The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, 3rd Ed.

Kidney Stones


• Usually without symptoms until stone becomes lodged in a ureter

• Excruciating intermittent radiating pain originating in the flank or kidney

• Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal distension

• Chills, fever, and urinary frequency if infection is present

• Diagnosed by ultrasound

Stone formation in the urinary tract has been recognized for thousands of years, but during the last few decades we have seen changes in the pattern and frequency of the disease. In the past, stone formation occurred almost exclusively in the bladder, whereas today most stones form in the kidneys. The frequency of stones has increased dramatically as well. It is now estimated that 10% of all American men will experience a kidney stone during their lifetime, with 0.1 to 6.0% of the general population having one in any given year. In the United States, 1 out of every 1,000 hospital admissions is for kidney stones. This increase in frequency parallels the rise in other diseases associated with the typical Western diet, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes.

In the United States, most kidney stones (75 to 85%) are composed of calcium salts, while 5 to 8% are uric acid stones and another 10 to 15% are magnesium ammonium phosphate stones. The prevalence of different types of stones varies geographically, reflecting differences in environmental factors, diet, and drinking water. Men are affected more than women, and most patients are over 30 years of age.

Components in human urine normally remain in solution due to pH control and the secretion of substances that inhibit crystal growth. However, where there is an increase in the substances that make up stones or a decrease in protective factors, these substances can form a tiny crystal, which can then grow in size to what we call a kidney stone. There are a number of metabolic diseases that can lead to kidney stones, so it is important to have your doctor rule out such conditions as hyperparathyroidism, cystinuria, Cushing’s syndrome, and sarcoidosis.

Diagnostic Considerations

Diagnosing the type of stone is critical to determining the appropriate therapy. Careful evaluation of a number of criteria (diet; underlying metabolic or disease factors; urinalysis; urine culture; and blood levels of calcium, uric acid, creatinine, and electrolytes) will usually allow a physician to determine the composition of the stone if one is not available for chemical analysis.

Conditions favoring stone formation can be divided into two groups: factors increasing the concentration of the substances that make up stones, and factors favoring stone formation at normal urinary concentrations. The first group includes reduction in urine volume (dehydration) and an increased rate of excretion of stone constituents. The second group of factors is related to stagnation of urine flow (urinary stasis), pH changes, foreign bodies, and reduction in levels of substances that normally keep stone constituents from forming crystals.


Therapeutic Considerations

The high frequency of calcium-containing stones in affluent societies is directly associated with the following dietary patterns:

• Low fiber intake1

• High consumption of refined carbohydrates2,3

• High alcohol consumption4

• Consumption of large amounts of animal protein4,5

• High fat consumption6

• High consumption of soft drinks7

• Excessively acid-forming diet

Today conventional medicine classifies most stones as having an “unknown cause” (idiopathic), but this ignores the dietary factors that lead to stone formation. The cumulative effect of these dietary factors is undoubtedly the reason for the rising incidence of kidney stones.

As a group, vegetarians have a decreased risk of developing stones.5,8 Studies have shown that even among meat eaters, those who ate higher amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables had a lower incidence of stones.8 Adding bran to the diet and changing from white bread to whole wheat bread are two measures that have been shown to lower urinary calcium.9

Causes of Excessive Excretion of Relatively Insoluble Urinary Constituents




Calcium (>250 mg excreted per day)

Absorptive hypercalciuria

Low serum PO4


Renal hypercalciuria (renal tubular acidosis)

High serum PTH, high urinary cAMP


Primary hyperparathyroidism

High serum calcium, high calcitriol




High vitamin D intake

High serum calcium


Excess intake of milk and alkali


Aluminum salt intake

Low serum phosphate, high calcitriol


Destructive bone disease




Prolonged immobility


Consumption of an excessively acid-forming diet



Familial oxaluria (rare)


Ileal disease, resection, or bypass




High oxalate intake


Ethylene glycol poisoning


Vitamin C excess (extremely unlikely)

Vitamin B6 deficiency or abnormal oxalate metabolism


Methoxyflurane anesthesia


Uric acid (>750 mg excreted per day)



Idiopathic hyperuricosuria


Excess purine intake


Anticancer drugs

Rapid cell destruction


Myeloproliferative disease



Hereditary cystinuria


Dietary factors may also play a role in acidifying or alkalinizing urine. Depending on the type of stone, this ability to alter urinary pH may help prevent and treat stones.10 In one study, 12 healthy men were given a standardized diet plus either cranberry, blackcurrant, or plum juice, then had their urine tested.11 The researchers found that cranberry juice decreased urinary pH (made the urine more acidic) and significantly increased the excretion of oxalic acid, leading to a higher concentration of uric acid. Blackcurrant juice increased urinary pH (made the urine more alkaline), leading to excretion of citric acid and loss of oxalic acid. Plum juice demonstrated no effects. These results indicate that blackcurrant juice could support the prevention and treatment of uric acid and oxalate stones, while cranberry juice could be useful in the treatment of oxalate stones as well as magnesium ammonium phosphate stones.

Another study showed that cranberry juice reduced the amount of calcium in the urine by over 50% in patients with recurrent kidney stones.12 Since high urinary calcium levels greatly increase the risk of developing a kidney stone, it appears that cranberry juice may offer significant benefit. Because most cranberry juice products on the market are loaded with sugar, it might be better to take a cranberry extract. For prevention of kidney stones in those at high risk, take the equivalent of 16 fl oz cranberry juice or follow dosage recommendations given on the product’s label.

Drinking more water has long been recognized as one of the main approaches to preventing kidney stones. Increasing the urine volume results in a decrease in stone prevalence. Numerous clinical trials have found that consumption of more than about 48 fl oz of water per day lowers the long-term risk of kidney stone recurrence by approximately 60%.13

Another dietary recommendation is to decrease salt consumption. Urinary calcium excretion increases approximately 40 mg for each 2,300 mg increase in dietary sodium in normal adults; those who form kidney stones have an even greater increase in urinary calcium with an increase in salt intake. The best approach is to combine increased water intake with decreased sodium intake.14

Weight Control and Sugar Intake

Weight control and correction of carbohydrate metabolism are important, since excess weight and insulin insensitivity lead to increased urinary excretion of calcium and are high risk factors for stone formation.15,16 A meal high in sugar is particularly detrimental, since urinary calcium levels rise following sugar intake, an effect that is exaggerated in most people (approximately 70%) with recurrent kidney stones.17 Obviously people with recurrent kidney stones should avoid sugar; sports drinks are especially problematic, because they combine sugars and salt.

Magnesium and Vitamin B6

A magnesium-deficient diet is one of the quickest ways to cause kidney stones in rats.18 Adequate levels of magnesium have been shown to increase the solubility of calcium oxalate and inhibit the formation of both calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate stones.1820 A low urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio is an independent risk factor in stone formation, and supplemental magnesium alone has been shown to be effective in preventing recurrences of kidney stones.2022 However, when it is used in conjunction with vitamin B6, an even greater effect is noted.23,24

Many patients with recurrent oxalate stones show laboratory signs of vitamin B6 deficiency. As with magnesium, vitamin B6 deficiency also results in kidney stones. Supplemental vitamin B6 is known to reduce the production and urinary excretion of oxalates.25,26 Supplementing the diet with additional vitamin B6 is very important in preventing recurrent kidney stones.


Most conventional doctors tell their patients with kidney stones to avoid calcium supplements; the thinking is that because calcium-containing stones are so common, restricting the amount of calcium in the diet will help reduce the formation of stones. However, studies show that calcium supplementation (300 mg per day of calcium, given as calcium carbonate, citrate, or malate) actually reduced oxalate absorption and excretion, and thus would help to prevent stone formation. Taking 300 to 1,000 mg calcium per day may be a useful preventive strategy.27


Citric acid (citrate) has the ability to reduce the concentration of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in the urine, thus retarding the formation and growth of stones. Potassium or sodium citrate has been shown to be quite effective in the treatment of patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones, with nearly 90% of patients showing improvement.2831 For example, in one study, potassium citrate supplementation in recurrent stone formers resulted in a drop of stone formation from 0.7 to 0.13 per year.30 In another study, which tracked 57 people with a history of calcium stones and low urinary citrate levels, those given potassium citrate developed fewer kidney stones over a period of three years than they had previously.31 In comparison, the group given a placebo had no change in their rate of stone formation. However, it appears that magnesium citrate (rather than potassium or sodium citrate) offers the greatest benefit.

Another reason citrates decrease calcium oxalate stones is that they help reverse the acidification effects of the typical Western diet. One of the key ways the body works to neutralize excessive acid in the blood is by taking calcium from bone. Alkalinizing the diet decreases the excretion of calcium in the urine, suggesting that less calcium is being taken from the bones. For more information, see Appendix C, “Acid-Base Values of Selected Foods.”

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is necessary in the manufacture of a molecule that is a powerful inhibitor of kidney stone formation.32 The presence of vitamin K in green leafy vegetables may be one reason vegetarians have a lower incidence of kidney stones.33

Uric Acid Metabolism

The level of dietary purine consumption is directly related to the rate of urinary uric acid excretion.34 This fact is important, since elevations in the uric acid content of urine are a causative factor in recurrent uric acid stones. People with uric acid stones should entirely avoid foods high in purine, including organ meats, other red meats, shellfish, yeast (brewer’s and baker’s), herring, sardines, mackerel, and anchovies. They should also watch their consumption of foods with moderate levels of purine, including dried legumes, spinach, asparagus, other types of fish, poultry, and mushrooms.

Low-Oxalate Diet

Dietary oxalate may be responsible for as much as 80% of the urine oxalate in some people with recurrent kidney stones, indicating that restricting dietary oxalate intake may have a protective action.3537 In one clinical trial, men with recurrent calcium oxalate stones who ate a diet that had normal amounts of calcium (1,200 mg per day), low amounts of animal protein, and low amounts of salt showed a significant reduction in oxalate excretion and a lower incidence of recurrent stones compared with men on a low-calcium diet (400 mg per day).37 It appears that people with recurrent kidney stones have a tendency to absorb higher levels of dietary oxalates compared with normal subjects not prone to kidney stones. A low-oxalate diet is usually defined as one containing less than 50 mg oxalate per day, so foods that have high or moderate levels of oxalate should be avoided.

Oxalate Content of Selected Foods

Very high oxalate, >50 mg per serving

• Vegetables

  images Beets (greens or root)

  images Okra

  images Spinach

  images Swiss chard

• Fruits

  images Figs, dried

  images Rhubarb

• Grains

  images Buckwheat

• Nuts and seeds

  images Almonds

  images Peanuts

  images Peanut butter

  images Sesame seeds

High oxalate, >10 mg per serving

• Vegetables

  images Celery

  images Collards

  images Dandelion greens

  images Eggplant

  images Escarole

  images Green beans

  images Kale

  images Leeks

  images Parsley

  images Parsnips

  images Peppers, green

  images Potatoes

  images Pumpkin

  images Squash, yellow summer

  images Sweet potatoes

  images Tomato sauce, canned

  images Turnip greens

  images Watercress

• Fruits

  images Concord grapes

  images Kiwi

  images Lemon peel

  images Lime peel

  images Orange peel

• Grains

  images Bread, whole wheat

  images Oatmeal

  images Popcorn

  images Spelt

  images Wheat bran

  images Wheat germ

  images Whole wheat flour

• Legumes

  images Garbanzo beans

  images Lentils

  images Soybeans and all soy products

• Nuts and seeds

  images Brazil nuts

  images Hazelnuts

  images Pecans

  images Sunflower seeds

• Miscellaneous

  images Beer

  images Chocolate

  images Cocoa

  images Soy sauce (1 tbsp)

  images Tea, black or green

Moderate oxalate, 6 to 10 mg per serving

• Vegetables

  images Asparagus

  images Artichokes

  images Broccoli

  images Brussels sprouts

  images Carrots

  images Cucumber

  images Garlic

  images Lettuce

  images Mushrooms

  images Mustard greens

  images Onions

  images Pumpkin

  images Radishes

  images Snow peas

  images Tomato, fresh

  images Tomato sauce, canned (1/4 cup)

• Fruits

  images Apples

  images Apricots

  images Blackberries

  images Blueberries

  images Cherries, sour

  images Cranberries, dried

  images Currants, black

  images Oranges

  images Peaches

  images Pears

  images Pineapple

  images Plums

  images Prunes

  images Red raspberries

  images Tangerines

• Grains

  images Bagel (1 medium)

  images Barley, cooked

  images Bread, white (2 slices)

  images Corn

  images Corn tortilla (1 medium)

  images Cornbread

  images Cornmeal, yellow (1 cup dry)

  images Cornstarch (1/4 cup)

  images Pasta

  images Rice, brown

  images Spaghetti

  images White flour

• Legumes

  images Lima beans

  images Split peas

• Nuts and seeds

  images Cashews

  images Flaxseed

  images Walnuts

• Herbs

  images Basil, fresh (1 tbsp)

  images Dill (1 tbsp)

  images Ginger, raw, sliced (1 tsp)

  images Malt powder (1 tbsp)

  images Nutmeg (1 tbsp)

  images Pepper (1 tsp)

• Miscellaneous

  images Coffee

  images Red wine

  images Sardines

  images Tea, rose hip

Low oxalate, 2 to 5 mg per serving

• Vegetables

  images Acorn squash

  images Arugula

  images Ketchup (1 tbsp)

  images Onions

  images Peppers, red

  images Zucchini

• Fruits

  images Avocado

  images Cantaloupe

  images Cherries, sweet

  images Cranberries

  images Grapes

  images Lemons

  images Limes

  images Raisins

• Grains

  images Rice, white

  images Rice, wild

  images Rye bread

• Legumes

  images Peas, green

• Nuts and seeds

  images Coconut

• Herbs

  images Cinnamon, ground (11/2 tsp)

  images Ginger, powdered (1 tbsp)

  images Mustard, Dijon (1/4 cup)

  images Thyme, dried (1 tsp)

• Miscellaneous

  images Beef

  images Chicken

  images Corned beef

  images Eggs

  images Fish (haddock, plaice, and flounder)

  images Ham

  images Lamb

  images Pork

  images Turkey

  images Venison

Nutritional Supplements

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is often cited in the medical literature as a potential factor in the development of calcium oxalate kidney stones. However, numerous studies have now clearly demonstrated that high doses of vitamin C do not cause kidney stones. Studies have shown that vitamin C ingestion of up to 10 g per day does not have any effect on urinary oxalate levels.38,39 While some studies showed that taking high dosages of vitamin C increased oxalate excretion;40,41 it looks as if the vitamin C was converted to oxalates during the analytical process.39

Inositol Hexaphosphate

Inositol hexaphosphate is a naturally occurring compound found in whole grains, cereals, legumes, seeds, and nuts. One trial showed that 120 mg inositol hexaphosphate significantly reduced the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in the urine of people with a history of kidney stone formation, in only 15 days.42

Botanical Medicines

Compounds known as anthraquinones, isolated from herbs such as senna and aloe vera, bind calcium and significantly reduce the growth rate of urinary crystals when used in oral doses lower than the doses that cause a laxative effect.43,44 Our recommendation is to use aloe vera or senna at levels that produce no laxative effect.



• Up to 10% of all American men will develop a kidney stone during their lifetime.

• Kidney stones have been linked to the typical Western diet.

• Magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation can help prevent calcium oxalate kidney stones.

• Citrate supplementation stops calcium oxalate stone formation in nearly 90% of patients.

• Cranberry juice has been shown to reduce the amount of calcium in the urine by over 50% in patients with recurrent kidney stones.

• People who have uric acid stones should avoid foods high in purines.

• Drink at least 48 fl oz water per day.



Prevention of recurrence is the therapeutic goal in the treatment of kidney stones. Since dietary management is effective, relatively inexpensive, and free of side effects, it is the treatment of choice. The specific treatment is determined by the type of stone and may include reducing urinary calcium, reducing purine intake, avoiding high-oxalate foods, increasing foods high in magnesium-, and increasing foods rich in vitamin K.

For all types of stones, increasing urine flow to dilute the urine is vital. Drink at least 48 fl oz of water per day.

Note: In acute cases, surgical removal or breaking up the stone with sound waves (lithotripsy) may be necessary.

For Calcium Stones


Follow the general recommendations given in the chapter “A Health-Promoting Diet.” In particular, increase fiber, complex carbohydrates, and green leafy vegetables, and decrease simple carbohydrates and foods high in purines (meat, fish, poultry, yeast). Increase consumption of magnesium-rich foods (barley, bran, corn, buckwheat, rye, soy, oats, brown rice, avocados, bananas, cashews, coconut, peanuts, sesame seeds, lima beans, potatoes). If you have calcium oxalate stones, reduce foods high in oxalate.

Nutritional Supplements

• Key individual nutrients:

  images Vitamin B6: 25 to 50 mg per day

  images Vitamin K: 1 to 2 mg per day

  images Magnesium (bound to aspartate, citrate, fumarate, malate, or succinate): 150 to 200 mg three times per day

  images Vitamin D3: 2,000 to 4,000 IU per day (ideally, measure blood levels and adjust dosage accordingly)

• Fish oils: 1,000 mg EPA + DHA per day

• One of the following:

  images Cranberry extract: equivalent of 16 fl oz cranberry juice per day or follow label instructions

  images Grape seed extract (>95% procyanidolic oligomers): 100 to 300 mg per day

  images Pine bark extract (>95% procyanidolic oligomers): 100 to 300 mg per day

  images Inositol hexaphosphate: 120 mg per day

Botanical Medicines

• Aloe vera or senna at a dosage just below the level that produces a laxative effect (this level will vary from one person to the next)

Other Considerations

• Avoid aluminum compounds and antacids

For Uric Acid Stones


• Decrease intake of purines

Nutritional Supplements

• See the chapter “Gout”

Other Considerations

• Alkalinize urine with citrate (see Appendix C)

For Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Stones

• Eradicate any infections; see the chapter “Cystitis and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder”

• Acidify urine: ammonium chloride (100 to 200 mg three times per day).

For Cystine Stones

• Avoid methionine-rich foods (soy, wheat, dairy products, fish, meat, lima beans, garbanzo beans, mushrooms, and all nuts and seeds except coconut, hazelnuts, and sunflower seeds)

• Alkalinize the urine by eating an alkaline-rich diet and taking magnesium citrate (250 mg elemental magnesium three times daily): optimal pH is 7.5 to 8.0