Measurement of specific and nonspecific IgG4 levels as diagnostic and prognostic tests for clinical allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1995; 95: 652–654.

11. Gwynn CM, Ingram J, Almousawi T, Stanworth DR. Bronchial provocation tests in atopic patients with allergen-specific IgG4 antibodies. The Lancet 1982; 1(8266): 254–256.

12. Shakib F, Brown HM, Phelps A, Redhead R. Study of IgG subclass antibodies in patients with milk intolerance. Clinical Allergy 1986 Sep; 16(5): 451–458.

13. el Rafei A, Peters SM, Harris N, Bellanti JA. Diagnostic value of IgG4 measurements in patients with food allergy. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1989; 62(2): 94–99.

14. Hamilton R. Clinical laboratory assessment of IgE-dependent hypersensitivity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2003 Feb; 111:S687–S701.

15. Biagini RE, MacKenzie BA, Sammons DL, et al. Latex specific IgE: performance characteristics of the IMMULITE 2000 3gAllergy assay compared with skin testing. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2006; 97: 196–202.

16. Cox L, Williams B, Sicherer S, et al. Pearls and pitfalls of allergy diagnostic testing: report from the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology/American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Specific IgE Test Task Force. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2008; 101: 580–592.

17. Niggemann B, Gruber C. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Allergy 2004; 59: 806–808.

18. Bindslev-Jensen C, Poulsen LK. What do we at present know about the ALCAT test and what is lacking? Monographs in Allergy 1996; 32: 228–232.

19. Lieberman P, Crawford L, Bjelland J, et al. Controlled study of the cytotoxic food test. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1975; 231(7): 728–730.

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21. Gerez IF, Shek LP, Chng HH, Lee BW. Diagnostic tests for food allergy. Singapore Medical Journal 2010; 51: 4–9.

22. Teuber SS, Porch-Curren C. Unproved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to food allergy and intolerance. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2003; 3: 217–221.

23. Wuthrich B. Unproven techniques in allergy diagnosis. Journal of Investigative Allergology and Clinical Immunology 2005; 15: 86–90.

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27. Raithel M, Weidenhiller M, Schwab D, et al. Pancreatic enzymes: a new group of antiallergic drugs? Inflammation Research 2002; 51 suppl 1:S13–S14.

28. Zuercher AW, Holvoet S, Weiss M, Mercenier A. Polyphenol-enriched apple extract attenuates food allergy in mice. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2010 Jun; 40(6): 942–950.

29. Akiyama H, Sato Y, Watanabe T, et al. Dietary unripe apple polyphenol inhibits the development of food allergies in murine models. FEBS Letters 2005 Aug 15; 579(20): 4485–4491.

Gallstones

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2. Kalloo AN, Kantsevoy SV. Gallstones and biliary disease. Primary Care 2001; 28: 591–606,vii.

3. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. Gallstone disease is associated with increased mortality in the United States. Gastroenterology 2011 Feb; 140(2): 508–516.

4. Vitetta L, Sali A, Little P, et al. Gallstones and gall bladder carcinoma. ANZ Journal of Surgery 2000; 70: 667–673.

5. Festi D, Colecchia A, Larocca A, et al. Review: low caloric intake and gallbladder motor function. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2000; 14 suppl 2: 51–53.

6. Mathus-Vliegen EM, Van Ierland-Van Leeuwen ML, Terpstra A. Determinants of gallbladder kinetics in obesity. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2004; 49: 9–16.

7. Akin ML, Uluutku H, Erenoglu C, et al. Tamoxifen and gallstone formation in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: retrospective cohort study. World Journal of Surgery 2003; 27: 395–399.

8. Wang DQ. Aging per se is an independent risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation in gallstone susceptible mice. The Journal of Lipid Research 2002; 43: 1950–1959.

9. Pandey M, Shukla VK. Diet and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2002; 11: 365–368.

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11. Van der Linder W, Bergman F. An analysis of data on human hepatic bile. Relationship between main bile components, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation 1977; 37: 741–747.

12. Smelt AH. Triglycerides and gallstone formation. Clinica Chimica Acta 2010 Nov 11; 411(21–22): 1625–1631.

13. Nervi F, Covarrubias C, Bravo P, et al. Influence of legume intake on biliary lipids and cholesterol saturation in young Chilean men. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 825–830.

14. Thijs C, Knipschild P. Legume intake and gallstone risk: results from a case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 1990 Sep; 19(3): 660–663.

15. Pixley F, Wilson D, McPherson K, et al. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gallstones in women. British Medical Journal 1985; 291: 11–12.

16. Kritchevsky D, Klurfeld DM. Gallstone formation in hamsters: effect of varying animal and vegetable protein levels. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983; 37: 802–804.

17. Breneman JC. Allergy elimination diet as the most effective gallbladder diet. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1968; 26: 83–87.

18. Necheles H, Rappaport BZ, Green R, et al. Allergy of the gallbladder. American Journal of Digestive Diseases 1949; 7: 238–241.

19. Walzer M, Gray I, Harten M, et al. The allergic reaction in the gallbladder: experimental studies in rhesus monkeys. Gastroenterology 1943; 1: 565–572.

20. De Muro P, Ficari A. Experimental studies on allergic cholecystitis. Gastroenterology 1946; 6: 302–314.

21. Tomotake H, Shimaoka I, Kayashita J, et al. A buckwheat protein product suppresses gallstone formation and plasma cholesterol more strongly than soy protein isolate in hamsters. Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130: 1670–1674.

22. Kritchevsky D, Klurfeld DM. Influence of vegetable protein on gallstone formation in hamsters. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1979; 32: 2174–2176.

23. Tomotake H, Shimaoka I, Kayashita J, et al. Stronger suppression of plasma cholesterol and enhancement of the fecal excretion of steroids by a buckwheat protein product than by a soy protein isolate in rats fed on a cholesterol-free diet. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biodiversity 2001; 65: 1412–1414.

24. Liu Z, Ishikawa W, Huang X, et al. A buckwheat protein product suppresses 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by reducing cell proliferation. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131: 1850–1853.

25. Thornton JR, Emmett PM, Heaton KW. Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism. Gut 1983; 24: 2–6.

26. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gastroenterology 2005 Jul; 129(1): 105–112.

27. Moerman CJ, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Runia S. Dietary sugar intake in the etiology of biliary tract cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 22: 207–214.

28. Moerman CJ, Smeets FW, Kromhout D. Dietary risk factors for clinically diagnosed gallstones in middle-aged men: a 25-year follow-up study (the Zutphen Study). Annals of Epidemiology 1994; 4: 248–254.

29. Tandon RK, Saraya A, Paul S, et al. Dietary habits of gallstone patients in northern India: a case control study. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1996; 22: 23–27.

30. Caroli-Bosc FX, Deveau C, Peten EP, et al. Cholelithiasis and dietary risk factors: an epidemiologic investigation in Vidauban, southeast France. General Practitioners’ Group of Vidauban. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1998; 43: 2131–2137.

31. Kamrath RO, Plummer LF, Sadur CN. Cholelithiasis in patients treated with a very-low-calorie diet. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992; 56: 255S–257S.

32. van Erpecum KJ, van Berge Henegouwen GP. Intestinal aspects of cholesterol gallstone formation. Digestive and Liver Disease 2003; 35 suppl 3:S8–S11.

33. Spirt BA, Graves LW, Weinstock R. Gallstone formation in obese women treated by a low-calorie diet. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1995; 19: 593–595.

34. Douglas BR, Jansen JB, Tham RT. Coffee stimulation of cholecystokinin release and gallbladder contraction in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 52: 553–556.

35. Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. Coffee intake is associated with lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in women. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 1823–1830.

36. Kasbo J, Tuchweber B, Perwaiz S, et al. Phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet prevents gallstone formation in mice susceptible to cholelithiasis. The Journal of Lipid Research 2003; 44: 2297–2303.

37. Tuzhilin SA, Drieling DA, Narodetskaja RV, et al. The treatment of patients with gallstones by lecithin. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 1976; 65: 231–235.

38. Hanin I, Ansell GB. Lecithin: technological, biological, and therapeutic aspects. New York: Plenum Press, 1987.

39. Jenkins SA. Vitamin C and gallstone formation: a preliminary report. Experientia 1977; 33: 1616–1617.

40. Dam H, Christensen F. Alimentary production of gallstones in hamsters. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 1952; 30: 236–242.

41. Sies CW, Brooker J. Could these be gallstones? The Lancet 2005 Apr 16–22;365(9468): 1388.

42. Lee SP, Tassman-Jones C, Carlisle V. Oleic acid–induced cholelithiasis in rabbits. The American Journal of Pathology 1986; 124: 18–24.

43. Beynen AC. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and liver cholesterol. Artery 1988; 15: 170–175.

44. Baggio G, Pagnan A, Muraca M, et al. Olive-oil-enriched diet: effect on serum lipoprotein levels and biliary cholesterol saturation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988; 47: 960–964.

45. Scobey MW, Johnson FL, Parks JS. Dietary fish oil effects on biliary lipid secretion and cholesterol gallstone formation in the African green monkey. Hepatology 1991; 14(4 part 1): 679–684.

46. Magnuson TH, Lillemoe KD, High RC, et al. Dietary fish oil inhibits cholesterol monohydrate crystal nucleation and gallstone formation in the prairie dog. Surgery 1995; 118: 517–523.

47. Jonkers IJ, Smelt AH, Princen HM, et al. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Journal of Nutrition 2006 Apr; 136(4): 987–991.

48. Méndez-Sánchez N, González V, Aguayo P, et al. Fish oil (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids beneficially affect biliary cholesterol nucleation time in obese women losing weight. Journal of Nutrition 2001 Sep; 131(9): 2300–2303.

49. Hussain MS, Chandrasekhara N. Effect on curcumin on cholesterol gall-stone induction in mice. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1992; 96: 288–291.

50. Portincasa P, Di Ciaula A, Wang HH, et al. Medicinal treatments of cholesterol gallstones: old, current and new perspectives. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2009; 16(12): 1531–1542.

51. Di Ciaula A, Wang DQ, Wang HH, et al. Targets for current pharmacologic therapy in cholesterol gallstone disease. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 2010 Jun; 39(2): 245–264.

52. Hordinsky BZ. Terpenes in the treatment of gallstones. Minnesota Medicine 1971; 54: 649–652.

53. Bell GD, Doran J. Gallstone dissolution in man using an essential oil preparation. British Medical Journal 1979; 1: 24.

54. Doran J, Keighley RB, Bell GD. Rowachol—a possible treatment for cholesterol gallstones. Gut 1979; 20: 312–317.

55. Ellis WR, Bell GD. Treatment of biliary duct stones with a terpene preparation. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1981; 282: 611.

56. Somerville KW, Ellis WR, Whitten BH, et al. Stones in the common bile duct: experience with medical dissolution therapy. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1985; 61: 313–316.

57. Ellis WR, Bell GD, Middleton B, et al. Adjunct to bile-acid treatment for gall-stone dissolution: low-dose chenodeoxycholic acid combined with a terpene preparation. British Medical Journal 1981; 282: 611–612.

58. Ellis WR, Somerville KW, Whitten BH, Bell GD. Pilot study of combination treatment for gall stones with medium dose chenodeoxycholic acid and a terpene preparation. British Medical Journal 1984; 289: 153–156.

Glaucoma

1. Distelhorst JS, Hughes GM. Open-angle glaucoma. American Family Physician 2003; 67: 1937–1944.

2. Tengroth B, Ammitzboll T. Changes in the content and composition of collagen in the glaucomatous eye—basis for a new hypothesis for the genesis of chronic open-angle glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmologica 1984; 62: 999–1008.

3. Weiss J, Jayson M. Collagen in health and disease. Edinburgh and New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1982, 388–403.

4. Quigley H, Addicks E. Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Archives of Ophthalmology 1981; 99: 137–143.

5. Krakau T, Bengtsson B, Holmin C. The glaucoma theory updated. Acta Ophthalmologica 1983; 61: 737–741.

6. Rohen JW. Why is intraocular pressure elevated in chronic simple glaucoma? Anatomical considerations. Ophthalmology 1983; 90: 758–765.

7. Raymond LF. Allergy and chronic simple glaucoma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1964; 22: 146–150.

8. Bietti G. Further contributions on the value of osmotic substances as means to reduce intra-ocular pressure. Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia 1967; 26: 61–71.

9. Fishbein S, Goodstein S. The pressure lowering effect of ascorbic acid. Annals of Ophthalmology 1972; 4: 487–491.

10. Linner E. The pressure lowering effect of ascorbic acid in ocular hypertension. Acta Ophthalmologica 1969; 47: 685–689.

11. Shen TM, Yu MC. Clinical evaluation of glycerin-sodium ascorbate solution in lowering intraocular pressure. Chinese Medical Journal 1975; 1: 64–68.

12. Virno M, Bucci M, Pecori-Giraldi J, et al. Oral treatment of glaucoma with vitamin C. Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat Monthly 1967; 46: 1502–1508.

13. Gabor M. Pharmacologic effects of flavonoids on blood vessels. Angiologica 1972; 9: 355–374.

14. Monboisse J, Braquet P, Borel J. Oxygen-free radicals as mediators of collagen breakage. Agents & Actions 1984; 15: 49–50.

15. Hagerman A, Butler L. The specificity of proanthocyanidin-protein interactions. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1981; 256: 4494–4497.

16. Steigerwalt RD, Gianni B, Paolo M, et al. Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects. Molecular Vision 2008 Jul 10; 14: 1288–1292.

17. Stocker F. New ways of influencing the intraocular pressure. New York State Journal of Medicine 1949; 49: 58–63.

18. Chung HS, Harris A, Kristinsson JK, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1999 Jun; 15(3): 233–240.

19. Quaranta L, Bettelli S, Uva MG, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2003 Feb; 110(2): 359–362.

20. Gaspar AZ, Gasser P, Flammer J. The influence of magnesium on visual field and peripheral vasospasm in glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 1995; 209: 11–13.

21. Aydin B, Onol M, Hondur A, et al. The effect of oral magnesium therapy on visual field and ocular blood flow in normotensive glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol 2010 Jan–Feb; 20(1): 131–135.

22. Lane BC. Diet and glaucomas. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1991; 10: 536.

23. McGuire R. Fish oil cuts lower ocular pressure. Medical Tribune 1991; 19: 25.

24. Cellini M, Caramazza N, Mangiafico P, et al. Fatty acid use in glaucomatous optic neuropathy treatment. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 1998 suppl; 227: 41–42.

25. Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D. Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2002; 36: 992–995.

26. Qureshi IA. The effects of mild, moderate, and severe exercise on intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. The Japanese Journal of Physiology 1995; 45: 561–569.

27. Qureshi IA. Effects of exercise on intraocular pressure in physically fit subjects. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 1996; 23: 648–652.

28. Era P, Parssinen O, Kallinen M, et al. Effect of bicycle ergometer test on intraocular pressure in elderly athletes and controls. Acta Ophthalmologica 1993; 71: 301–307.

Gout

1. Richette P, Bardin T. Gout. The Lancet 2010 Jan 23; 375(9711): 318–328.

2. Brook RA, Forsythe A, Smeeding JE, Lawrence Edwards N. Chronic gout: epidemiology, disease progression, treatment and disease burden. Current Medical Research & Opinion 2010 Dec; 26(12): 2813–2821.

3. Hernández-Cuevas CB, Roque LH, Huerta-Sil G, et al. First acute gout attacks commonly precede features of the metabolic syndrome. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 2009 Mar; 15(2): 65–67.

4. Choi HK, De Vera MA, Krishnan E. Gout and the risk of type 2 diabetes among men with a high cardiovascular risk profile. Rheumatology 2008 Oct; 47(10): 1567–1570.

5. Singh JA, Reddy SG, Kundukulam J. Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 2011 Mar; 23(2): 192–202.

6. Schumacher HR Jr, Becker MA, Wortmann RL, et al. Effects of febuxostat versus allopurinol and placebo in reducing serum urate in subjects with hyperuricemia and gout: a 28-week, phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2008 Nov 15; 59(11): 1540–1548.

7. Graziano JH, Blum C. Lead exposure from lead crystal. The Lancet 1991; 337: 141–142.

8. Kanbara A, Hakoda M, Seyama I. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion. Nutrition Journal 2010 Oct 19; 9: 45.

9. Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, et al. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2000; 59: 539–543.

10. Lewis AS, Murphy L, McCalla C, et al. Inhibition of mammalian xanthine oxidase by folate compounds and amethopterin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1984; 259: 12–15.

11. Oster KA. Folic acid and xanthine oxidase. Annals of Internal Medicine 1977; 86: 367.

12. Flouvier B, Devulder B. Folic acid, xanthine oxidase, and uric acid. Annals of Internal Medicine 1978 Feb; 88(2): 269.

13. Bindoli A, Valente M, Cavallini L. Inhibitory action of quercetin on xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase activity. Pharmacological Research Commununications 1985; 17: 831–839.

14. Busse WW, Kopp DE, Middleton E Jr. Flavonoid modulation of human neutrophil function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1984; 73: 801–809.

15. Yoshimoto T, Furukawa M, Yamamoto S, et al. Flavonoids: potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1983; 116: 612–618.

16. Stein HB, Hasan A, Fox IH. Ascorbic acid-induced uricosuria. A consequence of megavitamin therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine 1976; 84: 385–388.

17. Gershon SL, Fox IH. Pharmacologic effects of nicotinic acid on human purine metabolism. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1974; 84: 179–186.

18. Blau LW. Cherry diet control for gout and arthritis. Texas Reports on Biology & Medicine 1950; 8: 309–311.

19. Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, et al. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133: 1826–1829.

20. Soundararajan S, Daunter B. Ajvine: pilot biomedical study for pain relief in rheumatic pain. School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 1991–1992.

21. Venkat S, Soundararajan S, Daunter B, Madhusudhan S. Use of Ayurvedic medicine in the treatment of rheumatic illness. Department of Orthopaedics, Kovai Medical Center and Hospitals, Coimbatore, India, 1995.

22. Hu D, Huang XX, Feng YP. [Effect of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) on purine metabolites in striatum extracellular fluid in four-vessel occlusion rats.] Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1996; 31: 13–17.

Hair Loss in Women

1. Mounsey AL, Reed SW. Diagnosing and treating hair loss. American Family Physician 2009 Aug 15; 80(4): 356–362.

2. Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, et al. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2004; 89: 453–462.

3. Price VH. Androgenetic alopecia in women. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings 2003; 8: 24–27.

4. Birch MP, Lalla SC, Messenger AG. Female pattern hair loss. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 2002; 27: 383–388.

5. Giralt M, Cervello I, Nogues MR, et al. Glutathione, glutathione S-transferase and reactive oxygen species of human scalp sebaceous glands in male pattern baldness. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1996; 107: 154–158.

6. Legro RS, Carmina E, Stanczyk FZ, et al. Alterations in androgen conjugate levels in women and men with alopecia. Fertility and Sterility 1994; 62: 744–750.

7. Cela E, Robertson C, Rush K, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovaries in women with androgenic alopecia. European Journal of Endocrinology 2003; 149: 439–442.

8. Matilainen V, Laakso M, Hirsso P, et al. Hair loss, insulin resistance, and heredity in middle-aged women. A population-based study. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 2003; 10: 227–231.

9. Shum KW, Cullen DR, Messenger AG. Hair loss in women with hyperandrogenism: four cases responding to finasteride. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2002; 47: 733–739.

10. Kantor J, Kessler LJ, Brooks DG, et al. Decreased serum ferritin is associated with alopecia in women. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2003; 12: 985–988.

11. Moeinvaziri M, Mansoori P, Holakooee K, et al. Iron status in diffuse telogen hair loss among women. Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica 2009; 17(4): 279–284.

12. Deloche C, Bastien P, Chadoutaud S, et al. Low iron stores: a risk factor for excessive hair loss in non-menopausal women. European Journal of Dermatology 2007 Nov–Dec; 17(6): 507–512.

13. Wickett RR, Kossmann E, Barel A, et al. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on hair tensile strength and morphology in women with fine hair. Archives of Dermatological Research 2007 Dec; 299(10): 499–505.

14. Corazza GR, Andreani ML, Venturo N, et al. Celiac disease and alopecia areata: report of a new association. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 1333–1337.

Hay Fever

1. Cox L, Wallace D. Specific allergy immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: subcutaneous and sublingual. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 2011 Aug; 31(3): 561–599.

2. Sieber J, Shah-Hosseini K, Mösges R. Specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis to grass and tree pollens in daily medical practice—symptom load with sublingual immunotherapy compared to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Annals of Medicine 2011; 43(6): 418–424.

3. Egert S, Wolffram S, Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Daily quercetin supplementation dose-dependently increases plasma quercetin concentrations in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition 2008 Sep; 138(9): 1615–1621.

4. Jin F, Nieman DC, Shanely RA, et al. The variable plasma quercetin response to 12-week quercetin supplementation in humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Jul; 64(7): 692–697.

5. Kawai M, Hirano T, Arimitsu J, et al. Effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin, a flavonoid, on symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 2009; 149(4): 359–368.

6. Hirano T, Kawai M, Arimitsu J, et al. Preventative effect of a flavonoid, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin on ocular symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis. Allergology International 2009 Sep; 58(3): 373–382.

7. Kishi K, Saito M, Saito T, et al. Clinical efficacy of apple polyphenol for treating cedar pollinosis. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biodiversity 2005 Apr; 69(4): 829–832.

8. Enomoto T, Nagasako-Akazome Y, Kanda T, et al. Clinical effects of apple polyphenols on persistent allergic rhinitis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel arm study. Journal of Investigative Allergology and Clinical Immunology 2006; 16(5): 283–289.

Headache, Nonmigraine Tension Type

1. Mathew NT. Chronic refractory headache. Neurology 1993; 43 suppl 3:S26–S33.

2. Hurwitz EL, PD Aker, AH Adams, et al. Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine. A systematic review of literature. Spine 1996; 21: 1746–1760.

3. Haas M, Bronfort G, Evans RL. Chiropractic clinical research: progress and recommendations. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2006; 29(9): 695–706.

4. Biondi DM. Physical treatments for headache: a structured review. Headache 2005; 45(6): 738–746.

5. Lenssinck ML, Damen L, Verhagen AP, et al. The effectiveness of physiotherapy and manipulation in patients with tension-type headache: a systematic review. Pain 2004; 112(3): 381–388.

6. Larsson B and Carlsson J. A school-based, nurse-administered relaxation training for children with chronic tension-type headache. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1996; 21: 603–614.

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Heart Arrhythmias

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Hemorrhoids

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Hepatitis

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21. Milne A, Hopkirk N, Lucas CR, et al. Failure of New Zealand hepatitis B carriers to respond to Phyllanthus amarusNew Zealand Medical Journal 1994; 107: 243.

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Herpes

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20. Csonka G, Tyrrell D. Treatment of herpes genitalis with carbenoxolone and cicloxolone creams: a double blind placebo controlled trial. The British Journal of Venereal Diseases 1984; 60: 178–181.

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39. Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 53: 831–839.

40. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. Journal of Hypertension 1999; 17: 457–463.

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56. van Dijk RA, Rauwerda JA, Steyn M, et al. Long-term homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus pyridoxine is associated with decreased blood pressure but not with improved brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation or carotid artery stiffness: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2001; 21: 2072–2079.

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58. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, et al. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Hypertension 2002; 20: 1493–1499.

59. Cicero AF, Ertek S, Borghi C. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management. Current Vascular Pharmacology 2009 Jul; 7(3): 330–337.

60. Singer P. Alpha-linolenic acid vs. long-chain n-3 fatty acids in hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Nutrition 1992; 8: 133–135.

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62. Kelly BS, Alexander JW, Dreyer D, et al. Oral arginine improves blood pressure in renal transplant and hemodialysis patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2001; 25: 194–202.

63. Kelly JJ, Williamson P, Martin A, Whitworth JA. Effects of oral L-arginine on plasma nitrate and blood pressure in cortisol-treated humans. Journal of Hypertension 2001; 19: 263–268.

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66. Fujita H, Yoshikawa M. LKPNM: a prodrug-type ACE-inhibitory peptide derived from fish protein. Immunopharmacology 1999; 44: 123–127.

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69. Fujita H, Yasumoto R, Hasegawa M, Ohshima K. Antihypertensive activity of “Katsuobushi Oligopeptide” in hypertensive and borderline hypertensive subjects. Japan Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1997; 25: 153–157.

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82. Haji Faraji M, Haji Tarkhani A. The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1999 Jun; 65(3): 231–236.

83. Herrera-Arellano A, Miranda-Sánchez J, Avila-Castro P, et al. Clinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trial. Planta Medica 2007 Jan; 73(1): 6–12.

84. Herrera-Arellano A, Flores-Romero S, Chávez-Soto MA, Tortoriello J. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine 2004 Jul; 11(5): 375–382.

High Cholesterol and/or Triglycerides

1. Wilson PW. High-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 1990; 66: 7A–10A.

2. Ip S, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Systematic review: association of low-density lipoprotein subfractions with cardiovascular outcomes. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009 Apr 7; 150(7): 474–484.

3. Davidson MH. Apolipoprotein measurements: is more widespread use clinically indicated? Clinical Cardiology 2009 Sep; 32(9): 482–486.

4. Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Jenner JL, et al. Lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of coronary heart disease in men. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271: 999–1003.

5. Kannel WB, Vasan RS. Triglycerides as vascular risk factors: new epidemiologic insights. Current Opinion in Cardiology 2009 Jul; 24(4): 345–350.

6. Stalenhoef AF, de Graaf J. Association of fasting and nonfasting serum triglycerides with cardiovascular disease and the role of remnant-like lipoproteins and small dense LDL. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2008 Aug; 19(4): 355–361.

7. Pedersen TR. Pro and con: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering is and will be the key to the future of lipid management. American Journal of Cardiology 2001; 87: 8B–12B.

8. Ong HT. The statin studies: from targeting hypercholesterolaemia to targeting the high-risk patient. QJM 2005 Aug; 98(8): 599–614.

9. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290: 502–510.

10. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Faulkner DA, et al. Long-term effects of a plant-based dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on blood pressure. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008 Jun; 62(6): 781–788.

11. Gigleux I, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, et al. Comparison of a dietary portfolio diet of cholesterol-lowering foods and a statin on LDL particle size phenotype in hypercholesterolaemic participants. British Journal of Nutrition 2007 Dec; 98(6): 1229–1236.

12. Reynolds K, Chin A, Lees KA, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipids. American Journal of Cardiology 2006; 98(5): 633–640.

13. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. The New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 333: 276–282.

14. Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM. The clinical use of HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors and the associated depletion of coenzyme Q10. A review of animal and human publications. Biofactors 2003; 18: 101–111.

15. Rundek T, Naini A, Sacco R, et al. Atorvastatin decreases the coenzyme Q10 level in the blood of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Archives of Neurology 2004; 61: 889–892.

16. McNamara DJ. Dietary cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2000 Dec 15; 1529(1–3): 310–320.

17. Glore SR, Van Treeck D, Knehans AW, et al. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1994; 94: 425–436.

18. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 913–919.

19. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Owen R, et al. Beneficial effects of viscous dietary fiber from konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 9–14.

20. Ripsin CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs DR, et al. Oat products and lipid lowering, a meta-analysis. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1992; 267: 3317–3325.

21. Ajani UA, Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary fiber and C-reactive protein: findings from national health and nutrition examination survey data. Journal of Nutrition 2004; 134: 1181–1185.

22. Weitz D, Weintraub H, Fisher E, Schwartzbard AZ. Fish oil for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cardiology in Review 2010 Sep–Oct; 18(5): 258–263.

23. McKenney JM, Sica D. Role of prescription omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Pharmacotherapy 2007 May; 27(5): 715–728.

24. Musa-Veloso K, Binns MA, Kocenas AC, et al. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid dose-dependently reduce fasting serum triglycerides. Nutrition Reviews 2010 Mar; 68(3): 155–167.

25. Skulas-Ray AC, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, et al. Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 Feb; 93(2): 243–252.

26. Davidson MH. Mechanisms for the hypotriglyceridemic effect of marine omega-3 fatty acids. American Journal of Cardiology 2006 Aug 21; 98(4A): 27i–33i.

27. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1986; 8: 1245–1255.

28. DiPalma JR, Thayer WS. Use of niacin as a drug. Annual Review of Nutrition 1991; 11: 169–187.

29. Illingworth DR, Stein EA, Mitchel YB, et al. Comparative effects of lovastatin and niacin in primary hypercholesterolemia. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994; 14: 1586–1595.

30. Carlson LA, Hamsten A, Asplund A. Pronounced lowering of serum levels of lipoprotein Lp(a) in hyperlipidaemic subjects treated with nicotinic acid. Journal of Internal Medicine 1989; 226: 271–276.

31. Pan J, Lin M, Kesala RL, et al. Niacin treatment of the atherogenic lipid profile and Lp(a) in diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 2002; 4: 255–261.

32. Vega GL, Grundy SM. Lipoprotein responses to treatment with lovastatin, gemfibrozil, and nicotinic acid in normolipidemic patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994; 154: 73–82.

33. Van JT, Pan J, Wasty T, et al. Comparison of extended-release niacin and atorvastatin monotherapies and combination treatment of the atherogenic lipid profile in diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Cardiology 2002; 89: 1306–1308.

34. Rindone JP, Achacoso S. Effect of low-dose niacin on glucose control in patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. American Journal of Therapeutics 1996; 3: 637–639.

35. Kane MP, Hamilton RA, Addesse E, et al. Cholesterol and glycemic effects of Niaspan in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21: 1473–1478.

36. Kuvin JT, Dave DM, Sliney KA, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin on lipoprotein particle size, distribution, and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology. 2006; 98(6): 743–745.

37. McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Harris S, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1994; 271: 672–677.

38. Goldberg AC. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies on the effects of extended-release niacin in women. American Journal of Cardiology 2004; 94: 121–124.

39. Guyton JR. Extended-release niacin for modifying the lipoprotein profile. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004; 5: 1385–1398.

40. Rubenfire M. Impact of Medical Subspecialty on Patient Compliance to Treatment Study Group. Safety and compliance with once-daily niacin extended-release/lovastatin as initial therapy in the Impact of Medical Subspecialty on Patient Compliance to Treatment (IMPACT) study. American Journal of Cardiology 2004; 94: 306–311.

41. Vogt A, Kassner U, Hostalek U, et al. Evaluation of the safety and tolerability of prolonged-release nicotinic acid in a usual care setting: the NAUTILUS study. Current Medical Research & Opinion 2006; 22(2): 417–425.

42. Welsh AL, Ede M. Inositol hexanicotinate for improved nicotinic acid therapy. International Record of Medicine 1961; 174: 9–15.

43. El-Enein AMA, Hafez YS, Salem H, et al. The role of nicotinic acid and inositol hexaniacinate as anticholesterolemic and antilipemic agents. Nutrition Reports International 1983; 28: 899–911.

44. Ostlund RE Jr. Phytosterols and cholesterol metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2004; 15: 37–41.

45. Miettinen TA, Gylling H. Plant stanol and sterol esters in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Annals of Medicine 2004; 36: 126–134.

46. Kozlowska-Wojciechowska M, Jastrzebska M, Naruszewicz M, et al. Impact of margarine enriched with plant sterols on blood lipids, platelet function, and fibrinogen level in young men. Metabolism 2003; 52: 1373–1378.

47. Yoshida Y, Niki E. Antioxidant effects of phytosterol and its components. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 2003 Aug; 49 (4): 277–280.

48. de Jong A, Plat J, Mensink RP. Metabolic effects of plant sterols and stanols. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2003; 14: 362–369.

49. Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemias. Clinical Therapeutics 1986; 8: 537–545.

50. Gaddi A, Descovich GC, Noseda P, et al. Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1984; 50: 73–83.

51. Coronel F, Tomero F, Torrente J, et al. Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. American Journal of Nephrology 1991; 11: 32–36.

52. Donati C, Bertieri RS, Barbi G. Pantethine, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis: clinical study of 1045 patients. La Clinica Terapeutica 1989; 128: 411–422.

53. Hiramatsu K, Nozaki H, Arimori S. Influence of pantethine on platelet volume, microviscosity, lipid composition and functions in diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia. The Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 1981; 6: 49–57.

54. Lawson LD, Wang ZJ, Papdimitrou D. Allicin release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions from garlic powder tablets employed in clinical trials on serum cholesterol. Planta Medica 2001; 67: 13–18.

55. Lawson LD, Wang ZJ. Tablet quality: a major problem in clinical trials with garlic supplements. Forsch Komplmentaermed 2000; 7: 45.

56. Banerjee SK, Maulik SK. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutrition Journal 2002; 1: 4.

57. Alder R, Lookinland S, Berry JA, et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. Journal of American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 2003; 15: 120–129.

58. Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Erst E. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000; 133: 420–429.

Hives (Urticaria)

1. Muller BA. Urticaria and angioedema: a practical approach. American Family Physician 2004; 69: 1123–1128.

2. Dreskin S. Urticaria. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 2004; 24;xi.

3. Ormerod AD, Reid TM, Main RA. Penicillin in milk—its importance in urticaria. Clinical Allergy 1987; 17: 229–234.

4. Wicher K, Reisman RE. Anaphylactic reaction to penicillin in a soft drink. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1980; 66: 155–157.

5. Schwartz HJ, Sher TH. Anaphylaxis to penicillin in a frozen dinner. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1984; 52: 342–343.

6. Boonk WJ, Van Ketel WG. The role of penicillin in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. British Journal of Dermatology 1982; 106: 183–190.

7. Lindemayr H, Knobler R, Kraft D, et al. Challenge of penicillin allergic volunteers with penicillin contaminated meat. Allergy 1981; 36: 471–478.

8. Settipane RA, Constantine HP, Settipane GA. Aspirin intolerance and recurrent urticaria in normal adults and children. Allergy 1980; 35: 149–154.

9. Warin RP. The effect of aspirin in chronic urticaria. British Journal of Dermatology 1960; 72: 350–351.

10. Moore-Robinson M, Warin RP. Effects of salicylates in urticaria. British Medical Journal 1967; 4: 262–264.

11. Champion RH, Roberts SO, Carpenter RG, et al. Urticaria and angio-oedema. A review of 554 patients. British Journal of Dermatology 1969; 81: 588–597.

12. James J, Warin RP. Chronic urticaria: the effect of aspirin. British Journal of Dermatology 1970; 82: 204–205.

13. Grattan CE. Aspirin sensitivity and urticaria. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 2003; 28: 123–127.

14. Rawls WB, Ancona VC. Chronic urticaria associated with hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria. The Review of Gastroenterology 1951; 18: 267–271.

15. Baird PC. Etiology and treatment of urticaria: diagnosis, prevention and treatment of poison-ivy dermatitis. The New England Journal of Medicine 1941; 224: 649–658.

16. Allison JR. The relation of hydrochloric acid and vitamin B complex deficiency in certain skin diseases. Southern Medical Journal 1945; 38: 235–241.

17. Zuberbier T, Chantraine-Hess S, Hartmann K, et al. Pseudoallergen-free diet in the treatment of chronic urticaria. A prospective study. Acta Dermato-Venereologica (Stockholm) 1995; 75: 484–487.

18. Collins-Williams C. Clinical spectrum of adverse reactions to tartrazine. Journal of Asthma 1985; 22: 139–143.

19. Lessof MH. Reactions to food additives. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 1995; 25 suppl 1: 27–28.

20. Natbony SF, Phillips ME, Elias JM, et al. Histologic studies of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1983; 71: 177–183.

21. Swain AR, Dutton SP, Truswell AS. Salicylates in foods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1985; 85: 950–960.

22. Kulczycki A. Aspartame-induced urticaria. Annals of Internal Medicine 1986; 104: 207–208.

23. Moneret-Vautrin DA, Faure G, Bene MC. Chewing-gum preservative induced toxidermic vasculitis. Allergy 1986; 41: 546–548.

24. Vally H, Misso NL, Madan V. Clinical effects of sulphite additives. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2009 Nov; 39(11): 1643–1651.

25. Birkmayer JGD, Beyer W. Biological and clinical relevance of trace elements. Ärtzl Lab 1990; 36: 284–287.

26. Serrano H. [Hypersensitivity to “candida albicans” and other fungi in patients with chronic urticaria.] Allergol Immunopathol 1975; 3: 289–298.

27. James J, Warin RP. An assessment of the role of Candida albicans and food yeast in chronic urticaria. British Journal of Dermatology 1971; 84: 227–237.

28. Rives H, Pellerat J, Thivolet J. [Chronic urticaria and Quincke’s oedema. 100 case reports. Allergology and therapeutic results.] Dermatologica 1972; 144: 193–204.

29. Green G, Koelsche G, Kierland R. Etiology and pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1965; 23: 30–36.

30. Shertzer CL, Lookingbill DP. Effects of relaxation therapy and hypnotizability in chronic urticaria. Archives of Dermatology 1987; 123: 913–916.

31. Hannuksela M, Kokkonen EL. Ultraviolet light therapy in chronic urticaria. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1985; 65: 449–450.

32. Olafsson JH, Larko O, Roupe G, et al. Treatment of chronic urticaria with PUVA or UVA plus placebo: a double-blind study. Archives of Dermatological Research 1986; 278: 228–231.

33. Johnston CS, Martin LJ, Cai X. Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1992; 11: 172–176.

34. Simon SW. Vitamin B12 therapy in allergy and chronic dermatoses. Journal of Allergy 1951; 22: 183–185.

35. Simon SW. Edmonds P. Cyanocobalamin (B12): Comparison of aqueous and repository preparations in urticaria; possible mode of action. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1964; 12: 79–85.

36. Healy E, Newell L, Howarth P, Friedmann PS. Control of salicylate intolerance with fish oils. British Journal of Dermatology. 2008 Dec; 159(6): 1368–1369.

37. Cusack C, Gorman DJ. Role of thyroxine in chronic urticaria and angio-oedema. J R Soc Med 2004; 97: 257.

38. Leznoff A, Sussman GL. Syndrome of idiopathic chronic urticaria and angioedema with thyroid autoimmunity: a study of 90 patients. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1989; 84: 66–71.

Hyperthyroidism

1. Larson PR, Ingbar SH. The thyroid gland. In Williams’ textbook of endocrinology, 8th ed., ed. Wilson JD, Foster DW. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1992, 367–487.

2. Sonino N, Girelli ME, Boscaro M, et al. Life events in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease. A controlled study. Acta Endocrinologica 1993; 128: 293–296.

3. Radosavljevi´c VR, Jankovi´c SM, Marinkovi´c JM. Stressful life events in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease. European Journal of Endocrinology 1996 Jun; 134(6): 699–701.

4. Winsa B, Karlsson A. Graves’ disease, endocrine ophthalmopathy and smoking. Acta Endocrinologica 1993; 128: 156–160.

5. Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, Tanda ML, et al. Cigarette smoking and the thyroid. European Journal of Endocrinology 1995; 133: 507–512.

6. Shine B, Fells P, Edwards OM, et al. Association between Graves’ ophthalmopathy and smoking. The Lancet 1990; 335: 1261–1263.

7. Galofre JC, Fernandez-Calvet L, Rios M, et al. Increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis after iodine supplementation in an iodine sufficient area. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 1994; 17: 23–27.

8. Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, et al. Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2001; 86: 3579–3594.

Hypoglycemia

1. Chalew SA, Koetter H, Hoffman S, et al. Diagnosis of reactive hypoglycemia. Pitfalls in the use of the oral glucose tolerance test. Southern Medical Journal 1986; 79: 285–287.

2. Palardy J, Havrankova J, Lepage R, et al. Blood glucose measurements during symptomatic episodes in patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia. The New England Journal of Medicine 1989; 321: 1421–1425.

3. Kwentus JA, Achilles JT, Goyer PF. Hypoglycemia: etiologic and psychosomatic aspects of diagnosis. Postgraduate Medicine 1982; 71: 99–104.

4. Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, et al. Undiagnosed asymptomatic hypoglycemia: diet, insulin, and glyburide for gestational diabetic pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2004; 104: 88–93.

5. Galloway PJ, Thomson GA, Fisher BM, et al. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia induces a rise in C-reactive protein. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 861–862.

6. Gross TM, Mastrototaro JJ. Efficacy and reliability of the continuous glucose monitoring system. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2000; 2 suppl 1:S19–S26.

7. Murray MT, Lyon MR. Hunger free forever. New York: Atria, 2008.

8. Statement on hypoglycemia. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1973; 223: 682.

9. Cahill GF Jr, Soeldner JS. A non-editorial on non-hypoglycemia. The New England Journal of Medicine 1974; 291: 905–906.

10. Hofeldt FD. Patients with bona fide meal-related hypoglycemia should be treated primarily with dietary restriction of refined carbohydrate. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America 1989; 18: 185–201.

11. Sanders LR, Hofeldt FD, Kirk MC, Levin J. Refined carbohydrate as a contributing factor in reactive hypoglycemia. Southern Medical Journal 1982; 75: 1072–1075.

12. National Research Council. Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989.

13. Winokur A, Maislin G, Phillips JL, Amsterdam JD. Insulin resistance after glucose tolerance testing in patients with major depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1988; 145: 325–330.

14. Wright JH, Jacisin JJ, Radin NS, et al. Glucose metabolism in unipolar depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry 1978; 132: 386–393.

15. Schauss AG. Nutrition and 3: 9–37.

16. Benton D. Hypoglycemia and aggression: a review. The Journal of Neuroscience 1988; 41: 163–168.

17. Virkkunen M. Reactive hypoglycemic tendency among arsonists. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1984; 69: 445–452.

18. Schoenthaler SJ. Diet and crime: an empirical examination of the value of nutrition in the control and treatment of incarcerated juvenile offenders. International Journal of Biosocial Research 1983; 4: 25–39.

19. Schoenthaler SJ. The northern California diet-behavior program. An empirical evaluation of 3,000 incarcerated juveniles in Stanislaus County Juvenile Hall. International Journal of Biosocial Research 1983; 5: 99–106.

20. Abraham GE. Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1983; 28: 446–464.

21. Walsh CH, O’Sullivan DJ. Studies of glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone secretion during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. Irish Journal of Medical Sciences 1975; 144: 18–24.

22. Critchley M. Migraine. The Lancet 1933; 1: 123–126.

23. Dexter JD, Roberts J, Byer JA. The five hour glucose tolerance test and effect of low sucrose diet in migraine. Headache 1978; 18: 91–94.

24. Mykkanen L, Laakso M, Pyorala K. High plasma insulin levels associated with coronary heart disease in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993; 137: 1190–1202.

25. Yudkin J. Metabolic changes induced by sugar in relation to coronary heart disease and diabetes. Nutrition and Health 1987; 5: 5–8.

26. Pyorala K. Relationship of glucose tolerance and plasma insulin to the incidence of coronary heart disease: results from two population studies in Finland. Diabetes Care 1979; 2: 131–141.

27. Bansal S, Toh SH, LaBresh KA. Chest pain as a presentation of reactive hypoglycemia. Chest 1983; 84: 641–642.

28. Hanson M, Bergentz SE, Ericsson BF, et al. The oral glucose tolerance test in men under 55 years of age with intermittent claudication. Angiology 1987; 38: 469–473.

29. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981; 34: 362–366.

30. Jenkins AL, Kacinik V, Lyon M, Wolever TM. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels—a randomized, controlled trial. Nutrition Journal2010 Nov 22; 9: 58.

31. Brand-Miller JC, Atkinson FS, Gahler RJ, et al. Effects of PGX, a novel functional fibre, on acute and delayed postprandial glycaemia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Dec; 64(12): 1488–1493.

32. Jenkins AL, Kacinik V, Lyon MR, Wolever TM. Reduction of postprandial glycemia by the novel viscous polysaccharide PGX, in a dose-dependent manner, independent of food form. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2010 Apr; 29(2): 92–98.

33. Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose tolerance, and diabetes. Biological Trace Element Research 1992; 32: 19–24.

34. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Metabolism 1987; 36: 351–355.

35. McCarty MF. Chromium and other insulin sensitizers may enhance glucagon secretion: implications for hypoglycemia and weight control. Medical Hypotheses 1996; 46: 77–80.

36. Anderson RA. Nutritional factors influencing glucose/insulin system: chromium. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1997; 16: 404–410.

37. Hirata Y. Diabetes and alcohol. Asian Med J 1988; 31: 564–569.

38. Selby JV, Newman B, King MC, et al. Environmental and behavioral determinants of fasting plasma glucose in women: a matched co-twin analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 1987; 125: 979–988.

39. Vallerand AL, Cuerrier JP, Shapcott D, et al. Influence of exercise training on tissue chromium concentrations in the rat. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1984; 39: 402–409.

40. Sato Y, Nagasaki M, Nakai N, Fushimi M. Physical exercise improves glucose metabolism in lifestyle-related diseases. Experimental Medicine and Biology (Maywood) 2003 Nov; 228(10): 1208–1212.

Hypothyroidism

1. Wang C, Crapo LM. The epidemiology of thyroid disease and implications for screening. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America 1997; 26: 189–218.

2. Weetman AP. Hypothyroidism: screening and subclinical disease. BMJ 1997; 314: 1175–1178.

3. Banovac K, Zakarija M, McKenzie JM. Experience with routine thyroid function testing: abnormal results in “normal” populations. J Fla Med Assoc 1985; 72: 835–839.

4. Arem R, Escalante D. Subclinical hypothyroidism: epidemiology, diagnosis, and significance. Adv Internal Medicine 1996; 41: 213–250.

5. Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, et al. The Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000; 160: 526–534.

6. Aoki Y, Belin RM, Clickner R, Jeffries R, Phillips L, Mahaffey KR. Serum TSH and total T4 in the United States population and their association with participant characteristics: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). Thyroid 2007 Dec; 17(12): 1211–1223.

7. Barnes BO, Galton L. Hypothyroidism: the unsuspected illness. New York: Crowell, 1976.

8. Langer SE, Scheer JF. Solved: the riddle of illness. New Canaan, Conn.: Keats, 1984.

9. Evans TC. Thyroid disease. Primary Care 2003; 30: 625–640.

10. Gold MS, Pottash AL, Extein I. Hypothyroidism and depression, evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1981; 245: 1919–1922.

11. Esposito S, Prange AJ Jr, Golden RN. The thyroid axis and mood disorders: overview and future prospects. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1997; 33: 205–217.

12. Cappola AR, Ladenson PW. Hypothyroidism and atherosclerosis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2003; 88: 2438–2444.

13. Razvi S, Weaver JU, Vanderpump MP, Pearce SH. The incidence of ischemic heart disease and mortality in people with subclinical hypothyroidism: reanalysis of the Whickham Survey cohort. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2010 Apr; 95(4): 1734–1740.

14. Althaus U, Staub JJ, Ryff–De Leche A, et al. LDL/HDL-changes in subclinical hypothyroidism: possible risk factors for coronary heart disease. Clinical Endocrinology 1988; 28: 157–163.

15. Krupsky M, Flatan E, Yarom R, et al. Musculoskeletal symptoms as a presenting sign of long-standing hypothyroidism. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 1987; 23: 1110–1113.

16. Hochberg MC, Koppes GM, Edwards CQ, et al. Hypothyroidism presenting as a polymyositis-like syndrome. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1976; 19: 1363–1366.

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12. Fejes Z, Zavaczki J, Szollosi S, et al. Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality? Archives of Andrology 2005; 51: 385–393.

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15. Saleh RA, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study. Fertility and Sterility 2002 Sep; 78: 491–499.

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19. Badawy ZS, Chohan KR, Whyte DA, et al. Cannabinoids inhibit the respiration of human sperm. Fertility and Sterility 2009 Jun; 91(6): 2471–2476.

20. Rossato M. Endocannabinoids, sperm functions and energy metabolism. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2008 Apr 16; 286(1–2 suppl 1):S31–S35.

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23. Gulaya NM, Margitich VM, Govseeva NM, et al. Phospholipid composition of human sperm and seminal plasma in relation to sperm fertility. Archives of Andrology 2001; 46(3): 169–175.

24. Safarinejad MR, Hosseini SY, Dadkhah F, Asgari MA. Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: a comparison between fertile and infertile men. Clinical Nutrition 2010 Feb; 29(1): 100–105.

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28. Zini A, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C. Reactive oxygen species in semen of infertile patients: levels of superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. International Journal of Andrology 1993; 16: 183–188.

29. Pasqualotto FF, Sharma RK, Nelson DR, et al. Relationship between oxidative stress, semen characteristics, and clinical diagnosis in men undergoing infertility investigation. Fertility and Sterility 2000; 73: 459–464.

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35. Fraga CG, Motchnik PA, Shigenaga MK, et al. Ascorbic acid protects against endogenous oxidative DNA damage in human sperm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991; 88: 11003–11006.

36. Dawson EB, Harris WA, Teter MC, Powell LC. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on sperm quality of heavy smokers. Fertility and Sterility 1992; 58(5): 1034–1039.

37. Dawson EB, Harris WA, Rankin WE, et al. Effect of ascorbic acid on male fertility. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1987; 498: 312–323.

38. Aitken RJ, Clarkson JS, Hargreave TB, et al. Analysis of the relationship between defective sperm function and the generation of reactive oxygen species in cases of oligozoospermia. Journal of Andrology 1989; 10: 214–220.

39. Suleiman SA, Ali ME, Zaki ZM, et al. Lipid peroxidation and human sperm mobility: protective role of vitamin E. Journal of Andrology 1996; 17: 530–537.

40. Geva E, Bartoov B, Zabludovsky N, et al. The effect of antioxidant treatment on human spermatozoa and fertilization rate in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertility and Sterility 1996 Sep; 66(3): 430–434.

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48. Bjorndahl L, Kvist U. Importance of zinc for human sperm head-tail connection. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1982; 126: 51–55.

49. Carreras A, Mendoza C. Zinc levels in seminal plasma of infertile and fertile men. Andrologia 1990 May–Jun; 22(3): 279–283.

50. Takihara H, Cosentino MJ, Cockett AT. Zinc sulfate therapy for infertile males with or without varicocelectomy. Urology 1987; 29: 638–641.

51. Netter A, Hartoma R, Nakoul K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and sperm count. Archives of Andrology 1981; 7: 69–73.

52. Wong WY, Merkus HM, Thomas CM, et al. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertility and Sterility 2002; 77: 491–498.

53. Tremellen K, Miari G, Froilan D, Thompson J. A randomized control trial examining the effect of an antioxidant (Menevit) on pregnancy outcome during IVF-ICSI treatment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007; 47: 216–221.

54. Ursini F, Heim S, Kiess M, et al. Dual function of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation. Science 1999; 285: 1393.

55. Vézina D, Mauffette F, Roberts KD, Bleau G. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution. Biological Trace Element Research 1996 Summer; 53(1–3): 65–83.

56. Rayman MP, Rayman MP. The argument for increasing selenium intake. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002; 61: 203–215.

57. Schneider M, Förster H, Boersma A, et al. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility. The FASEB Journal 2009 Sep; 23(9): 3233–242.

58. Scott R, MacPherson A, Yates RW, et al. The effect of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. British Journal of Urology 1998 Jul; 82(1): 76–80.

59. Safarinejad MR, Safarinejad S. Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. Journal of Urology 2009 Feb; 181(2): 741–751.

60. Sandler B, Faragher B. Treatment of oligospermia with vitamin B12. Infertility 1984; 7: 133–138.

61. Boxmeer JC, Smit M, Weber RF, et al. Seminal plasma cobalamin significantly correlates with sperm concentration in men undergoing IVF or ICSI procedures. Journal of Andrology 2007 Jul–Aug; 28(4): 521–527.

62. Boxmeer JC, Smit M, Utomo E, et al. Low folate in seminal plasma is associated with increased sperm DNA damage. Fertility and Sterility 2009 Aug; 92(2): 548–556.

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65. Bilska A, Włodek L. Lipoic acid—the drug of the future? Phamacological Reports 2005 Sep–Oct; 57(5): 570–577.

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67. Prahalathan C, Selvakumar E, Varalakshmi P. Modulatory role of lipoic acid on adriamycin-induced testicular injury. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2006 Mar 25; 160(2): 108–114.

68. Ibrahim SF, Osman K, Das S, et al. A study of the antioxidant effect of alpha lipoic acids on sperm quality. Clinics 2008 Aug; 63(4): 545–550.

69. Ng CM, Blackman MR, Wang C, Swerdloff RS. The role of carnitine in the male reproductive system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004 Nov; 1033: 177–178.

70. Costa M, Canale D, Filicori M, et al. L-carnitine in idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a multicenter study. Italian Study Group on Carnitine and Male Infertility. Andrologia 1994; 26: 155–159.

71. Vitali G, Parente R, Melotti C. Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia: clinical results. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 1995; 21: 157–159.

72. Vicari E, La Vignera S, Calogero AE. Antioxidant treatment with carnitines is effective in infertile patients with prostatovesiculoepididymitis and elevated seminal leukocyte concentrations after treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Fertility and Sterility2002; 78: 1203–1208.

73. Lenzi A, Sgrò P, Salacone P, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertility and Sterility 2004; 81: 1578–1584.

74. Lenzi A, Lombardo F, Sgro P, et al. Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Fertility and Sterility 2003; 79: 292–300.

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76. Mancini L, De Marinis A, Oradei E, et al. Coenzyme Q10 concentration in normal and pathological human seminal fluid. Journal of Andrology 1994; 15: 591–559.

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9. Hajak G, Huether G, Blanke J, et al. The influence of intravenous L-tryptophan on plasma melatonin and sleep in men. Pharmacopsychiatry 1991; 24: 17–20.

10. Zarcone VP Jr, Hoddes E. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on fragmentation of REM sleep in alcoholics. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1975; 132: 74–76.

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15. Wyatt RJ, Zarcone V, Engelman K. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on the sleep of normal human subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1971; 30: 505–509.

16. Autret A, Minz M, Bussel B, et al. Human sleep and 5-HTP. Effects of repeated high doses and of association with benserazide. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1976; 41: 408–413.

17. Nave R, Peled R, Lavie P. Melatonin improves evening napping. European Journal of Pharmacology 1995; 275: 213–216.

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19. Haimov I, Lavie P, Laudon M, et al. Melatonin replacement therapy of elderly insomniacs. Sleep 1995; 18: 598–603.

20. Dollins AB, Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, et al. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994; 91: 1824–1828.

21. Mallo C, Zaidan R, Faure A, et al. Effects of a four-day nocturnal melatonin treatment on the 24 h plasma melatonin, cortisol and prolactin profiles in humans. Acta Endocrinologica 1988; 119: 474–480.

22. Botez MI, Cadotte M, Beaulieu R, et al. Neurologic disorders responsive to folic acid therapy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1976; 115: 217–223.

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24. Hadley S, Petry JJ. Valerian. American Family Physician 2003; 67: 1755–1758.

25. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Sleep Medicine 2000; 1: 91–99.

26. Kripke DF. Chronic hypnotic use: deadly risks, doubtful benefit. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2000 Feb; 4(1): 5–20.

27. Kripke DF. Do hypnotics cause death and cancer? The burden of proof. Sleep Medicine 2009 Mar; 10(3): 275–276.

28. Mallon L, Broman JE, Hetta J. Is usage of hypnotics associated with mortality? Sleep Medicine 2009 Mar; 10(3): 279–286.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

1. Simren M, Mansson A, Langkilde AM, et al. Food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion 2001; 63: 108–115.

2. Eswaran S, Tack J, Chey WD. Food: the forgotten factor in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 2011 Mar; 40(1): 141–162.

3. Cann PA, Read NW, Holdsworth CD. What is the benefit of coarse wheat bran in patients with irritable bowel syndrome? Gut 1984; 25: 168–173.

4. Fielding JF, Kehoe M. Different dietary fibre formulations and the irritable bowel syndrome. Irish Journal of Medical Sciences 1984; 153: 178–180.

5. Chouinard LE. The role of psyllium fibre supplementation in treating irritable bowel syndrome. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 2011 Spring; 72(1):e107–e114.

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9. Jones VA, McLaughlan P, Shorthouse M, et al. Food intolerance: a major factor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome. The Lancet 1982; 2: 1115–1117.

10. Petitpierre M, Gumowski P, Girard JP. Irritable bowel syndrome and hypersensitivity to food. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 1985; 54: 538–540.

11. Nanda R, James R, Smith H, et al. Food intolerance and the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1989; 30: 1099–1104.

12. Gertner D, Powell-Tuck J. Irritable bowel syndrome and food intolerance. Practitioner 1994 Jul; 238(1540): 499–504.

13. Drisko J, Bischoff B, Hall M, McCallum R. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with a food elimination diet followed by food challenge and probiotics. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006 Dec; 25(6): 514–522.

14. Russo A, Fraser R, Horowitz M. The effect of acute hyperglycemia on small intestinal motility in normal subjects. Diabetologia 1996; 39: 984–989.

15. Shepherd SJ, Gibson PR. Fructose malabsorption and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: guidelines for effective dietary management. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006; 106: 1631–1639.

16. Shepherd SJ, Parker FC, Muir JG, et al. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomised, placebo-controlled evidence. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2008; 6: 765–771.

17. Brenner DM, Moeller MJ, Chey WD, Schoenfeld PS. The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2009 Apr; 104(4): 1033–1049.

18. O’Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005 Mar; 128(3): 541–551.

19. Whorwell PJ, Altringer L, Morel J, et al. Efficacy of an encapsulated probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2006 Jul; 101(7): 1581–1590.

20. Gawro´nska A, Dziechciarz P, Horvath A, Szajewska H. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG for abdominal pain disorders in children. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2007 Jan 15; 25(2): 177–184.

21. Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2001; 13: 1143–1147.

22. Kajander K, Hatakka K, Poussa T, et al. A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6-month intervention. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2005; 22(5): 387–394.

23. Kim HJ, Vazquez Roque MI, Camilleri M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination VSL# 3 and placebo in irritable bowel syndrome with bloating. Neurogastroenterology & Motility 2005; 17(5): 687–696.

24. Kajander K, Krogius-Kurikka L, Rinttilä T, et al. Effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2007; 26(3): 463–473.

25. Kajander K, Myllyluoma E, Rajili´c-Stojanovi´c M, et al. Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and stabilizes intestinal microbiota. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2008 Jan 1; 27(1): 48–45.

26. Leicester RJ, Hunt RH. Peppermint oil to reduce colonic spasm during endoscopy. The Lancet 1982; 2: 989.

27. Somerville KW, Richmond CR, Bell GD. Delayed release peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin) for the spastic colon syndrome: a pharmacokinetic study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1984; 18: 638–640.

28. Rees WD, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. British Medical Journal 1979; 2: 835–836.

29. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 1998; 93: 1131–1135.

30. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, et al. Enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. Journal of Gastroenterology 1997; 32: 765–768.

31. Stiles JC, Sparks W, Ronzio RA. The inhibition of Candida albicans by oregano. Journal of Applied Nutrition 1995; 47: 96–102.

32. Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di Palma J, et al. Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children. Journal of Pediatrics 2001; 138: 125–128.

33. Goldsmith G, Levin JS. Effect of sleep quality on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1993; 38: 1809–1814.

34. Narducci F, Snape WJ Jr, Battle WM, et al. Increased colonic motility during exposure to a stressful situation. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1985; 30: 40–44.

35. Blanchard EB, Greene B, Scharff L, et al. Relaxation training as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome. Biofeedback & Self Regulation 1993; 18: 125–132.

36. Goldsmith G, Patterson M. Irritable bowel syndrome: treatment update. American Family Physician 1985; 31: 191–195.

37. Schwarz SP, Taylor AE, Scharff L, et al. Behaviorally treated irritable bowel syndrome patients: a four-year follow-up. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1990; 28: 331–335.

38. Shaw G, Srivastava ED, Sadlier M, et al. Stress management for irritable bowel syndrome: a controlled trial. Digestion 1991; 50: 36–42.

Kidney Stones

1. Griffith HM, O’Shea B, Maguire M, Koegh B, Kevany JP. A case-control study of dietary intake of renal stone patients. II. Urine biochemistry and stone analysis. Urological Research 1986; 14(2): 75–82.

2. Thom J, Morris J, Bishop A, et al. The influence of refined carbohydrate on urinary calcium excretion. British Journal of Urology 1978; 50: 459–464.

3. Lemann J, Piering W, Lennon E. Possible role of carbohydrate-induced calciuria in calcium oxalate kidney-stone formation. The New England Journal of Medicine 1969; 280: 232–237.

4. Zechner O, Latal D, Pfluger H, et al. Nutritional risk factors in urinary stone disease. Journal of Urology 1981; 125: 51–54.

5. Robertson W, Peacock M, Marshall D. Prevalence of urinary stone disease in vegetarians. European Urology 1982; 8: 334–339.

6. Griffith H, O’Shea B, Kevany J, et al. A control study of dietary factors in renal stone formation. British Journal of Urology 1981; 53: 416–420.

7. Shuster J, Jenkins A, Logan C, et al. Soft drink consumption and urinary stone recurrence: a randomized prevention trial, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1992; 45: 911–916.

8. Siener R, Hesse A. The effect of a vegetarian and different omnivorous diets on urinary risk factors for uric acid stone formation. European Journal of Nutrition 2003; 42: 332–337.

9. Shah P, Williams G, Green N. Idiopathic hypercalciuria: its control with unprocessed bran. British Journal of Urology 1980; 52: 426–429.

10. Rose G, Westbury E. The influence of calcium content of water, intake of vegetables and fruit and of other food factors upon the incidence of renal calculi. Urological Research 1975; 3: 61–66.

11. Kessler T, Jansen B, Hesse A. Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum-juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 56: 1020–1023.

12. Light I, Gursel E, Zinnser HH. Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice. Urology 1: 67–70, 1973.

13. Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, et al. Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study. Journal of Urology 1966 Mar; 155(3): 839–843.

14. Nouvenne A, Meschi T, Prati B, et al. Effects of low salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria in calcium oxalate stone formers: a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010; 91: 565–570.

15. Ulmann A, Aubert J, Bourdeau A, et al. Effects of weight and glucose ingestion on urinary calcium and phosphate excretion: implications for calcium urolithiasis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1982; 54: 1063–1068.

16. Rao N, Gordon C, Davies D, et al. Are stone formers maladaptive to refined carbohydrates? British Journal of Urology 1982; 54: 575–577.

17. Blacklock NJ. Sucrose and idiopathic renal stone. Nutrition and Health 1987; 5: 9–17.

18. Rushton H, Spector M. Effects of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation and crystalluria in hyperoxaluric rats. Journal of Urology 1982; 127: 598–604.

19. Wunderlich W. Aspects of the influence of magnesium ions on the formation of calcium oxalate. Urological Research 1981; 9: 157–161.

20. Hallson P, Rose G, Sulaiman SM. Magnesium reduces calcium oxalate crystal formation in human whole urine. Clinical Science 1982; 62: 17–19.

21. Johansson G, Backman U, Danielson B, et al. Magnesium metabolism in renal stone formers. Effects of therapy with magnesium hydroxide. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 1980; 53 suppl: 125–134.

22. Prien E, Gershoff S. Magnesium oxide-pyridoxine therapy for recurrent calcium oxalate calculi. Journal of Urology 1974; 112: 509–512.

23. Gershoff S, Prien E. Effect of daily MgO and vitamin B6 administration to patients with recurring calcium oxalate kidney stones. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1967; 20: 393–399.

24. Will E, Bijvoet O. Primary oxalosis: clinical and biochemical response to high-dose pyridoxine therapy. Metabolism 1979; 28: 542–548.

25. Lyon E, Borden T, Ellis J, et al. Calcium oxalate lithiasis produced by pyridoxine deficiency and inhibition with high magnesium diets. Investigative Urology 1966; 4: 133–142.

26. Murthy M, Farooqui S, Talwar H, et al. Effect of pyridoxine supplementation on recurrent stone formers. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 1982; 20: 434–437.

27. Liebman M, Chai W. Effect of dietary calcium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997; 65: 1453–1459.

28. Usui Y, Matsuzaki S, Matsushita K, et al. Urinary citrate in kidney stone disease. The Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 2003; 28: 65–70.

29. Pak CY, Fuller C. Idiopathic hypocitraturic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis successfully treated with potassium citrate. Annals of Internal Medicine 1986; 104: 33–37.

30. Whalley NA, Meyers AM, Martins M, et al. Long-term effects of potassium citrate therapy on the formation of new stones in groups of recurrent stone formers with hypocitraturia. British Journal of Urology 1996; 78: 10–14.

31. Barcelo P, Wuhl O, Servitge E, et al. Randomized double-blind study of potassium citrate in idiopathic hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. Journal of Urology 1993; 150: 1761,1764.

32. Nakagawa Y, Margolis H, Yokoyama S, et al. Purification and characterization of a calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth inhibitor from human kidney tissue culture medium. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1981; 256: 3936–3944.

33. Dharmsathaphorn K, Freeman D, Binder H, et al. Increased risk of nephrolithiasis in patients with steatorrhea. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1982; 27: 401–405.

34. Coe F, Moran E, Kavalich A. The contribution of dietary purine over-consumption to hyperuricosuria in calcium oxalate stone formers. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1976; 29: 793–800.

35. Holmes RP, Goodman HO, Assimos DG, et al. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion. Kidney International 2001; 59: 270.

36. Assimos DG, Holmes RP. Role of diet in the therapy of urolithiasis. Urologic Clinics of North America 2000; 27: 255–268.

37. Borghi L, Schianchi T, Meschi T, et al. Comparison of two diets for the prevention of recurrent stones in idiopathic hypercalciuria. The New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 346: 77–84.

38. Rivers JM. Safety of high-level vitamin C ingestion. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1989 suppl; 30: 95–102.

39. Wandzilak TR, D’Andre SD, Davis PA, et al. Effect of high dose vitamin C on urinary oxalate levels. Journal of Urology 1994; 151: 834–837.

40. Massey LK, Liebman M, Kynast-Gales SA., Ascorbate increases human oxaluria and kidney stone risk. Journal of Nutrition 2005 Jul; 135(7): 1673–1677.

41. Moyad MA, Combs MA, Crowley DC, et al. Vitamin C with metabolites reduce oxalate levels compared to ascorbic acid: a preliminary and novel clinical urologic finding. Urologic Nursing 2009 Mar–Apr; 29(2): 95–102.

42. Grases F, Costa-Bauza A. Phytate (IP6) is a powerful agent for preventing calcifications in biological fluids: usefulness in renal lithiasis treatment. Anticancer Research 1999; 19: 3717–3722.

43. Anton R, Haag-Berrurier M. Therapeutic use of natural anthraquinone for other than laxative actions. Pharmacology 1980; 20: 104–112.

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Macular Degeneration

1. de Jong PT. Age-related macular degeneration. The New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 355(14): 1474–1485.

2. Kaufman SR. Developments in age-related macular degeneration: diagnosis and treatment. Geriatrics 2009 Mar; 64(3): 16–19.

3. Chakravarthy U, Wong TY, Fletcher A, et al. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Ophthalmology 2010 Dec 13; 10: 31.

4. Vinderling JR, Dielemans I, Bots ML. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 142: 404–409.

5. Chung M, Lotery AJ. Genetics update of macular diseases. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America 2002; 15: 459–465.

6. Hall NF, Gale CR, Syddall H, et al. Relation between size at birth and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2002; 43: 3641–3645.

7. Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Archives of Ophthalmology 1993; 111: 104–109.

8. Snodderly DM. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; 62: 1448S–1461S.

9. Mares-Perlman JA, Brady WE, Klein R, et al. Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration in a population-based case-control study. Archives of Ophthalmology 1995; 113: 1518–1523.

10. Landrum JT, Bone RA, Kilburn MD. The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration. Advances in Pharmacology 1997; 38: 537–556.

11. Carpentier S, Knaus M, Suh M. Associations between lutein, zeaxanthin, and age-related macular degeneration: an overview. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2009 Apr; 49(4): 313–326.

12. Obisesan TO, Hirsch R, Kosoko O, et al. Moderate wine consumption is associated with decreased odds of developing age-related macular degeneration in NHANES-1. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1998; 46: 1–7.

13. Ritter LL, Klein R, Klein BE, et al. Alcohol use and age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1995; 120: 190–196.

14. Seddon JM, Cote J, Rosner B. Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with dietary fat, transunsaturated fat, nuts, and fish intake. Archives of Ophthalmology 2003; 121: 1728–1737.

15. Merle B, Delyfer MN, Korobelnik JF, et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and the risk for age-related maculopathy: the Alienor Study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences. 2011 Jul; 52(8): 6004–11.

16. SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Agrón E, et al. The relationship of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with incident age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report no. 23. Archives of Ophthalmology 2008 Sep; 126(9): 1274–1279.

17. SanGiovanni JP, Agrón E, Clemons TE, Chew EY. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake inversely associated with 12-year progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology 2009 Jan; 127(1): 110–112.

18. AREDS Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. Archives of Ophthalmology 2001; 119: 1417–1436.

19. Richer S. Multicenter ophthalmic and nutritional age-related macular degeneration study. Part 1. Design, subjects and procedures. Journal of the American Optometric Association 1996; 67: 12–29.

20. Richer S. Multicenter ophthalmic and nutritional age-related macular degeneration study. Part 2. Antioxidant intervention and conclusions. Journal of the American Optometric Association 1996; 67: 30–49.

21. Bartlett H, Eperjesi F. Age-related macular degeneration and nutritional supplementation: a review of randomised controlled trials. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 2003; 23: 383–399.

22. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women: the Women’s Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009 Feb 23; 169(4): 335–341.

23. Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Optometry 2004; 75: 216–230.

24. Parisi V, Tedeschi M, Gallinaro G, et al. Carotenoids and antioxidants in age-related maculopathy Italian study: multifocal electroretinogram modifications after 1 year. Ophthalmology 2008 Feb; 115(2): 324–333.

25. Newsome DA, Swartz M, Leone NC, et al. Oral zinc in macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology 1988; 106: 192–198.

26. Newsome DA. A randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a novel zinc-monocysteine compound in age-related macular degeneration. Current Eye Research 2008 Jul; 33(7): 591–598.

27. Scharrer A, Ober M. [Anthocyanosides in the treatment of retinopathies.] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 1981; 178: 386–389.

28. Caselli L. Clinical and electroretinographic study on the activity of anthocyanosides. Archivio di Medicina Interna 1985; 37: 29–35.

29. Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. [Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind, drug vs. placebo study.] La Presse Médicale 1986; 15: 1556–1558.

30. Corbe C, Boisin JP, Siou A. [Light vision and chorioretinal circulation. Study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers (Endotelon).] Journal Français d’Ophtalmologie 1988; 11: 453–460.

31. Rein DB, Saaddine JB, Wittenborn JS, et al. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 2007 Jul; 114(7): 1319–1326.

Menopause

1. Theisen SC, Mansfield PK. Menopause: social construction or biological destiny? Journal of Health Education 1993; 24: 209–213.

2. Martin MC, Block JE, Sanchez SD, et al. Menopause without symptoms: the endocrinology of menopause among rural Mayan Indians. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1993; 168: 1839–1845.

3. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 288: 321–333.

4. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1998; 280: 605–613.

5. Heckbert SR, Weiss NS, Koepsell TD, et al. Duration of estrogen replacement therapy in relation to the risk of incident myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997; 157: 1330–1336.

6. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ. Postmenopausal hormone use and secondary prevention of coronary events in the Nurses’ Health Study: a prospective, observational study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2001; 135: 1–8.

7. Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 288: 49–57.

8. Colditz GA, Rosner B. Cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 70 years according to risk factor status: data from the Nurses’ Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152: 950–964.

9. Berry DA, Ravdin PM. Breast cancer trends: a marriage between clinical trial evidence and epidemiology. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2007; 99(15): 1139–1141.

10. Hammar M, Berg G, Lindgren R. Does physical exercise influence the frequency of postmenopausal hot flushes? Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1990; 69: 409–412.

11. Manson J, Greenland P, La-Croix AZ, et al. Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. The New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 347: 716–725.

12. McTiernan A, Kooperberg C, White E, et al. Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Cohort Study. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290: 1331–1336.

13. Kemmler W, Engelke K, Weineck J, et al. The Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study: a controlled exercise trial in early postmenopausal women with low bone density-first year results. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003; 84: 673–682.

14. Dalais FS, Rice GE, Wahlqvist ML, et al. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens in postmenopausal women. Climacteric 1998; 1(2): 124–129.

15. Albertazzi P, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, et al. The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flushes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998; 91: 6–11.

16. Messina M, Hughes C. Efficacy of soy foods and soybean isoflavone supplements for alleviating menopausal symptoms is positively related to initial hot flush frequency. Journal of Medicinal Food 2003; 6(1): 1–11.

17. Upmalis DH, Lobo R, Bradley L, et al. Vasomotor symptom relief by soy isoflavone extract tablets in postmenopausal women: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Menopause 2000; 7: 236–242.

18. Huntley A, Ernst E. Soy for the treatment of perimenopausal symptoms—a systematic review. Maturitas 2004; 47: 1–9.

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20. Jou HJ, Wu SS, Change FW, et al. Effect of intestinal production of equol on menopausal symptoms in women treated with soy isoflavones. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2008 Jul; 102(1): 44–49.

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28. Ishihara M. Effect of gamma-oryzanol on serum lipid peroxide levels and climacteric disturbances. Asia-Oceania Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1984; 10: 317–323.

29. Yoshino G, Kazumi T, Amano M, et al. Effects of gamma-oryzanol on hyperlipidemic subjects. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1989; 45: 543–552.

30. Christy CJ. Vitamin E in menopause. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1945; 50: 84–87.

31. McLaren HC. Vitamin E in the menopause. British Medical Journal 1949; 2: 1378–1381.

32. Finkler RS. The effect of vitamin E in the menopause. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1949; 9: 89–94.

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35. Wuttke W, Seidlova-Wuttke D, Gorkow C. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas 2003; 44:S67–S77.

36. Chung D, Kim H, Park K, et al. Black cohosh and St. John’s wort (GYNO-Plus) for climacteric symptoms. Yonsei Medical Journal 2007; 48(2): 289–294.

37. Cancellieri F, De Leo V, Genazzani A, et al. Efficacy on menopausal neurovegetative symptoms and some plasma lipids blood levels of an herbal product containing isoflavones and other plant extracts. Maturitas 2007; 56: 249–256.

38. Meissner H, Mscisz A, Reich-Bilinska R, et al. Hormone-balancing effect of pre-gelatinized organic maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon). III. Clinical response of early-postmenopausal women to maca in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study. International Journal of Biomedical Science 2006; 2(4): 375–394.

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40. Ganzera M, Zhao J, Muhammad I, Khan I. Chemical profiling and standardization of Lepidium meyenii (maca) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2002; 50: 988.

41. Brooks N, Wilcox G, Walker K, et al. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause 2008; 15(6): 1157–1162.

42. Thompson Coon J, Pittler M, Ernst E. Trifolium pretense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine 2007; 14: 153–159

43. Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric 1999; 2: 85–92.

44. Knight D, Howes J, Eden J. The effect of Promensil, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptoms. Climacteric 1999; 2: 79–84.

45. Jeri A, deRomana C. The effect of isoflavone phytoestrogens in relieving hot flushes in Peruvian post-menopausal women. Proceedings of the 9th International Menopause Society World Congress on the Menopause, Yokohama, Japan, 1999.

46. Nachtigall L, La Grega L, Lee W, Fenichel R. The effects of isoflavones derived from red clover on vasomotor symptoms and endometrial thickness. Proceedings of the 9th International Menopause Society World Congress on the Menopause, Yokohama, Japan, 1999.

47. van de Weijer P, Barentsen R. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas 2002; 42: 187–193.

48. Tice J, Ettinger B, Ensrud K, et al. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: the isoflavone clover extract (ICE) study. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290: 207–214.

49. Hirata JD, Swiersz LM, Zell B, et al. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertility and Sterility 1997; 68: 981–986.

50. Chang HM, But PPH, eds. Pharmacology and applications of Chinese materia medica, vol. 1. Singapore: World Scientific, 1987, 489–505.

51. Yang Q, Populo SM, Zhang J, et al. Effect of Angelica sinensis on the proliferation of human bone cells. Clinica Chimica Acta 2002; 324: 89–97.

52. Abdali K, Khajehei M, Tabatabaee R. Effect of St. John’s wort on severity, frequency, and duration of hot flashes in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Menopause 2010; 17(2): 326–331.

53. Al-Akoum M, Maunsell E, Verreault R, et al. Effects of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) on hot flashes and quality of life in perimenopausal women: a randomized pilot trial. Menopause 2009 Mar-Apr; 16(2): 307–314.

54. Grube B, Walper A, Whatley D. St. John’s wort extract: efficacy for menopasual symptoms of psychological origin. Advances in Therapy 1999; 16: 177.

55. Chang A, Kwak BY, Yi K, Kim JS. The effect of herbal extract (EstroG-100) on pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytotherapy Research 2011 Sep 2;doi: 10.1002/ptr.3597.

Menstrual Blood Loss, Excessive (Menorrhagia)

1. Hallberg L, Hogdahl AM, Nilsson L, Rybo G. Menstrual blood loss—a population study. Variation at different ages and attempts to define normality. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1966; 45: 320–351.

2. Chimbira TH, Anderson AB, Turnbull A. Relation between measured blood loss and patients’ subjective assessment of loss, duration of bleeding, number of sanitary towels used, uterine weight and endometrial surface area. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1980; 87: 603–609.

3. Downing I, Hutchon DJ, Poyser NL. Uptake of [3H]-arachidonic acid by human endometrium. Differences between normal and menorrhagic tissue. Prostaglandins 1983; 26: 55–69.

4. Kelly RW, Lumsden MA, Abel MH, Baird DT. The relationship between menstrual blood loss and prostaglandin production in the human: evidence for increased availability of arachidonic acid in women suffering from menorrhagia. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Medicine1984; 16: 69–78.

5. Stoffer SS. Menstrual disorders and mild thyroid insufficiency: intriguing cases suggesting an association. Postgraduate Medicine 1982; 72: 75–82.

6. Stott PC. The outcome of menorrhagia: a retrospective case control study. The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1983; 33: 715–720.

7. Taymor ML, Sturgis SH, Yahia C. The etiological role of chronic iron deficiency in production of menorrhagia. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1964; 187: 323–327.

8. Arvidsson B, Ekenved G, Rybo G, Solvell L. Iron prophylaxis in menorrhagia. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1981; 60: 157–160.

9. Lewis GJ. Do women with menorrhagia need iron? British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1982; 284: 1158.

10. Cohen JD, Rubin HW. Functional menorrhagia: treatment with bioflavonoids and vitamin C. Current Therapeutic Research 1960; 2: 539–542.

11. Schumann E. Newer concepts of blood coagulation and control of hemorrhage. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1939; 38: 1002–1007.

12. Gubner R, Ungerleider HE. Vitamin K therapy in menorrhagia. Southern Medical Journal 1944; 37: 556–558.

13. Biskind M. Nutritional deficiency in the etiology of menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, cystic mastitis and premenstrual tension: treatment with vitamin B complex. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1943; 3: 227–234.

14. Bleier W. [Phytotherapy in irregular menstrual cycles or bleeding periods and other gynecological disorders of endocrine origin.] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 1959; 81: 701–709.

Migraine Headache

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28. McCarren T, Hitzemann R, Allen C, et al. Amelioration of severe migraine by fish oil (w-3) fatty acids. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985; 41: 874.

29. Glueck CJ, McCarren T, Hitzemann R, et al. Amelioration of severe migraine with omega-3 fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986; 43: 710.

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31. Titus F, Davalos A, Alom J, Codina A. 5-hydroxytryptophan versus methysergide in the prophylaxis of migraine. Randomized clinical trial. European Neurology 1986; 25: 327–329.

32. Bono G, Criscuoli M, Martignoni E, et al. Serotonin precursors in migraine prophylaxis. Advances in Neurology 1982; 33: 357–363.

33. Maissen CP, Ludin HP. [Comparison of the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan and propranolol in the interval treatment of migraine.] Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1991; 121: 1585–1590.

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35. Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology 1998; 50: 466–470.

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37. Sandor, PS, Afra J, Ambrosini A, Schoenen J. Prophylactic treatment of migraine with beta blockers and riboflavin: differential effects on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials. Headache 2000; 40: 30–35.

38. Schoenen J, Lenaerts M, Bastings E. High-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic treatment of migraine: results of an open pilot study. Cephalalgia 1994; 14: 328–329.

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40. Altura BM, Brodsky MA, Elin RJ, et al. Magnesium: growing in clinical importance. Patient Care 1994; 10: 130–150.

41. Johnson S. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Medical Hypotheses 2001; 56: 163–170.

42. Swanson DR. Migraine and magnesium: eleven neglected connections. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 1988; 31: 526–557.

43. Ramadan NM, Halvorson H, Vande-Linde A, et al. Low brain magnesium in migraine. Headache 1989; 29: 590–593.

44. Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Morucci P, Abbritti G. Magnesium content of mononuclear blood cells in migraine patients. Headache 1994; 34: 160–165.

45. Mazzotta G, Sarchielli P, Alberti A, Gallai V. Electromyographical ischemic test and intracellular and extracellular magnesium concentration in migraine and tension-type headache patients. Headache 1996; 36: 357–361.

46. Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine—a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia 1996; 16: 436–440.

47. Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia 1996; 16: 257–263.

48. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulphate relieves migraine attacks in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels: a pilot study. Clinical Science 1995; 89: 633–636.

49. Mauskop A, Altura BM. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. Clinical Neuroscience 1998; 5: 24–27.

50. Galland LD, Baker SM, McLellan RK. Magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of mitral valve prolapse. Magnesium 1986; 5: 165–174.

51. Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1990; 9: 48–55.

52. Majumdar P, Boylan M. Alteration of tissue magnesium levels in rats by dietary vitamin B6 supplementation. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1989; 59: 300–303.

53. Johnson ES, Kadam NP, Hylands DM, Hylands PJ. Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment of migraine. British Medical Journal 1985; 291: 569–573.

54. Murphy JJ, Heptinstall S, Mitchell JR. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in migraine prevention. The Lancet 1988; 2: 189–192.

55. Barsby RW, Salan U, Knight BW, Hoult JR. Feverfew and vascular smooth muscle: extracts from fresh and dried plants show opposing pharmacological profiles, dependent upon sesquiterpene lactone content. Planta Medica 1993; 59: 20–25.

56. Heptinstall S, Awang DV, Dawson BA, et al. Parthenolide content and bioactivity of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium [L.] Schultz-Bip.). Estimation of commercial and authenticated feverfew products. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 1992; 44: 391–395.

57. Ernst E, Pittler MH. The efficacy and safety of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): an update of a systematic review. Public Health Nutrition 2000; 3: 509–514.

58. Grossman M, Schmidramsl H. An extract of Petasites hybridus is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2000; 38: 430–435.

59. Eaton J. Butterbur, herbal help for migraine. Natural Pharmacy 1998; 2: 23–24.

60. Mustafa T, Srivastava KC. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in migraine headaches. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1990; 29: 267–273.

61. Kiuchi F, Iwakami S, Shibuya M et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1992; 40: 387–391.

62. Srivastava KC. Isolation and effects of some ginger components on platelet aggregation and eicosanoid biosynthesis. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Medicine 1986; 25: 187–198.

63. Lindeberg T. Acupuncture in headache. Cephalalgia 1999; 19 suppl 25: 65–68.

64. Melchant D, Linde K, Fischer P, et al. Acupuncture for recurrent headache: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Cephalalgia 1999; 19 suppl: 779–786.

65. Baischer W. Acupuncture in migraine: long-term outcome and predicting factors. Headache 1995; 35: 472–474.

66. Holroyd KA, Penzien DB. Pharmacological versus non-pharmacological prophylaxis of recurrent migraine headache: a meta-analytic review of clinical trials. Pain 1990; 42: 1–13.

67. Manias P, Tagaris G, Karageorgiou K. Acupuncture in headache: a critical review. The Clinical Journal of Pain 2000; 16: 334–339.

Multiple Sclerosis

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2. Lublin FD, Reingold SC. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey. National Multiple Sclerosis Society (USA) Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of New Agents in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology 1996; 46: 907–911.

3. Frank JA, Stone LA, Smith ME, et al. Serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: implications for treatment trials. Annals of Neurology 1994; 36:S86–S90.

4. Weinshenker BG. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Neurologic Clinics 1996; 14: 291–308.

5. Hogancamp WE, Rodriguez M, Weinshenker BG. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1997; 72: 871–878.

6. Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: a critical overview. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 1993; 20: 17–29.

7. Ebers GC, Sadovnick AD. The geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis: a review. Neuroepidemiology 1993; 12: 1–5.

8. Baranzini SE. Revealing the genetic basis of multiple sclerosis: are we there yet? Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2011 Jun; 21(3): 317–324.

9. Sadovnick AD, Dyment D, Ebers GC. Genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis. Epidemiologic Reviews 1997; 19: 99–106.

10. James WH. Review of the contribution of twin studies in the search for non-genetic causes of multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology 1996; 15: 132–141.

11. Taylor BV. The major cause of multiple sclerosis is environmental: genetics has a minor role—Yes. Multiple Sclerosis 2011 Oct; 17(10): 1171–1173.

12. Lucchinetti CF, Rodriguez M. The controversy surrounding the pathogenesis of the multiple sclerosis lesion. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1997; 72: 665–678.

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14. Ascherio A, Munger KL. Environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Part II. Noninfectious factors. Annals of Neurology 2007; 61: 504–513.

15. Fernandes de Abreu DA, Babron MC, Rebeix C, et al. Season of birth and not vitamin D receptor promoter polymorphisms is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2009; 15(10): 1146–1152.

16. Lucas RM, Ponsonby AL, Dear K, et al. Sun exposure and vitamin D are independent risk factors for CNS demyelination. Neurology 2011 Feb 8; 76(6): 540–548.

17. Swank RL, Lerstad O, Strom A, Backer J. Multiple sclerosis in rural Norway: its geographic distribution and occupational incidence in relation to nutrition. The New England Journal of Medicine 1952; 246: 721–728.

18. Lauer K. Diet and multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1997; 49(2 suppl 2):S55–S61.

19. Zhang SM, Willett WC, Hernan MA, et al. Dietary fat in relation to risk of multiple sclerosis among two large cohorts of women. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 152: 1056–1064.

20. Zhang SM, Hernan MA, Olek MJ, et al. Intakes of carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E and MS risk among two large cohorts of women. Neurology 2001; 57: 75–80.

21. Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, et al. Nutritional factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. International Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 27: 845–852.

22. Polman CH, O’Conner PW, Havrdova E, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354(9): 899–910.

23. Miller DH, Soon D, Fernando KT, et al. MRI outcomes in a placebo controlled trial of natalizumab in relapsing MS. Neurology 2007; 68(17): 1390–1401.

24. The IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. I. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 1993; 43: 655–661.

25. Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Cohen JA, et al. Copolymer 1 reduces relapse rate and improves disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a phase III multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The Copolymer 1 Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Neurology1995; 45: 1268–1276.

26. Jacobs LD, Cookfair DL, Rudick RA, et al. Intramuscular interferon beta-1a for disease progression in relapsing multiple sclerosis. The Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group (MSCRG). Annals of Neurology 1996; 39: 285–294.

27. PRISMS (Prevention of Relapses and Disability by Interferon beta-1a Subcutaneously in Multiple Sclerosis) Study Group. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of interferon beta-1a in relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. The Lancet 1998; 352: 1498–1504.

28. Hartung HP, Gonsette R, Konig N, et al. Mitoxantrone in progressive multiple sclerosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, multicentre trial. The Lancet 2002; 360: 2018–2025.

29. Swank RL. Multiple sclerosis: twenty years on low fat diet. Archives of Neurology 1970; 23: 460–474.

30. Swank RL, Dugan BB. The multiple sclerosis diet book: a low fat diet for the treatment of MS. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987.

31. Swank RL, Dugan BB. Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis. The Lancet 1990; 336: 37–39.

32. Youdim KA, Martin A, Joseph JA. Essential fatty acids and the brain: possible health implications. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 2000; 18: 383–399.

33. Nordvik I, Myhr KM, Nyland H, Bjerve KS. Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2000; 102: 143–149.

34. Weinstock-Guttman B, Baier M, Park Y, et al. Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in multiple sclerosis patients. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2005; 73: 397–404.

35. Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Trequattrini A, et al. Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Neuroimmunology 1995; 56: 143–153.

36. Bates D, Cartlidge NE, French JM, et al. A double-blind controlled trial of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 1989; 52: 18–22.

37. Dworkin RH, Bates D, Millar JH, Paty DW. Linoleic acid and multiple sclerosis: a reanalysis of three double-blind trials. Neurology 1984; 34: 1441–1445.

38. Bates D, Fawcett PR, Shaw DA, Weightman D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of acute remitting multiple sclerosis. British Medical Journal 1978; 2: 1390–1391.

39. Solomon AJ. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D. Neurology 2011 Oct 25; 77(17):e99–e100.

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46. Kragt J, van Amerongen B, Killestein J, et al. Higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with a lower incidence of multiple sclerosis only in women. Multiple Sclerosis 2009; 15: 9–15.

47. Smolders J, Thewissen M, Peelen E, et al. Vitamin D status is positively correlated with regulatory T cell function in patients with multiple sclerosis. PLoS One 2009; 4:e6635.

48. Packer L, Roy S, Sen CK. Alpha-lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant and potential redox modulator of transcription. Advances in Pharmacology 1997; 38: 79–101.

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53. Schriebelt G, Musters RJ, Reijerkerk A, et al. Lipoic acid affects cellular migration into the central nervous system and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity. The Journal of Immunology 2006; 177: 2630–2637.

54. Marracci GH, McKeon GP, Marquardt WE, et al. α-lipoic acid inhibits human T-cell migration: implications for multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroscience Research 2004; 78: 362–370.

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56. Ransberger K, van Schaik W. Enzyme therapy in multiple sclerosis. Der Kassenarzt 1986; 41: 42–45.

57. Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis: a reappraisal after 10 years. Archives of Neurology 2001; 58: 1602–1606.

58. Lovera J, Bagert B, Smoot K, et al. Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis 2007; 13: 376–385.

59. Snook EM, Motl RW. Effect of exercise training on walking mobility in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Neurohabilitation & Neural Repair 2009; 23(2): 108–116.

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67. Mohr, DC. Stress and multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 2007; 254 suppl 2:II65–II68.

68. Mohr DC, Goodkin DE, Bacchetti P, et al. Psychological stress and the subsequent appearance of new brain MRI lesions in MS. Neurology 2000; 55: 55–61.

69. Fischler BH, Marks M, Reich T. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatment of multiple sclerosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 1983; 308: 181–186.

70. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Hyperbaric oxygen for multiple sclerosis: review of controlled trials. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1995; 91: 330–334.

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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

1. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Morselli-Labate AM, et al. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with insulin resistance. The American Journal of Medicine 1999; 107: 450–455.

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3. Sanyal AJ, Campbell-Sargent C, Mirshahi F, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association of insulin resistance and mitochondrial abnormalities. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 1183–1192.

4. Tilg H, Moschen A. Weight loss: cornerstone in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica 2010 Jun; 56(2): 159–167.

5. Assy N, Nasser G, Kamayse I, et al. Soft drink consumption linked with fatty liver in the absence of traditional risk factors. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology 2008 Oct; 22(10): 811–816.

6. Younossi ZM, Gramlich T, Bacon BR, et al. Hepatic iron and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 1999; 30: 847–850.

7. Bonkovsky HL, Jawaid Q, Tortorelli K, et al. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and iron: increased prevalence of mutations of the HFE gene in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Journal of Hepatology 1999; 31: 421–429.

8. MacDonald GA, Ward PJ, George DK, Powell LW. Iron and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 2000; 31: 549–550.

9. Chang CY, Argo CK, Al-Osaimi AM, Caldwell SH. Therapy of NAFLD: antioxidants and cytoprotective agents. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterologyogy 2006 Mar; 40 suppl 1:S51–S60.

10. Noto R, Maugeri A, Grasso R, et al. Free fatty acids and carnitine in patients with liver disease. Current Therapeutic Research 1986; 40: 35–39.

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12. Lim CY, Jun DW, Jang SS, et al. Effects of carnitine on peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number and liver function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology 2010 Jun; 55(6): 384–389.

13. Ratziu V, de Ledinghen V, Oberti F, et al. A randomized controlled trial of high-dose ursodesoxycholic acid for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Journal of Hepatology 2011 May; 54(5): 1011–1019.

Osteoarthritis

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6. Heinegård D, Saxne T. The role of the cartilage matrix in osteoarthritis. Nature Reviews Rheumatology 2011 Jan; 7(1): 50–57.

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8. Perry GH, Smith MJ, Whiteside CG. Spontaneous recovery of the hip joint space in degenerative hip disease. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1972; 31: 440–448.

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11. Newman NM, Ling RS. Acetabular bone destruction related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The Lancet 1985; 2: 11–13.

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16. Messier SP, Loeser RF, Miller GD, et al. Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2004; 50: 1501–1510.

17. Sköldstam L, Hagfors L, Johansson G. An experimental study of a Mediterranean diet intervention for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2003; 62: 208–214.

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24. Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C. The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2003; 37: 45–49.

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33. Rovati LC, Giacovelli G, Annefeld M, et al. A large, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study of glucosamine sulfate vs piroxicam and vs their association, on the kinetics of the symptomatic effect in knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 1994; 2 suppl 1: 56.

34. Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998; 48: 469–474.

35. Thie NM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. The Journal of Rheumatology 2001; 28: 1347–1355.

36. Herrero-Beaumont G, Ivorra JA, Del Carmen Trabado M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2007 Feb; 56(2): 555–567.

37. Petersen SG, Saxne T, Heinegard D, et al. Glucosamine but not ibuprofen alters cartilage turnover in osteoarthritis patients in response to physical training. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2010 Jan; 18(1): 34–40.

38. Hughes R, Carr A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glucosamine sulphate as an analgesic in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology 2002; 41: 279–284.

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40. Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJ, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2008 Feb 19; 148(4): 268–277.

41. Cibere J, Thorne A, Kopec JA, et al. Glucosamine sulfate and cartilage type II collagen degradation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: randomized discontinuation trial results employing biomarkers. The Journal of Rheumatology 2005 May; 32(5): 896–902.

42. Tapadinhas MJ, Rivera IC, Bignamini AA. Oral glucosamine sulfate in the management of arthrosis: report on a multi-centre open investigation in Portugal. Pharmatherapeutica 1982; 3: 157–168.

43. Yoshimura M, Sakamoto K, Tsuruta A, et al. Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers for cartilage and bone metabolism in soccer players. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2009 Oct; 24(4): 487–494.

44. Ostojic SM, Arsic M, Prodanovic S, Vukovic J, Zlatanovic M. Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Research in Sports Medicine 2007 Apr–Jun; 15(2): 113–124.

45. Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Finco MF, et al. The effect of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a report from the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2008 Oct; 58(10): 3183–3191.

46. Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Finco MF, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2010 Aug; 69(8): 1459–1464.

47. Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, et al. Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans. Diabetes 2000; 49: 926–935.

48. Scroggie DA, Albright A, Harris MD. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003; 163: 1587–1590.

49. Tannis AJ, Barban J, Conquer JA. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy individuals. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2004 Jun; 12(6): 506–11.

50. Simon RR, Marks V, Leeds AR, Anderson JW. A comprehensive review of oral glucosamine use and effects on glucose metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 2011 Jan; 27(1): 14–22.

51. Knudsen JF, Sokol GH. Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database. Pharmacotherapy 2008 Apr; 28(4): 540–548.

52. Baici A, Horler D, Moser B, et al. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in human sera after oral administration of chondroitin sulfate. Rheumatology International 1992; 12: 81–88.

53. Conte A, Volpi N, Palmieri L, et al. Biochemical and pharmacokinetic aspects of oral treatment with chondroitin sulfate. Arzneimittelforschung 1995; 45: 918–925.

54. Volpi N, Oral bioavailability of chondroitin sulfate (Condrosulf) and its constituents in healthy male volunteers. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2002; 10: 768–777.

55. Shinmei M, Kobayashi T, et al. Significance of the levels of carboxy terminal type II procollagen peptide, chondroitin sulfate isomers, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, and metalloproteinases in osteoarthritis joint fluid. The Journal of Rheumatology 1995; 43 suppl: 78–81.

56. Conte A, de Bernardi M, Palmieri L, et al. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneimittelforschung 1991; 41: 768–772.

57. Baici A, Wagenhauser FJ. Bioavailability of oral chondroitin sulfate. Rheumatology International 1993; 13: 41–43.

58. Uebelhart D, Malaise M, Marcolongo R, et al. Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2004; 12: 269–276.

59. Pipitone VR. Chondroprotection with chondroitin sulfate. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 1991; 18: 3–7.

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62. Morreale P, Manopulo R, Galati M, et al. Comparision of the anti-inflammatory efficacy of chondroitinsulfate and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology 1996; 23: 1385–1391.

63. Mazières B, Hucher M, Zaïm M, Garnero P. Effect of chondroitin sulphate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2007 May; 66(5): 639–645.

64. Kahan A, Uebelhart D, De Vathaire F, et al. Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis: the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2009 Feb; 60(2): 524–533.

65. Bellamy N, Campbell J, Robinson V, et al. Viscosupplementation for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006 Apr 19; 2:CD005321.

66. Kalman DS, Heimer M, Valdeon A, et al. Effect of a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (Hyal-Joint) on pain relief and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition Journal 2008 Jan 21; 7: 3.

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68. Kaufman W. The common form of joint dysfunction: its incidence and treatment. Brattleboro, Vt.: E. L. Hildreth, 1949.

69. Hoffer A. Treatment of arthritis by nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1959; 81: 235–238.

70. Jonas WB, Rapoza CP, Blair WF. The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Inflammation Research 1996; 45: 330–334.

71. Soeken KL, Lee WL, Bausell RB, et al. Safety and efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for osteoarthritis. The Journal of Family Practice 2002; 51: 425–430.

72. Harmand MF, Vilamitjana J, Maloche E, et al. Effects of S-adenosylmethionine on human articular chondrocyte differentiation: an in vitro study. The American Journal of Medicine 1987; 83: 48–54.

73. Konig H, Stahl H, Sieper J, et al. [Magnetic resonance tomography of finger polyarthritis: morphology and cartilage signals after ademetionine therapy.] Aktuelle Radiologie 1995; 5: 36–40.

74. Muller-Fassbender H. Double-blind clinical trial of S-adenosylmethionine versus ibuprofen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. The American Journal of Medicine 1987; 83: 81–83.

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83. McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis & Rheumatism 1996; 39: 648–656.

84. Schwartz ER. The modulation of osteoarthritic development by vitamins C and E. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1984 suppl; 26: 141–146.

85. Bates CJ. Proline and hydroxyproline excretion and vitamin C status in elderly human subjects. Clinical Science & Molecular Medicine 1977; 52: 535–543.

86. Prins AP, Lipman JM, McDevitt CA, et al. Effect of purified growth factors on rabbit articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture. II. Sulfated proteoglycan synthesis. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1982; 25: 1228–1238.

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128. Schurgers LJ, Geleijnse JM, Grobbee DE, et al. Nutritional intake of vitamins K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone) in the Netherlands. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 1999 June; 9(2): 115–122.

129. Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyák K, et al. Vitamin K–containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood 2007 Apr 15; 109(8): 3279–3283.

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133. Emaus N, Gjesdal CG, Almås B, et al. Vitamin K2 supplementation does not influence bone loss in early menopausal women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Osteoporosis International 2010 Oct; 21(10): 1731–1740.

134. Mounier P, Roux R, Seaman E, et al. The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2004 Jan 29; 350: 459–468.

135. Meunier, P, Slosman, D, Delmas, P, et al. Strontium ranelate: dose-dependent effects in established postmenopausal vertebral osteoporosis—a 2-year randomized placebo controlled trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2002; 87: 2060–2066.

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137. Passeri M, Biondi M, Costi D, et al. Effect of ipriflavone on bone mass in elderly osteoporotic women. Bone and Mineral 1992; 19 suppl 1:S57–S62.

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139. Adami S, Bufalino L, Cervetti R, DiMarco C, DiMunno O, Fantasia L, et al. Ipriflavone prevents radial bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass over 2 years. Osteoporosis International 1997; 7: 119–125.

140. Melis GB, Paoletti AM, Cagnacci A, et al. Lack of any estrogenic effect of ipriflavone in postmenopausal women. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 1992; 15: 755–761.

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145. Muraki S, Yamamoto S, Ishibashi H, et al. Diet and lifestyle associated with increased bone mineral density: cross-sectional study of Japanese elderly women at an osteoporosis outpatient clinic. Journal of Orthopaedic Science 2007 Jul; 12(4): 317–320.

146. Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, et al. Green tea and bone health: evidence from laboratory studies. Pharmacological Research 2011 Aug; 64(2): 155–161.

147. Shen CL, Cao JJ, Dagda RY, et al. Supplementation with green tea polyphenols improves bone microstructure and quality in aged, orchidectomized rats. Calcified Tissue International 2011 Jun; 88(6): 455–463.

148. Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Wang JS. Green tea and bone metabolism. Nutrition Research 2009 Jul; 29(7): 437–456.

Parkinson’s Disease

1. Samii A, Nutt JG, Ransom BR. Parkinson’s disease. The Lancet 2004; 363: 1783–1793.

2. Calne DB, Langston JW, Martin WR, et al. Positron emission tomography after MPTP: observations relating to the cause of Parkinson’s disease. Nature 1985; 317: 246–248.

3. Priyadarshi A, Khuder SA, Schaub EA, et al. Environmental risk factors and Parkinson’s disease: a metaanalysis. Environmental Research 2001; 86: 122–127.

4. Betarbet R, Sherer TB, MacKenzie G, et al. Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson’s disease. Nature Neuroscience 2000; 3: 1301–1306.

5. Bashkatova V, Alam M, Vanin A, et al. Chronic administration of rotenone increases levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation products in rat brain. Experimental Neurology 2004; 186: 235–241.

6. Snyder SH, D’Amato RJ. Predicting Parkinson’s disease. Nature 1985; 317: 198–199.

7. Di Monte DA. The environment and Parkinson’s disease: Is the nigrostriatal system preferentially targeted by neurotoxins? The Lancet Neurology 2003; 2: 531–538.

8. Olanow CW. Manganese-induced Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004; 1012: 209–223.

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15. Onyango IG. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. Neurochemical Research 2008 Mar; 33(3): 589–597.

16. Bharath S, Hsu M, Kaur D, et al. Glutathione, iron and Parkinson’s disease. Biochemical Pharmacology 2002; 64: 1037–1048.

17. Büeler H. Impaired mitochondrial dynamics and function in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Experimental Neurology 2009 Aug; 218(2): 235–246.

18. Jankovic J. Levodopa strengths and weaknesses. Neurology 2002; 58(4 suppl 1):S19–S32.

19. Karstaedt PJ, Pincus JH. Protein redistribution diet remains effective in patients with fluctuating parkinsonism. Archives of Neurology 1992; 49: 149–151.

20. de Rijk MC, Breteler MM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson disease. The Rotterdam Study. Archives of Neurology 1997; 54: 762–765.

21. Scheider WL, Hershey LA, Vena JE, et al. Dietary antioxidants and other dietary factors in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders 1997; 12: 190–196.

22. Vatassery GT, Fahn S, Kuskowski MA. Alpha tocopherol in CSF of subjects taking high-dose vitamin E in the DATATOP study. Parkinson Study Group. Neurology 1998; 50: 1900–1902.

23. Fahn S. A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in early Parkinson’s disease. Annals of Neurology 1992: 32:S128–S32.

24. Shoulson I. DATATOP: a decade of neuroprotective inquiry. Parkinson Study Group. Deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism. Annals of Neurology 1998; 44:S160–S166.

25. Zhang SM, Hernán MA, Chen H, et al. Intakes of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, vitamin supplements, and PD risk. Neurology 2002; 59: 1161–1169.

26. Shults CW, Haas RH, Beal MF. A possible role of coenzyme Q10 in the etiology and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Biofactors 1999; 9: 267–272.

27. Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Archives of Neurology 2002; 59: 1541–1550.

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30. Birkmayer W, Birkmayer GJ. Nicotinamidadenindinucleotide (NADH): the new approach in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science 1989; 19: 38–43.

31. Kuhn W, Muller T, Winkel R, et al. Parenteral application of NADH in Parkinson’s disease: clinical improvement partially due to stimulation of endogenous levodopa biosynthesis. Journal of Neural Transmission 1996; 103: 1187–1193.

32. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in Parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 1989; 317: 1235–1246.

33. Mayeux R, Stern Y, Sano M, et al. The relationship of serotonin to depression in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders 1988; 3: 237–244.

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37. Mendlewicz J, Youdim MB. Antidepressant potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan by L-deprenil in affective illness. Journal of Affective Disorders 1980; 2: 137–146.

38. Berman AE, Chan WY, Brennan AM, et al. N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1-/- mouse. Annals of Neurology 2011 Mar; 69(3): 509–520.

39. Hauser RA, Lyons KE, McClain T, et al. Randomized, double-blind, pilot evaluation of intravenous glutathione in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders 2009 May 15; 24(7): 979–983.

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42. Gessner B, Voelp A, Klasser M. Study of the long-term action of a Ginkgo biloba extract on vigilance and mental performance as determined by means of quantitative pharmaco-EEG and psychometric measurements. Arzneimittelforschung 1985; 35: 1459–1465.

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Peptic Ulcer

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3. Weil J, Colin-Jones D, Langman M. Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding. BMJ 1995; 310: 827–830.

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5. Anda RF, Williamson DF, Escobedo LG, et al. Self-perceived stress and the risk of peptic ulcer disease. A longitudinal study of US adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 1992; 152: 829–833.

6. Ogle CW. Smoking and gastric ulcers: the possible role of nicotine. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1999 May; 39(5): 448–453.

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11. Kumar N, Kumar A, Broor SL, et al. Effect of milk on patients with duodenal ulcers. British Medical Journal 1986; 293: 666.

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14. Harju E, Larmi TK. Effect of guar gum added to the diet of patients with duodenal ulcer. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1985; 9: 496–500.

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16. Cheney G. Anti–peptic ulcer dietary factor. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1950; 26: 668–672.

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18. Yanaka A, Fahey JW, Fukumoto A, et al. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori–infected mice and humans. Cancer Prevention Research 2009 Apr; 2(4): 353–360.

19. Marshall BJ, Valenzuela JE, McCallum RW, et al. Bismuth subsalicylate suppression of Helicobacter pylori in nonulcer dyspepsia: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1993; 38: 1674–1680.

20. Kang JY, Tay HH, Wee A, et al. Effect of colloidal bismuth subcitrate on symptoms and gastric histology in non-ulcer dyspepsia. A double blind placebo controlled study. Gut 1990; 31: 476–480.

21. Loughlin MF. Novel therapeutic targets in Helicobacter pylori. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 2003; 7: 725–735.

22. Thyagarajan SP, Ray P, Das BK, et al. Geographical difference in antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates from Indian patients: multicentric study. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2003; 18: 1373–1378.

23. Schumpelick V, Farthmann E. [Study on the protective effect of vitamin A on stress ulcer of the rat.] Arzneimittelforschung 1976; 26: 386–388.

24. al-Moutairy AR, Tariq M. Effect of vitamin E and selenium on hypothermic restraint stress and chemically-induced ulcers. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1996; 41: 1165–1171.

25. Patty I, Benedek S, Deák G, et al. Cytoprotective effect of vitamin A and its clinical importance in the treatment of patients with chronic gastric ulcer. International Journal of Tissue Reactions 1983; 5(3): 301–307.

26. Frommer DJ. The healing of gastric ulcers by zinc sulphate. The Medical Journal of Australia 1975; 2: 793–796.

27. Matsukura T, Tanaka H. Applicability of zinc complex of L-carnosine for medical use. Biochemistry (Moscow) 2000 Jul; 65(7): 817–823.

28. Morgan AG, McAdam WA, Pacsoo C, et al. Comparison between cimetidine and Caved-S in the treatment of gastric ulceration, and subsequent maintenance therapy. Gut 1982; 23: 545–551.

29. Tewari SN, Trembalowicz FC. Some experience with deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers with special reference to its spasmolytic effect. Gut 1968; 9: 48–51.

30. Balakrishnan V, Pillai MV, Raveendran PM, et al. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1978; 26: 811–814.

31. Rees WD, Rhodes J, Wright JE, et al. Effect of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice on gastric mucosal damage by aspirin. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 1979; 14: 605–607.

32. Fukai T, Marumo A, Kaitou K, et al. Anti–Helicobacter pylori flavonoids from licorice extract. Life Sciences 2002; 71: 1449–1463.

33. Al-Habbal MJ, Al-Habbal Z, Huwez FU. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 1984 Sep–Oct; 11(5): 541–544.

34. Dabos KJ, Sfika E, Vlatta LJ, Giannikopoulos G. The effect of mastic gum on Helicobacter pylori: a randomized pilot study. Phytomedicine 2010 Mar; 17(3–4): 296–299.

35. Zhou H, Jiao D. [312 cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer bleeding treated with 3 kinds of alcoholic extract rhubarb tablets.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1990; 10: 150–151,131–132.

Periodontal Disease

1. Newman MG, Takei H, Klokkevold PR, Carranza F. Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology, 11th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 2011.

2. Deliargyris EN, Madianos PN, Kadoma W, et al. Periodontal disease in patients with acute myocardial infarction: prevalence and contribution to elevated C-reactive protein levels. American Heart Journal 2004; 147: 1005–1009.

3. Page RC, Schroeder HE. Current status of the host response in chronic marginal periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology 1981; 52: 477–491.

4. Hyyppa T. Gingival IgE and histamine concentrations in patients with asthma and in patients with periodontitis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1984; 11: 132–137.

5. Addya S, Chakravarti K, Basu A, et al. Effects of mercuric chloride on several scavenging enzymes in rat kidney and influence of vitamin E supplementation. Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 1984; 6: 103–107.

6. Bartold PM, Wiebkin OW, Thonard JC. The effect of oxygen-derived free radicals on gingival proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid. Journal of Periodontal Research 1984; 19: 390–400.

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8. Kaldahl WB, Johnson GK, Patil KD, et al. Levels of cigarette consumption and response to periodontal therapy. Journal of Periodontology 1996; 67: 675–681.

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10. Abbas F, van der Velden U, Hart AA. Relation between wound healing after surgery and susceptibility to periodontal disease. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1984; 11: 221–229.

11. Alvares O, Altman LC, Springmeyer S, et al. The effect of subclinical ascorbate deficiency on periodontal health in nonhuman primates. Journal of Periodontal Research 1981; 16: 628–636.

12. Woolfe SN, Hume WR, Kenney EB. Ascorbic acid and periodontal disease: a review of the literature. The Journal of the Western Society of Periodontology/Periodontal Abstracts 1980; 28: 44–56.

13. Alfano MC, Miller SA, Drummond JF. Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on the permeability and collagen biosynthesis of oral mucosal epithelium. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1975; 258: 253–263.

14. Alvares O, Siegel I. Permeability of gingival sulcular epithelium in the development of scorbutic gingivitis. Journal of Oral Pathology 1981; 10: 40–48.

15. Ringsdorf WM Jr, Cheraskin E, Ramsay RR Jr. Sucrose, neutrophilic phagocytosis and resistance to disease. Dental Survey 1976; 52: 46–48.

16. Sanchez A, Reeser JL, Lau HS, et al. Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1973; 26: 1180–1184.

17. Prasad AS. Clinical, biochemical and nutritional spectrum of zinc deficiency in human subjects: an update. Nutrition Reviews 1983; 41: 197–208.

18. Freeland JH, Cousins RJ, Schwartz R. Relationship of mineral status and intake to periodontal disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976; 29: 745–749.

19. Harrap GJ, Saxton CA, Best JS. Inhibition of plaque growth by zinc salts. Journal of Periodontal Research 1983; 18: 634–642.

20. Hsieh S, Hayali A, Navia J. Zinc. In Trace elements in dental disease, ed. Curzon M, Cutress T. Boston: John Wright PSG, 1983, 99–220.

21. Kim JE, Shklar G. The effect of vitamin E on the healing of gingival wounds in rats. Journal of Periodontology 1983; 54: 305–308.

22. Folkers K, Yamamura Y. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q, vol. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1977, 294–311.

23. Folkers K, Yamamura Y. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q, vol. 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1981, 109–125.

24. Rao CN, Rao VH, Steinmann B. Influence of bioflavonoids on the metabolism and crosslinking of collagen. Italian Journal of Biochemistry 1981; 30: 259–270.

25. Pearce FL, Befus AD, Bienenstock J. Mucosal mast cells. III. Effect of quercetin and other flavonoids on antigen-induced histamine secretion from rat intestinal mast cells. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1984; 73: 819–823.

26. Busse WW, Kopp DE, Middleton E Jr. Flavonoid modulation of human neutrophil function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1984; 73: 801–809.

27. Petti S, Scully C. Polyphenols, oral health and disease: a review. Journal of Dentistry 2009 Jun; 37(6): 413–423.

28. Houde V, Grenier D, Chandad F. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins against oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharides of periodontopathogens. Journal of Periodontology 2006 Aug; 77(8): 1371–1379.

29. Koyama Y, Kuriyama S, Aida J, et al. Association between green tea consumption and tooth loss: cross-sectional results from the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study. Preventive Medicine 2010 Apr; 50(4): 173–179.

30. Hirasawa M, Takada K, Makimura M, et al. Improvement of periodontal status by green tea catechin using a local delivery system: a clinical pilot study. Journal of Periodontal Research 2002; 37: 433–438.

31. Krahwinkel T, Willershausen B. The effect of sugar-free green tea chew candies on the degree of inflammation of the gingiva. European Journal of Medical Research 2000; 5: 463–467.

32. Kimbrough C, Chun M, dela Roca G, et al. Pycnogenol chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation. Phytomedicine 2002; 9: 410–413.

33. Vogel RI, Fink RA, Schneider LC, et al. The effect of folic acid on gingival health. Journal of Periodontology 1976; 47: 667–668.

34. Vogel RI, Fink RA, Frank O, et al. The effect of topical application of folic acid on gingival health. Journal of Oral Medicine 1978; 33: 20–22.

35. Pack AR, Thomson ME. Effects of topical and systemic folic acid supplementation on gingivitis in pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1980; 7: 402–414.

36. Thomson ME, Pack AR. Effects of extended systemic and topical folate supplementation on gingivitis of pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1982; 9: 275–280.

37. Pack AR. Folate mouthwash: effects on established gingivitis in periodontal patients. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 1984; 11: 619–628.

38. Whitehead N, Reyner F, Lindenbaum J. Megaloblastic changes in the cervical epithelium association with oral contraceptive therapy and reversal with folic acid. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1973; 226: 1421–1424.

39. Butterworth CE Jr, Hatch KD, Gore H, et al. Improvement in cervical dysplasia associated with folic acid therapy in users of oral contraceptives. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982; 35: 73–82.

40. da Costa M, Rothenberg SP. Appearance of a folate binder in leukocytes and serum of women who are pregnant or taking oral contraceptives. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1974; 83: 207–214.

41. Godowski KC. Antimicrobial action of sanguinarine. The Journal of Clinical Dentistry 1989; 1: 96–101.

42. Grossman E, Meckel AH, Isaacs RL, et al. A clinical comparison of antibacterial mouthrinses: effects of chlorhexidine, phenolics, and sanguinarine on dental plaque and gingivitis. Journal of Periodontology 1989; 60: 435–440.

43. Benedicenti A, Galli D, Merlini A. [The clinical therapy of periodontal disease, the use of potassium hydroxide and the water-alcohol extract of Centella asiatica in combination with laser therapy in the treatment of severe periodontal disease.] Parodontologia e Stomatologia1985; 24: 11–26.

Premenstrual Syndrome

1. Biskind MS, Biskind GR. Diminution in ability of the liver to inactivate estrone in vitamin B complex deficiency. Science 1941; 94: 462.

2. Biskind MS. Nutritional deficiency in the etiology of menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, cystic mastitis and premenstrual tension; treatment with vitamin B complex. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1943; 3: 227–234.

3. Facchinetti F, Nappi G, Petraglia F, et al. Oestradiol/progesterone imbalance and the premenstrual syndrome. The Lancet 1983; 2: 1302.

4. Chuong CJ, Hsi BP, Gibbons WE. Periovulatory beta-endorphin levels in premenstrual syndrome. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994; 83: 755–760.

5. Wynn V, Adams PW, Folkard J, Seed M. Tryptophan, depression and steroidal contraception. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 1975; 6: 965–970.

6. Bermond P. Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6. Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 1982; 4: 45–54.

7. Abraham GE. Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1983; 28: 446–464.

8. Goei G, Ralston J, Abraham G. Dietary patterns of patients with premenstrual tension. Journal of Applied Nutrition 1982; 34: 4.

9. Cross G, Marley J, Miles H, Wilson K. Changes in nutrient intake during the menstrual cycle of overweight women with premenstrual syndrome. British Journal of Nutrition 2001; 5(4): 475–482.

10. Wurtman J. Carbohydrate craving. Relationship between carbohydrate intake and disorders of mood. Drugs 1990; 39 suppl 3: 49–52.

11. Rossignol AM, Bonnlander H. Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1991; 36: 131–136.

12. Yudkin J, Eisa O. Dietary sucrose and oestradiol concentration in young men. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 1988; 32: 53–55.

13. Boyd N, McGuire V, Shannon P, et al. Effect of a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on symptoms of cyclical mastopathy. The Lancet 1988; 2(8603): 128–132.

14. Puder JJ, Blum CA, Mueller B, et al. Menstrual cycle symptoms are associated with low-grade inflammation. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2006; 36: 58–64.

15. Gorbach SL, Goldin BR. Diet and the excretion and enterohepatic cycling of estrogens. Preventive Medicine 1987; 16: 525–531.

16. Goldin BR, Adlercreutz H, Gorbach SL, et al. Estrogen patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. The New England Journal of Medicine 1982; 307: 1542–1547.

17. Longcope C, Gorbach S, Goldin B, et al. The effect of a low fat diet on estrogen metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1987; 64: 1246–1250.

18. Woods MN, Gorbach SL, Longcope C, et al. Low-fat, high-fiber diet and serum estrone sulfate in premenopausal women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989; 49: 1179–1183.

19. Jones DY. Influence of dietary fat on self-reported menstrual symptoms. Physiology & Behavior 1987; 40: 483–487.

20. Gold E, Bair Y, Block G, et al. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with premenstrual symptoms in a racially diverse community sample: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Journal of Women’s Health 2007 Jun; 16(5): 641–656.

21. Brayshaw ND, Brayshaw DD. Thyroid hypofunction in premenstrual syndrome. The New England Journal of Medicine 1986; 315: 1486–1487.

22. Roy-Byrne PP, Rubinow DR, Hoban MC, et al. TSH and prolactin responses to TRH in patients with premenstrual syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1987; 144: 480–484.

23. Girdler SS, Pedersen CA, Light KC. Thyroid axis function during the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1995; 20: 395–403.

24. Schmidt PJ, Grover GN, Roy-Byrne PP, Rubinow DR. Thyroid function in women with premenstrual syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1993; 76: 671–674.

25. Rapkin A. The role of serotonin in premenstrual syndrome. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992; 35: 629–636.

26. Kuczmierczyk AR, Johnson CC, Labrum AH. Coping styles in women with premenstrual syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1994; 89: 301–305.

27. Eriksson E, Alling C, Andersch B, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites. A preliminary study of their relation to menstrual cycle phase, sex steroids, and pituitary hormones in healthy women and in women with premenstrual syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994; 11: 201–213.

28. Halbreich U, Petty F, Yonkers K, et al. Low plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid levels during the late luteal phase of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1996; 153: 718–720.

29. Van Zak DB. Biofeedback treatments for premenstrual and premenstrual affective syndromes. International Journal of Psychosomatics 1994; 41: 53–60.

30. Kirkby RJ. Changes in premenstrual symptoms and irrational thinking following cognitive-behavioral coping skills training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1994; 62: 1026–1032.

31. Aganoff JA, Boyle GJ. Aerobic exercise, mood states and menstrual cycle symptoms. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1994; 38: 183–192.

32. Choi PY, Salmon P. Symptom changes across the menstrual cycle in competitive sportswomen, exercisers and sedentary women. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 1995; 34: 447–460.

33. Steege JF, Blumenthal JA. The effects of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms in middle-aged women. A preliminary study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1993; 37: 127–133.

34. Gannon L. The potential role of exercise in the alleviation of menstrual disorders and menopausal symptoms: a theoretical synthesis of recent research. Women and Health 1988; 14: 105.

35. Kliejnen J, Ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome—a review. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1990; 97: 847–852.

36. Barr W. Pyridoxine supplements in the premenstrual syndrome. Practitioner 1984; 228: 425–427.

37. Doll H, Brown S, Thurston A, Vessey M. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1989; 39: 364–368.

38. Berman MK, Taylor ML, Freeman E. Vitamin B6 in premenstrual syndrome. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1990; 90: 859–861.

39. Zempleni J. Pharmacokinetics of vitamin B6 supplements in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1995; 14: 579–586.

40. Majumdar P, Boylan M. Alteration of tissue magnesium levels in rats by dietary vitamin B6 supplementation. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1989; 59: 300–303.

41. Posaci C, Erten O, Uren A, Acar B. Plasma copper, zinc, and magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension syndrome. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1994; 73: 452–455.

42. Piesse JW. Nutritional factors in the premenstrual syndrome. International Clinical Nutrition Review 1984; 4: 54–81.

43. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1991; 78: 177–181.

44. Rosenstein DL, Elin RJ, Hosseini JM, et al. Magnesium measures across the menstrual cycle in premenstrual syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 1994; 35: 557–561.

45. London RS, Bradley R, Chiamori NY. Effect of a nutritional supplement on premenstrual symptomatology in women with premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind longitudinal study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1991; 10: 494–499.

46. Stewart A. Clinical and biochemical effects of nutritional supplementation on the premenstrual syndrome. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1987; 32: 435–441.

47. Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1990; 9: 48–55.

48. Bohmer T, Roseth A, Holm H, et al. Bioavailability of oral magnesium supplementation in female students evaluated from elimination of magnesium in 24-hour urine. Magnesium and Trace Elements 1990; 9: 272–278.

49. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, Tian J. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998 Aug; 179(2): 444–452.

50. Penland JG, Johnson PE. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1993; 168: 1417–1423.

51. Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989; 4: 183–189.

52. Chuong CJ, Dawson EB. Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome. Fertility and Sterility 1994; 62: 313–320.

53. Judd AM, Macleod RM, Login IS. Zinc acutely, selectively and reversibly inhibits pituitary prolactin secretion. Brain Research 1984; 294: 190–192.

54. London RS, Sundaram G, Manimekalai S, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double-blind study. II. Endocrine correlates. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1984; 3: 351–356.

55. Horrobin DF, Manku M, Brush M, et al. Abnormalities in plasma essential fatty acid levels in women with premenstrual syndrome and with non-malignant breast disease. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 1991; 2: 259–264.

56. Budeiri D, Li Wan Po A, Dornan JC. Is evening primrose oil of value in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome? Controlled Clinical Trials 1996; 17: 60–68.

57. Khoo SK, Munro C, Battistutta D. Evening primrose oil and treatment of premenstrual syndrome. The Medical Journal of Australia 1990; 153: 189–192.

58. Steinberg S, Annable L, Young SN, Liyanage N. A placebo-controlled study of the effects of L-tryptophan in patients with premenstrual dysphoria. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1999; 467: 85–88.

59. Steinberg S, Annable L, Young SN, Bélanger MC. Tryptophan in the treatment of late luteal phase dysphoric disorder: a pilot study. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience 1994 Mar; 19(2): 114–119.

60. Dittmar FW. [Premenstrual syndrome: treatment with a phytopharmaceutical.] Therapiewoche Gynäkologie 1992; 5: 60–68.

61. Peteres-Welte C, Albrecht M. [Menstrual abnormalities and PMS. Vitex agnus-castus.Therapiewoche Gynäkologie 1994; 7: 49–52.

62. Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. BMJ 2001; 322: 134–137.

63. Atmaca M, Kumru S, Tezcan C. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric syndrome. Human Psychopharmacology 2003; 3: 191–5.

64. He Z, Chen R, Zhou Y, et al. Treatment for premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: a prospective, randomized, multi-center placebo controlled study in China. Maturitas 2009; 63: 99–103.

65. Van Die M, Bone K, Burger H, et al. Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMS-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: findings from a subpopulation analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2009; 15(9): 1045–1048.

66. Tamborini A, Taurelle R. [Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.] Revue Française de Gynécologie et d’Obstetrique 1993; 88: 447–457.

67. Ozgoli G, Selselei E, Mojab F, Majd H. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2009 Aug; 15(8): 845–851.

68. Canning S, Waterman M, Orsi N, et al. The efficacy of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. CNS Drugs 2010; 24(3): 207–225.

69. Stevinson C, Ernst E. A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2000; 107: 870–876.

70. Agha-Hosseini M, Kashani L, Aleyaseen A, et al. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2008; 115: 515–519.

Prostate Cancer (Prevention)

1. Ilic D, O’Connor D, Green S, Wilt TJ. Screening for prostate cancer: an updated Cochrane systematic review. BJU International 2011 Mar; 107(6): 882–891.

2. Chou R, Croswell JM, Dana T, et al. Screening for prostate cancer: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine 2011 Nov 4 [epub ahead of print].

3. Hawk E, Breslow RA, Graubard BI. Male pattern baldness and clinical prostate cancer in the epidemiologic follow-up of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2000; 9: 523–527.

4. Fair WR, Fleshner NE, Heston W. Cancer of the prostate: a nutritional disease? Urology 1997; 50: 840–848.

5. Hori S, Butler E, McLoughlin J. Prostate cancer and diet: food for thought? BJU International 2011 May; 107(9): 1348–1359.

6. Venkateswaran V, Klotz LH. Diet and prostate cancer: mechanisms of action and implications for chemoprevention. Nature Reviews Urology 2010 Aug; 7(8): 442–453.

7. John EM, Stern MC, Sinha R, Koo J. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 2011 May; 63(4): 525–537.

8. Raimondi S, Mabrouk JB, Shatenstein B, et al. Diet and prostate cancer risk with specific focus on dairy products and dietary calcium: a case-control study. Prostate 2010 Jul 1; 70(10): 1054–1065.

9. Newmark HL, Heaney RP. Dairy products and prostate cancer risk. Nutrition and Cancer 2010; 62(3): 297–299.

10. Hardin J, Cheng I, Witte JS. Impact of consumption of vegetable, fruit, grain, and high glycemic index foods on aggressive prostate cancer risk. Nutrition and Cancer 2011; 63(6): 860–872.

11. Itsiopoulos C, Hodge A, Kaimakamis M. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer? Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2009 Feb; 53(2): 227–239.

12. Yan L, Spitznagel EL. Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 Apr; 89(4): 1155–1163.

13. Moyad MA. Soy, disease prevention, and prostate cancer. Seminars in Urologic Oncology 1999; 17: 97–102.

14. Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 1998; 9: 553–557.

15. Travis RC, Spencer EA, Allen NE, et al. Plasma phyto-oestrogens and prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. British Journal of Cancer 2009 Jun 2; 100(11): 1817–1823.

16. Norrish AE, Skeaff CM, Arribas GL, et al. Prostate cancer risk and consumption of fish oils: a dietary biomarker-based case-control study. British Journal of Cancer 1999; 81: 1238–1242.

17. Williams CD, Whitley BM, Hoyo C, et al. A high ratio of dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Nutrition Research 2011 Jan; 31(1): 1–8.

18. Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate 2001; 47: 262–268.

19. Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Sacks FM, et al. Prospective study of plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1994; 86: 281–286.

20. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993; 85: 1571–1579.

21. Simon JA, Chen YH, Bent S. The relation of alpha-linolenic acid to the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009 May; 89(5): 1558S–1564S.

22. Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Gridley G, et al. Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1999; 8: 25–34.

23. Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features. Urology 2001; 58: 47–52.

24. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90: 440–446.

25. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2000; 92: 2018–2023.

26. Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1996 Dec 25; 276(24): 1957–1963.

27. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2009 Jan 7; 301(1): 39–51.

28. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU International 2003; 91(7): 608–612.

29. Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Research 1999; 59: 1225–1230.

30. Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Sakr W, et al. Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2001; 10: 861–868.

31. Weisburger JH. Lycopene and tomato products in health promotion. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2002; 227: 924–927.

32. Pastori M, Pfander H, Boscoboinik D, Azzi A. Lycopene in association with alpha-tocopherol inhibits at physiological concentrations proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1998; 250: 582–585.

33. Gilbert R, Metcalfe C, Fraser WD, et al. Associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D with prostate cancer diagnosis, stage and grade. International Journal of Cancer 2011 Oct 27. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27327. [Epub ahead of print.]

34. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, et al. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006 Dec 13; 54(25): 9329–9339.

35. Kampa M, Theodoropoulou K, Mavromati F, et al. Novel oligomeric proanthocyanidin derivatives interact with membrane androgen sites and induce regression of hormone-independent prostate cancer. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2011 Apr; 337(1): 24–32.

36. Shang XJ, Yao G, Ge JP, et al. Procyanidin induces apoptosis and necrosis of prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in a mitochondrion-dependent manner. Journal of Andrology 2009 Mar–Apr; 30(2): 122–126.

37. Adhami VM, Khan N, Mukhtar H. Cancer chemoprevention by pomegranate: laboratory and clinical evidence. Nutrition and Cancer 2009; 61(6): 811–815.

38. Brasky TM, Kristal AR, Navarro SL, et al. Specialty supplements and prostate cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Prostate 2008 Nov 1; 68(15): 1647–1654.

39. Rossi M, Bosetti C, Negri E, et al. Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy. Nutrition and Cancer 2010; 62(7): 871–877.

40. Khan N, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Review: green tea polyphenols in chemoprevention of prostate cancer: preclinical and clinical studies. Nutrition and Cancer 2009; 61(6): 836–841.

41. Wang P, Aronson WJ, Huang M, et al. Green tea polyphenols and metabolites in prostatectomy tissue: implications for cancer prevention. Cancer Prevention Research 2010 Aug; 3(8): 985–993.

42. McLarty J, Bigelow RL, Smith M, et al. Tea polyphenols decrease serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients and inhibit production of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. Cancer Prevention Research 2009 Jul; 2(7): 673–782.

43. Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, et al. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Research 2006 Jan 15; 66(2): 1234–1240.

44. Papaioannou M, Schleich S, Roell D, et al. NBBS isolated from Pygeum africanum bark exhibits androgen antagonistic activity, inhibits AR nuclear translocation and prostate cancer cell growth. Investigational New Drugs 2010 Dec; 28(6): 729–743.

45. Quiles MT, Arbós MA, Fraga A, et al. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the herbal agent Pygeum africanum on cultured prostate stromal cells from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostate 2010 Jul 1; 70(10): 1044–1053.

Prostate Enlargement (BPH)

1. Bushman W. Etiology, epidemiology, and natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urologic Clinics of North America 2009 Nov; 36(4): 403–415.

2. Pearson JD, Lei HH, Beaty TH, et al. Familial aggregation of bothersome benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms. Urology 2003; 61: 781–785.

3. Habuchi T, Liqing Z, Suzuki T, et al. Increased risk of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with a CYP17 gene polymorphism with a gene dosage effect. Cancer Research 2000; 60: 5710–5713.

4. Horton R. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. A disorder of androgen metabolism in the male. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1984; 32: 380–385.

5. Dull P, Reagan RW Jr, Bahnson RR. Managing benign prostatic hyperplasia. American Family Physician 2002; 66: 77–84.

6. Platz EA, Kawachi I, Rimm EB, et al. Physical activity and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Archives of Internal Medicine 1998 Nov 23; 158: 2349–2356.

7. Suzuki S, Platz EA, Kawachi I, et al. Intakes of energy and macronutrients and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 75: 689–697.

8. Zhang SX, Yu B, Guo SL, et al. [Comparison of incidence of BPH and related factors between urban and rural inhabitants in district of Wannan.] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2003; 9: 45–47.

9. Lagiou P, Wuu J, Trichopoulou A, et al. Diet and benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece. Urology 1999; 54: 284–290.

10. Ambrosini GL, de Klerk NH, Mackerras D, et al. Dietary patterns and surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case control study in Western Australia. BJU International 2008 Apr; 101(7): 853–860.

11. Gass R. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: the opposite effects of alcohol and coffee intake. BJU International 2002; 90: 649–654.

12. Bush IM, Berman E, Nourkayhan S, et al. Zinc and the prostate. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association, Chicago, 1974.

13. Fahim M, Fahim Z, Der R, et al. Zinc treatment for the reduction of hyperplasia of the prostate. Federation Proceedings 1976; 35: 361.

14. Leake A, Chrisholm GD, Busuttil A, et al. Subcellular distribution of zinc in the benign and malignant human prostate: evidence for a direct zinc androgen interaction. Acta Endocrinologica 1984; 105: 281–288.

15. Zaichick VY, Sviridova TV, Zaichick SV. Zinc concentration in human prostatic fluid: normal, chronic prostatitis, adenoma and cancer. International Urology and Nephrology 1996; 28: 687–694.

16. Leake A, Chisholm GD, Habib FK. The effect of zinc on the 5-alpha-reduction of testosterone by the hyperplastic human prostate gland. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 1984; 20: 651–655.

17. Wallace AM, Grant JK. Effect of zinc on androgen metabolism in the human hyperplastic prostate. Biochemical Society Transactions 1975; 3: 540–542.

18. Judd AM, Macleod RM, Login IS. Zinc acutely, selectively and reversibly inhibits pituitary prolactin secretion. Brain Research 1984; 294: 190–192.

19. Login IS, Thorner MO, MacLeod RM. Zinc may have a physiological role in regulating pituitary prolactin secretion. Neuroendocrinology 1983; 37: 317–320.

20. Farnsworth WE, Slaunwhite WR, Sharma M, et al. Interaction of prolactin and testosterone in the human prostate. Urological Research 1981; 9: 79–88.

21. Farrar DJ, Pryor JS. The effect of bromocriptine in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. British Journal of Urology 1976; 48: 73–75.

22. DeRosa G, Corsello SM, Ruffilli MP, et al. Prolactin secretion after beer. The Lancet 1981; 2: 934.

23. Corenblum B, Whitaker M. Inhibition of stress-induced hyperprolactinaemia. British Medical Journal 1977; 2: 1328.

24. Chyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, et al. A prospective study of alcohol, diet, and other lifestyle factors in relation to obstructive uropathy. Prostate 1993; 22: 253–264.

25. Chyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, et al. A prospective study of alcohol, diet, and other lifestyle factors in relation to obstructive uropathy. Prostate 1993; 22: 253–264.

26. Damrau F. Benign prostatic hypertrophy: amino acid therapy for symptomatic relief. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1962; 10: 426–430.

27. Feinblatt HM, Gant JC. Palliative treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy; value of glycine-alanine-glutamic acid combination. The Journal of the Maine Medical Association 1958; 49: 99–101.

28. Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. Serum plant sterols and their relation to cholesterol absorption. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986; 43: 92–97.

29. Berges RR, Windeler J, Tramisch HJ, et al. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Beta-sitosterol Study Group. The Lancet 1995; 345: 1529–1532.

30. Buck AC. Phytotherapy for the prostate. British Journal of Urology 1996; 78: 325–336.

31. Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Stark G, et al. Saw palmetto extracts for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 1998; 280: 1604–1609.

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38. Dutkiewicz S. Usefulness of cernilton in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. International Urology and Nephrology 1996; 28: 49–53.

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Psoriasis

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21. Juhlin L, Vahlquist C. The influence of treatment and fibrin microclot generation in psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology 1983; 108: 33–37.

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26. Monk BE, Neill SM. Alcohol consumption and psoriasis. Dermatologica 1986; 173: 57–60.

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30. Grimmunger F, Mayser P, Papavassilis C. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of N-3 fatty acid based lipid infusion in acute, extended guttate psoriasis. Rapid improvement of clinical manifestations and changes in neutrophil leukotriene profile. Clinical Investigation 1993; 71: 634–643.

31. Maurice PD, Allen BR, Barkley AS, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil in patients with psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology 1987; 1117: 599–606.

32. Mayser P, Grimm H, Grimminger F. N-3 fatty acids in psoriasis. British Journal of Nutrition 2002; 87:S77–S82.

33. Lithell H, Bruce A, Gustafsson IB, et al. A fasting and vegetarian diet treatment trial on chronic inflammatory disorders. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1983; 63: 397–403.

34. Douglas JM. Psoriasis and diet. California Medicine 1980; 133: 450.

35. Bazex A. Diet without gluten and psoriasis. Annals of Dermatology Symposiums 1976; 103: 648.

36. Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004; 1030: 434–441.

37. Majewski S, Janik P, Langer A, et al. Decreased levels of vitamin A in serum of patients with psoriasis. Archives of Dermatological Research 1989; 280: 499–501.

38. Hinks LJ, Young S, Clayton B. Trace element status in eczema and psoriasis. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 1987; 12: 93–97.

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40. Fratino P, Pelfini C, Jucci A, et al. Glucose and insulin in psoriasis: the role of obesity and genetic history. Panminerva Medica 1979 Oct–Dec; 21(4): 167–172.

41. Kimball AB, Wu Y. Cardiovascular disease and classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis. International Journal of Dermatology 2009 Nov; 48(11): 1147–1156.

42. Rocha-Pereira P, Santos-Silva A, Rebelo I, et al. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in mild and in severe psoriasis as a risk for cardiovascular disease. Clinica Chimica Acta 2001; 303: 33–39.

43. Ludwig RJ, Herzog C, Rostock A, et al. Psoriasis: a possible risk factor for development of coronary artery calcification. British Journal of Dermatology 2007; 156: 271–276.

44. Vanizor Kural B, Orem A, et al. Plasma homocysteine and its relationship with atherothrombotic markers in psoriatic patients. Clinica Chimica Acta 2003; 332: 23–30.

45. Malerba M, Gisondi P, Radaeli A, et al. Plasma homocysteine and folate levels in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology 2006; 155: 1165–1169.

46. Juhlin L, Edqvist LE, Ekman LG, et al. Blood glutathione-peroxidase levels in skin diseases: effect of selenium and vitamin E treatment. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1982; 62: 211–214.

47. Serwin AB, Wasowicz W, Gromadzinska J, et al. Selenium status in psoriasis and its relations to the duration and severity of the disease. Nutrition 2003; 19: 301–304.

48. Michaelsson G, Berne B, Calmark B, et al. Selenium in whole blood and plasma is decreased in patients with moderate and severe psoriasis. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1989; 69: 29–34.

49. Staberg B, Oxholm A, Klemp P, Christiansen C. Abnormal vitamin D metabolism in patients with psoriasis. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1987; 67: 65–68.

50. Reichrath J. Vitamin D and the skin: an ancient friend, revisited. Experimental Dermatology 2007; 16: 618–625.

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52. Peric M, Koglin S, Dombrowski Y, et al. Vitamin D analogs differentially control antimicrobial peptide/“alarmin” expression in psoriasis. PLoS One 2009 Jul 22: 4(7):e6340.

53. Gorman S, Judge MA, Hart PH. Immune-modifying properties of topical vitamin D: focus on dendritic cells and T cells. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2010 Jul; 121(1–2): 247–249.

54. Okita H, Ohtsuka T, Yamakage A, Yamazaki S. Polymorphism of the vitamin D(3) receptor in patients with psoriasis. Archives of Dermatological Research 2002; 294: 159–162.

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58. Nieboer C, de Hoop D, van Loenen AC, et al. Systemic therapy with fumaric acid derivates: new possibilities in the treatment of psoriasis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1989; 20: 601–608.

59. Basavaraj KH, Navya MA, Rashmi R. Stress and quality of life in psoriasis: an update. International Journal of Dermatology 2011 Jul; 50(7): 783–792.

60. Kazandjieva J, Grozdev I, Darlenski R, Tsankov N. Climatotherapy of psoriasis. Clinics in Dermatology 2008; 269(5): 477–485.

61. Ben-Amitai D, David M. Climatotherapy at the Dead Sea for pediatric-onset psoriasis vulgaris. Pediatric Dermatology 2009; 26(1): 103–104.

62. Snellman E, Lauharanta J, Reunanen A, et al. Effect of heliotherapy on skin and joint symptoms in psoriasis: a 6-month follow-up study. British Journal of Dermatology 1993; 128: 172–177.

63. Fleischer AB Jr, Feldman SR, Rapp SR, et al. Alternative therapies commonly used within a population of patients with psoriasis. Cutis 1996; 58: 216–220.

64. Fleischer AB Jr, Clark AR, Rapp SR, et al. Commercial tanning bed treatment is an effective psoriasis treatment: results from an uncontrolled clinical trial. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1997; 109: 170–174.

65. Markham T, Rogers S, Collins P. Narrowband UV-B (TL-01) phototherapy vs oral 8-methoxypsoralen psoralen-UV-A for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Archives of Dermatology 2003; 139: 325–328.

66. Das S, Lloyd JJ, Walshaw D, et al. Response of psoriasis to sunbed treatment: comparison of conventional ultraviolet A lamps with new higher ultraviolet B-emitting lamps. British Journal of Dermatology 2002; 147: 966–972.

67. Kudish AI, Abels D, Harari M. Ultraviolet radiation properties as applied to photoclimatherapy at the Dead Sea. International Journal of Dermatology 2003; 42: 359–365.

68. Kushelevsky AP, Harari M, Kudish AI, et al. Safety of solar phototherapy at the Dead Sea. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1998; 38: 447–452.

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72. Ellis CN, Berberian B, Sulica VI, et al. A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1993; 29: 438–442.

73. Bernstein JE, Parish LC, Rapaport M, et al. Effects of topically applied capsaicin on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1986; 15: 504–507.

74. Heng MC, Song MK, Harker J, Heng MK. Drug-induced suppression of phosphorylase kinase activity correlates with resolution of psoriasis as assessed by clinical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters. British Journal of Dermatology. 2000 Nov; 143(5): 937–949.

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

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6. Symmons DP. Environmental factors and the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology 2003; 17: 717–727.

7. Strusberg I, Mendelberg RC, Serra HA, Strusberg AM. Influence of weather conditions on rheumatic pain. The Journal of Rheumatology 2002; 29: 335–338.

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19. Toivanen P, Vaahtovuo J, Eerola E. Influence of major histocompatibility complex on bacterial composition of fecal flora. Infection and Immunity 2001 Apr; 69(4): 2372–2377.

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21. Hooper LV, Wong MH, Thelin A, et al. Olecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 2001 Feb 2; 291(5505): 881–884.

22. Vaahtovuo J, Munukka E, Korkeamäki M, et al. Fecal microbiota in early rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology 2008 Aug; 35(8): 1500–1505.

23. Peltonen R, Kjeldsen-Kvagh J, Haugen M, et al. Changes in faecal flora in rheumatoid arthritis during fasting and one-year vegetarian diet. British Journal of Rheumatology 1994 Jan; 33(7): 638–643.

24. Peltonen R, Nenonen M, Helve T, et al. Faecal microbial flora and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis during a vegan diet. British Journal of Rheumatology 1997 Jan; 36(1): 64–68.

25. Henrikksson AE, Blomquist L, Nord CE, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1993 Jul; 52(7): 503–510.

26. Martinez-Martinez RE, Abud-Mendoza C, Patiño-Marin N, et al. Detection of periodontal bacterial DNA in serum and synovial fluid in refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2009 Dec; 36(12): 1004–1010.

27. Mercado FB, Marshall RI, Klestov AC, Bartold PM. Relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology June 2001; 72(6): 779–787.

28. Hitchon CA, Chandad F, Ferucci ED, et al. Antibodies to porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with anticitrullinated protein antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their relatives. The Journal of Rheumatology 2010 Jun; 37(6): 1105–1112.

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30. Karatay S, Erdem T, Yildirim K, et al. The effect of individualized diet challenges consisting of allergenic foods on TNF-α IL-βlevels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2004; 43(11): 1429–1433.

31. Cordian L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Nutrition 2000; 83: 207–217.

32. Havatum M, Kanerud L, Hällgren R, Brandtzaeg P. The gut-joint axis: cross-reactive food antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Gut 2006; 55: 1240–1247.

33. Pawlik A, Ostanek L, Brzosko I, et al. Increased genotype frequency of N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2002 Sep: 72(3): 319–325.

34. Pawlik A, Ostanek L, Brzosko I, et al. The influence of N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphism on rheumatoid arthritis activity. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2004 Jan–Feb; 22(1): 99–102.

35. Vojdani A, Bazargan M, Vojdani E, et al. Heat shock protein and gliadin peptide promote development of peptidase antibodies in children with autism and patients with autoimmune disease. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 2004 May; 11(3): 515–524.

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37. Smith MD, Gibson RA, Brooks PM. Abnormal bowel permeability in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology 1985; 12: 299–305.

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39. Segal AW, Isenberg DA, Hajirousou V, et al. Preliminary evidence for gut involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology 1986 May; 25(2): 162–166.

40. Deitch EA, Specian RD, Berg RD. Endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation and mucosal permeability: role of xanthine oxidase, complement activation, and macrophage products. Critical Care Medicine 1991 Jun; 19(6): 785–791.

41. Bjarnason I, Williams P, So A, et al. Intestinal permeability and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The Lancet 1984 Nov 24; 2(8413): 1171–1174.

42. Bjarnason I, Peters TJ. Influence of anti-rheumatic drugs on gut permeability and on the gut associated lymphoid tissue. Ballière’s Clinical Rheumatology 1996; 10: 165–176.

43. Berg RD. Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1999; 473: 11–30.

44. Tengstrand B, Carlstrom K, Fellander-Tsai L, Hafstrom I. Abnormal levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone, and estradiol in men with rheumatoid arthritis: high correlation between serum estradiol and current degree of inflammation. The Journal of Rheumatology2003 Nov; 30(11): 2338–2343.

45. Straub RH, Scholmerich J, Zietz B. Replacement therapy with DHEA plus corticosteroids in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases—substitutes of adrenal and sex hormones. Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 2000; 59 suppl 2:II/108–II/118.

46. Kanik KS, Chrousos GP, Schumacher HR, et al. Adrenocorticotropin, glucocorticoid, and androgen secretion in patients with new onset synovitis/rheumatoid arthritis: relations with indices of inflammation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2000 Apr; 85(4): 1461–1466.

47. Cutolo M, Balleari E, Giusti M, et al. Androgen replacement therapy in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1991 Jan; 34(1): 1–5.

48. Doran MF, Crowson CS, O’Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. The effect of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population based study. The Journal of Rheumatology 2004; 31: 207–213.

49. K Forslind, I Hafström, M Ahlmén, B Svensson. Sex: a major predictor of remission in early rheumatoid arthritis? Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2007 Jan; 66(1): 46–52.

50. Brandt KD. Effects of nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs on chondrocyte metabolism in vitro and in vivo. The American Journal of Medicine 1987 Nov 20; 83(5A): 29–34.

51. Vidal y Plana RR, Bizzarri D, Rovati AL. Articular cartilage pharmacology. I. In vitro studies on glucoasamine and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacological Research Commununications 1978 Jun; 10(6): 557–569.

52. Jenkins RT, Rooney PJ, Jones DB, et al. Increased intestinal permeability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a side effect of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy? British Journal of Rheumatology 1987 Apr; 26(2): 103–107.

53. Dearlove M, Barr K, Neuman V, et al. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of faecal flora and bacterial antibody levels in rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology 1992; 31: 443–447.

54. Wade CR, Jackson PG, Highton J, VanRij AM. Lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde in the synovial fluid and plasma of patients with rheumatoid arthrits. Clinica Chimica Acta 1987; 164: 245–250.

55. Singh G. Recent considerations in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy. The American Journal of Medicine 1998 Jul 27; 105(1B): 31S–38S.

56. Lombardo L, Foti M, Ruggia O, Chiecchio A. Increased incidence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth during proton pump inhibitor therapy. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2010 Jun; 8(6): 504–508.

57. Laine L, Smith R, Min K, et al. Systematic review: the lower gastrointestinal adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2006; 24: 751–767.

58. Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, Topol EJ. Risk of cardiovascular events associated with selective COX-2 inhibitors. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 2001 Aug 22–29;286(8): 954–959.

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101. Pettersson T, Friman C, Abrahamsson L, et al. Serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and cobalaminopenia. The Journal of Rheumatology 1998 May; 25(5): 859–863.

102. Schumacher HR, Bernhart FW, György P. Vitamin B6 levels in rheumatoid arthritis: effect of treatment. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1975 Nov; 28(11): 1200–1203.

103. Grennan DM, Knudson JM, Dunckley J, et al. Serum copper and zinc in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. New Zealand Medical Journal 1980 Jan 23; 91(652): 47–50.

104. Tarp U, Overvad K, Hansen JC, Thorling EB. Low selenium level in severe rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 1985; 14(2): 97–101.

105. Kremer JM, Bigaouette J. Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is deficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium. The Journal of Rheumatology 1996 Jun; 23(6): 990–994.

106. Munthe E, Aaseth J, Jellum E. Trace elements and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)—pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1986; 59 suppl 7: 365–373.

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109. Edmonds SE, Winyard PG, Guo R, et al. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a placebo controlled double blind trial. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1997; 56: 649–655.

110. Zoli A, Altomonte L, Caricchio R, et al. Serum zinc and copper in active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. Clinical Rheumatology 1998; 17(5): 378–382.

111. Peretz A, Neve J, Famaey JP. Effects of chronic and acute corticosteroid therapy on zinc and copper status in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 1989 Jun; 3(2): 103–108.

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113. Simkin PA. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral zinc sulfate. Agents & Actions suppl 1981; 8: 587–595.

114. Mattingly PC, Mowat AG. Zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1982; 41: 456–457.

115. Pasquier C, Mach PS, Raichvarg D, et al. Manganese-containing superoxide-dismutase deficiency in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation 1984 Mar; 8(1): 27–32.

116. Menander-Huber KB. Orgotein in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 1981; 4: 201–211.

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119. Mullen A, Wilson CW. The metabolism of ascorbic acid in rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1976; 35: 8A–9A.

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121. Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of ascorbic acid. The New England Journal of Medicine 1986; 314: 892–902.

122. Hagfors L, Leanderson P, Sköldstam L, et al. Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition Journal 2003 Jul 30; 2: 5.

123. Jacobsson L, Lindgärde F, Manthorpe R, Akesson B. Correlation of fatty acid composition of adipose tissue lipids and serum phosphatidylcholine and serum concentrations of micronutrients with disease duration in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1990 Nov; 49(11): 901–905.

124. Barton-Wright EC, Elliott WA. The pantothenic acid metabolism of rheumatoid arthritis. The Lancet 1963; 2: 862–863.

125. General Practitioner Research Group. Calcium pantothenate in arthritic conditions. Practitioner 1980; 224: 208–211.

126. Chiang EP, Bagley PJ, Selhub J, et al. Abnormal vitamin B6 status is associated with severity of symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The American Journal of Medicine 2003 Mar; 114(4): 283–287.

127. Woolf K, Manore MM. Elevated plasma homocysteine and low vitamin B-6 status in nonsupplementing older women with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2008 Mar; 108(3): 443–453.

128. Walker WR, Keats DM. An investigation of the therapeutic value of the “copper bracelet”—dermal assimilation of copper in arthritic/rheumatoid conditions. Agents & Actions 1976; 6: 454–458.

129. Chung MH, Kessner L, Chan PC. Degradation of articular cartilage by copper and hydrogen peroxide. Agents & Actions 1984; 15: 328–335.

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132. de Witte TJ, Geerdink PJ, Lamers CB, et al. Hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1979 Feb; 38(1): 14–17.

133. Henriksson K, Uvnas-Moberg K, Nord CE, et al. Gastrin, gastric acid secretion, and gastric microflora in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1986 June; 45(6): 475–483.

134. Kanerud L, Hafström I, Berg A. Effects of antirheumatic treatment on gastric secretory function and salivary flow in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 1991; 9: 595–601.

135. Horger I. Enzyme therapy in multiple rheumatic diseases. Therapiewoche 1983; 33: 3948–3957.

136. Ransberger K. Enzyme treatment of immune complex diseases. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1986; 8: 16–19.

137. Kekkonen RA, Lummela N, Karjalainen H, et al. Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2008 Apr 7; 14(13): 2029–2036.

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142. Kremer JM, Lawrence DA, Jubiz W, et al. Dietary fish oil and olive oil supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and immunologic effects. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1990 Jun; 33(6): 810–820.

143. Lau CS, Morley KD, Belch JJ. Effects of fish oil supplementation on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirement in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis—a double-blind placebo controlled study. British Journal of Rheumatology 1993; 32: 982–989.

144. Nielsen GL, Faarvang KL, Thomsen BS, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind trial. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 1992 Oct; 22(10): 687–691.

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147. Galli C, Calder PC. Effects of fat and fatty acid intake on inflammatory and immune responses: a critical review. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2009; 55: 123–139.

148. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review 2009 Jun; 14(2): 141–153.

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150. Benny M, Antony B. Bioavailability of biocurcumax (BCM–095™). Spice India 2006 Sep 9; 19(9): 11–15.

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152. Sasaki H, Sunagawa Y, Takahashi K, et al. Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2011; 34(5): 660–665.

153. Taussig S, Batkin S. Bromelain: the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application. An update. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1988; 22: 191–203.

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157. Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Medical Hypotheses 1989; 29: 25–28.

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Rosacea

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10. Sharma VK, Lynn A, Kaminski M, et al. A study of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and other markers of upper gastrointestinal tract disease in patients with rosacea. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 1998; 93: 220–222.

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Seborrheic Dermatitis

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9. Satchell AC, Sauragen A, Bell C, Barnetson RS. Treatment of dandruff with 5% tea tree oil shampoo. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2002 Dec; 47(6): 852–825.

Sinus Infections

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Sports Injuries, Tendinitis, and Bursitis

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2. Cragin RB. The use of bioflavonoids in the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries. Medical Times 1962; 90: 529–530.

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6. Szczurko O, Cooley K, Mills EJ, et al. Naturopathic treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis among Canadian postal workers: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2009 Aug 15; 61(8): 1037–1045.

7. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review 2009 Jun; 14(2): 141–153.

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9. Sasaki H, Sunagawa Y, Takahashi K, et al. Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2011; 34(5): 660–665.

Strep Throat (Streptococcal Pharyngitis)

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2. Zwart S, Rovers MM, de Melker RA, et al. Penicillin for acute sore throat in children: randomised, double blind trial. BMJ 2003; 327: 1324.

3. Dagnelie CF, van der Graaf Y, De Melker RA. Do patients with sore throat benefit from penicillin? A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with penicillin V in general practice. British Journal of General Practice 1996; 46: 589–593.

4. McIsaac WJ, Goel V, Slaughter PM, et al. Reconsidering sore throats. Part I. Problems with current clinical practice. Canadian Family Physician 1997; 43: 485–493.

5. Stollerman GH. Rheumatic fever in the 21st century. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001 Sep 15; 33(6): 806–814.

6. Zoppi G, Deganello A, Benoni G, Saccomani F. Oral bacteriotherapy in clinical practice. I. The use of different preparations in infants treated with antibiotics. European Journal of Pediatrics 1982; 139: 18–21.

7. Gotz VP, Romankiewics JA, Moss J, Murray HW. Prophylaxis against ampicillin-induced diarrhea with a lactobacillus preparation. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1979; 36: 754–757.

8. Rinehart JF. Studies relating vitamin C deficiency to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis: experimental, clinical, and general considerations. I. Rheumatic fever. Annals of Internal Medicine 1935; 9: 586–599.

9. Rinehart JF. Studies relating vitamin C deficiency to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis:experimental, clinical, and general considerations. II. Rheumatoid (atrophic) arthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1935; 9: 671–689.

10. Sharma SM, Anderson M, Schoop SR, Hudson JB. Bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties of a standardized echinacea extract (Echinaforce): dual actions against respiratory bacteria. Phytomedicine 2010 Jul; 17(8–9): 563–568.

11. Brendler T, van Wyk BE. A historical, scientific and commercial perspective on the medicinal use of Pelargonium sidoides (Geraniaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2008 Oct 28; 119(3): 420–433.

12. Bereznoy VV, Riley DS, Wassmer G, Heger M. Efficacy of extract of Pelargonium sidoides in children with acute non–group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine2003 Sep–Oct; 9(5): 68–79.

Stroke (Recovery From)

1. Anadere I, Chmiel H, Witte S. Hemorrheological findings in patients with completed stroke and the influence of Ginkgo biloba extract. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 1985; 4: 411–420.

2. Larson MK, Ashmore JH, Harris KA, et al. Effects of omega-3 acid ethyl esters and aspirin, alone and in combination, on platelet function in healthy subjects. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2008 Oct; 100(4): 634–641.

3. Chang YY, Liu JS, Lai SL, et al. Cerebellar hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a patient with cerebral microbleeds. Internal Medicine 2008; 47(5): 467–469.

4. Kidd PM. Integrated brain restoration after ischemic stroke—medical management, risk factors, nutrients, and other interventions for managing inflammation and enhancing brain plasticity. Alternative Medicine Review 2009 Mar; 14(1): 14–35.

5. Dávalos A, Castillo J, Alvarez-Sabin J, et al. Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: an individual patient data pooling analysis of clinical trials. Stroke 2002; 33: 2850–2857.

6. Bolland K, Whitehead J, Cobo E, Secades JJ. Evaluation of a sequential global test of improved recovery following stroke as applied to the ICTUS trial of citicoline. Pharmaceutical Statistics 2009 Apr–Jun; 8(2): 136–149.

7. Aguglia E, Ban TA, Panzarasa RM, et al. Choline alphoscerate in the treatment of mental pathology following acute cerebrovascular accident. Functional Neurology 1993; 8:S5–S24.

8. Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, Barbagallo M, Giordano M, et al. Alpha-glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1994; 717: 253–269.

9. Consoli D, Giunta V, Grillo G, et al. [Alpha-GPC in the treatment of acute cerebrovascular accident patients.] Archives Medicina Interna 1993; 45: 13–23.

10. Gambi D, Onofrj M. Multicenter clinical study of efficacy and tolerability of choline alfoscerate in patients with deficits in higher mental function arising after an acute ischemic cerebrovascular attack. Geriatria 1994; 6: 91–98.

11. Tomasina C, Manzino M, Novello P, et al. Clinical study of the therapeutic effectiveness and tolerability of choline alfoscerate in 15 subjects with compromised cognitive functions subsequent to acute focal cerebral ischemia. Rivista di Neuropsichiatrica e Scienze Affini 1996; 37: 21–28.

12. Mathew NT, Rivera VM, Meyer JS, et al. Double-blind evaluation of glycerol therapy in acute cerebral infarction. The Lancet 1972; 2: 1327–1329.

13. Parnetti L, Amenta F, Gallai V. Choline alfoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 2001; 122: 2041–2055.

14. Kim MK, Choi TY, Lee MS, et al. Contralateral acupuncture versus ipsilateral acupuncture in the rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiplegic patients: a systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010 Jul 30; 10: 41.

15. Wu P, Mills E, Moher D, Seely D. Acupuncture in poststroke rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Stroke 2010 Apr; 41(4):e171–e179.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1. Petri M. Sex hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2008 May; 17(5): 412–415.

2. Haija AJ, Schulz SW. The role and effect of complementary and alternative medicine in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 2011 Feb; 37(1): 47–62.

3. Duffy EM, Meenagh GK, McMillan SA, et al. The clinical effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils and/or copper in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Journal of Rheumatology 2004; 31: 1551–1556.

4. Wright SA, O’Prey FM, McHenry MT, et al. A randomised interventional trial of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2008; 67: 841–848.

5. Van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. An open study of dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1994; 37: 1305–1310.

6. van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1995; 38(12): 1826–1831.

7. Petri MA, Lahita RG, Van Vollenhoven RF, et al. Effects of prasterone on corticosteroid requirements of women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2002; 46: 1820–1829.

8. Nordmark G, Bengtsson C, Larsson A, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplement on health-related quality of life in glucocorticoid treated female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmunity 2005; 38: 531–540.

9. Hartkamp A, Geenen R, Godaert GL, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on fatigue and wellbeing in women with quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised controlled trial. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2010; 69: 1144–1147.

Uterine Fibroids

1. Woods MN, Gorbach SL, Longcope C, et al. Low-fat, high-fiber diet and serum estrone sulfate in premenopausal women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989; 49: 1179–1183.

2. Goodman MT, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, et al. Association of soy and fiber consumption with the risk of endometrial cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997; 146: 294–306.

3. Goldin B, Allercreutz H, Gorbach SL, et al. Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. The New England Journal of Medicine 1982; 307: 1542–1547.

4. Michnovicz JJ, Bradlow HL. Altered estrogen metabolism and excretion in humans following consumption of indole-3-carbinol. Nutrition and Cancer 1991; 16(1): 59–66.

5. Stoewsand GS. Bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals in Brassica oleracea vegetables—a review. Food and Chemical Toxicology 1995; 33(6): 537–543.

6. Rajoria S, Suriano R, Parmar PS, et al. 3,3’-diindolylmethane modulates estrogen metabolism in patients with thyroid proliferative disease: a pilot study. Thyroid 2011 Mar; 21(3): 299–304.

Vaginitis

1. Heidrich F, Berg A, Gergman F, et al. Clothing factors and vaginitis. The Journal of Family Practice 1984; 19: 491–494.

2. Meeker CI. Candidiasis—an obstinate problem. Medical Times 1978; 106: 26–32.

3. Fidel P, Sobel J. Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1996; 9: 335–348.

4. Erickson K, Hubbard N. Probiotic immunomodulation in health and disease. Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130(25 suppl):S403–S409.

5. Reid G, Cook R, Bruce A. Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties that may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. Journal of Urology 1987; 138: 330–335.

6. Hawes S, Hillier S, Benedetti J, et al. Hydrogen-peroxide-producing lactobacilli and acquisition of vaginal infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1996; 174: 1058–1063.

7. Hilton E, Rindos P, Isenberg H. Lactobacillus GG vaginal suppositories and vaginitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995; 33: 1433.

8. Williams A, Yu C, Tashima K, et al. Evaluation of two self care treatments for prevention of vaginal candidiasis in women with HIV. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2001; 12: 51–57.

9. Reid G, Beueman D, Heinemann C, et al. Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 2001; 32: 37–41.

10. Reid G, Charbonneau D, Erb J, et al. Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR01 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 2003; 35: 131–134.

11. Reid G, Bruce A, Fraser N, et al. Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 2001; 30: 49–52.

12. Petersen E, Magnani P. Efficacy and safety of vitamin C vaginal tablets in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology 2004; 117(1): 70–75.

13. Ratzen J. Monilial and trichomonal vaginitis—topical treatment with povidone iodine treatments. California Medicine 1969; 110: 24–27.

14. Shook D. A clinical study of a povidone-iodine regimen for resistant vaginitis. Current Therapeutic Research 1963; 5: 256–263.

15. Maneksha S. Comparison of povidone-iodine (Betadine) vaginal pessaries and lactic acid pessaries in the treatment of vaginitis. Journal of International Medical Research 1974; 2: 236–239.

16. Reeve P. The inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by povidone iodine. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1976; 2: 77–80.

17. Mayhew S. Vaginitis. A study of the efficacy of povidone iodine in unselected cases. Journal of International Medical Research 1981; 9: 157–159.

18. Gershenfeld L. Povidone iodine as a trichomoniacide. American Journal of Pharmacy 1962; 134: 324–331.

19. Gershenfeld L. Povidone iodine as a vaginal microbicide. American Journal of Pharmacy 1962; 134: 278–291.

20. Singha H. The use of a vaginal cleansing kit in non-specific vaginitis. Practitioner 1979; 223: 403–404.

21. Jovanovic R, Congema E, Nguyen H. Antifungal agents vs boric acid for treating chronic mycotic vulvovaginitis. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1991; 36: 593–597.

22. Swate T, Weed J. Boric acid treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1974; 43: 894–895.

23. Keller Van Slyke K. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1981; 141: 145–148.

24. Pena EF. Melaleuca alternifolia oil. Its use for trichomonal vaginitis and other vaginal infections. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1962; 19: 793–795.

Varicose Veins

1. Lim CS, Davies AH. Pathogenesis of primary varicose veins. British Journal of Surgery 2009 Nov; 96(11): 1231–1242.

2. Raffetto JD, Khalil RA. Mechanisms of varicose vein formation: valve dysfunction and wall dilation. Phlebology 2008; 23(2): 85–98.

3. Trowell H, Burkitt D, Heaton K. Dietary fibre, fibre-depleted foods and disease. London: Academic Press, 1985.

4. Vahouny G, Kritchevsky D. Dietary fiber in health and disease. New York: Plenum Press, 1982.

5. Latto C, Wilkinson RW, Gilmore OJ. Diverticular disease and varicose veins. The Lancet 1973; 1: 1089–1090.

6. Gabor M. Pharmacologic effects of flavonoids on blood vessels. Angiologica 1972; 9: 355–374.

7. Kuhnau J. The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 1976; 24: 117–191.

8. Pourrat H. Anthocyanidin drugs in vascular disease. Plant Medicine and Phytotherapy 1977; 11: 143–151.

9. Ihme N, Kieswetter H, Jung F, et al. Leg edema protection from buckwheat herb tea in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1996; 50: 443–447.

10. Nuzum DS, Gebru TT, Kouzi SA. Pycnogenol for chronic venous insufficiency. American Journal of Health Systems and Pharmacy. 2011 Sep 1; 68(17): 1589–90, 1599–1601.

11. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, et al. Venous ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of Pycnogenol. Angiology 2005 Nov–Dec; 56(6): 699–705.

12. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Rohdewald P, et al. Prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombophlebitis in long-haul flights with pycnogenol. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 2004 Oct; 10(4): 373–377.

13. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, et al. Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: the LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial. Angiology 2003 Sep–Oct; 54(5): 531–539.

14. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, et al. Improvement of signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study. Phytomedicine 2010 Sep; 17(11): 835–839.

15. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, et al. Rapid relief of signs/symptoms in chronic venous microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study. Angiology 2006 Oct–Nov; 57(5): 569–576.

16. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Ricci A, et al. Control of edema in hypertensive subjects treated with calcium antagonist (nifedipine) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with Pycnogenol. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 2006 Oct; 12(4): 440–444.

17. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rohdewald P, et al. Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: a prospective, controlled study. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 2006 Apr; 12(2): 205–212.

18. Nicolaides AN. From symptoms to leg edema: efficacy of Daflon 500 mg. Angiology 2003; 54 suppl 1:S33–S44.

19. Lyseng-Williamson KA, Perry CM. Micronised purified flavonoid fraction: a review of its use in chronic venous insufficiency, venous ulcers and haemorrhoids. Drugs 2003; 63: 71–100.

20. Kreysel HW, Nissen HP, Enghofer E. A possible role of lysosomal enzymes in the pathogenesis of varicosis and the reduction in their serum activity by Venostasin. VASA 1983; 12: 377–382.

21. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Horse-chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency: a criteria-based systematic review. Archives of Dermatology 1998; 134;1356–1360.

22. Incandela L, De Sanctis MT, Cesarone MR, et al. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis: clinical evaluation of Essaven gel—a placebo-controlled, 8-week, randomized study. Angiology 2001; 52 suppl 3:S69–S72.

23. Annoni F, Mauri A, Marincola F, Resele LF. Venotonic activity of escin on the human saphenous vein. Arzneimittelforschung 1979; 29: 672–675.

24. Diehm C, Trampisch HJ, Lange S, Schmidt C. Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. The Lancet 1996; 347: 292–294.

25. Cospite M, Ferrara F, Milio G, Meli F. [Study about pharmacologic and clinical activity of Centella asiatica titrated extract in the chronic venous deficiency of the lower limbs: valuation with strain gauge plethysmography.] Giornale Italiano di Angiologie 1984; 4: 200–205.

26. Brinkhaus B, Lindner M, Schuppan D, Hahn EG. Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica. Phytomedicine 2000; 7: 427–448.

27. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Rulo A, et al. Microcirculatory effects of total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous hypertension: measurement by laser Doppler, TcPO2-CO2, and leg volumetry. Angiology 2001; 52 suppl 2:S45–S48.

28. Pointel JP, Boccalon H, Cloarec M, et al. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in the treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Angiology 1987; 38: 46–50.

29. Boccalon H, Causse C, Yubero L. Comparative efficacy of a single daily dose of two capsules of Cyclo 3 Fort in the morning versus a repeated dose of one capsule morning and noon. A one month study. International Journal of Angiology 1998; 17: 155–160.

30. Cappelli R, Nicora M, Di Perri T. Use of extract of Ruscus aculeatus in venous disease in the lower limbs. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 1988; 14: 277–283.

31. Beltramino R, Penenory A, Buceta AM. An open-label, randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of Cyclo 3 Fort® versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency. Angiology 2000; 51: 535–544.

32. Visudhiphan S, Poolsuppasit S, Piboonnukarintr O, Tumliang S. The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982; 35: 1452–1458.

33. Bordia A, Sharma KD, Parmar YK, Verma SK. Protective effect of garlic oil on the changes produced by 3 weeks of fatty diet on serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fibrinolytic activity and platelet adhesiveness in man. Indian Heart Journal 1982; 34: 86–88.

34. Baghurst KI, Raj MJ, Truswell AS. Onions and platelet aggregation. The Lancet 1977; 1: 101.

35. Srivas KC. Effects of aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger on the platelet aggregation and metabolism of arachidonic acid in the blood vascular system. In vitro study. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Medicine 1984; 13: 227–235.

36. Ako H, Cheung AH, Matsuura PK. Isolation of a fibrinolysis enzyme activator from commercial bromelain. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie 1981; 254: 157–167.

37. Hsia CH, Shen MC, Lin JS, et al. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects. Nutrition Research 2009 Mar; 29(3): 190–196.


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