The Ultimate Survival Medicine Guide: Emergency Preparedness for ANY Disaster

GLOSSARY

ABRASION:

area of skin scraped off down to the dermis

ABSCESS:

collection of pus and inflamed tissue

ACID REFLUX:

pain and burning caused by stomach acid traveling up the esophagus

ADRENALINE:

name for epinephrine outside the US

AIRWAY:

breathing passage

ALLERGY:

exaggerated physical reaction to a substance

AMNIOTIC FLUID:

liquid inside the pregnant uterus

AMBU-BAG:

CPR breathing unit (brand name)

ANAEROBE:

organism that doesn’t require oxygen to survive

ANALGESIA:

pain relief

ANAPHYLAXIS:

hypersensitivity to a substance due to antibodies after an initial exposure

ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK:

life-threatening organ failure as a result of hypersensitivity to a substance

ANGINA:

heart pain caused by lack of oxygen

ANTIBIOTIC:

substances that kill bacteria in living tissue

ANTIBODY:

substances produced by the body that respond to toxins

ANTICOAGULANT:

substances that stop clotting

ANTIEMETIC:

substances that stop vomiting

ANTIHISTAMINE:

drugs that relieve minor allergies

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY:

substances that limit inflammation

ANTISEPTIC:

anything that limits the spread of germs on living surfaces

ANTIVENIN:

substance that inactivates snake or insect venom

ANTIVIRAL:

substances that kill viruses

APPENDICITIS:

inflammation of the appendix

ARTERY:

blood vessel that carries oxygen to the tissues

ARTHRITIS:

inflammation of the joints

ASCITES:

fluid accumulation in the abdomen

ASPHYXIANT:

substance that deprives the body of oxygen

ASPIRATION:

inhalation of fluids into the airways

ASTHMA:

shortness of breath caused by a narrowing of airways, often due to an allergic reaction

ASYMPTOMATIC:

without signs or symptoms

ATHEROSCLEROSIS:

blockage of the coronary arteries

AVULSION:

tissue torn off by trauma

BAG VALVE MASK:

CPR breathing apparatus

BANDAGE:

wound covering

BETADINE:

iodine antiseptic solution

BILE:

fluid found in the gall bladder

B.R.A.T. DIET:

diet used to treat dehydration consisting of bananas, rice, applesauce and dry toast

BRONCHITIS:

inflammation of the airways

BRONCHUS:

main respiratory airway

BRUISE:

injury that does not break the skin but causes bleeding due to damaged blood vessels

CAPILLARY:

tiny blood vessel that connects arteries to veins throughout the body

CARDIAC:

relating to the heart

CARTILAGE:

fibrous connective tissue found in various parts of the body, such as the joints, outer ear, and larynx

CATARACT:

a clouding of the lens of the eye

CELLULITIS:

inflammation of soft tissues

CHIN-LIFT:

CPR technique that improves airflow

CHOLECYSTITIS:

inflammation of the gall bladder

CHOLELITHIASIS:

gall stones

CIRRHOSIS:

chronic liver damage

CLOSED FRACTURE:

broken bone that does not break the skin

COLLAPSE SITUATION:

circumstance where modern medical care no longer exists for the long term

COLOSTRUM:

early breast milk rich in antibodies

CONCUSSION:

loss of consciousness caused by trauma to the cranium

CONJUNCTIVITIS:

inflammation of the eye membrane

CORNEA:

clear covering over the iris

COSTOCHONDRITIS:

chest pain caused by inflammation of the rib joints

COTYLEDONS:

segments of the placenta

CPR:

cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

CROWNING:

late stage of labor when the baby’s head starts to emerge from the vagina

CURETTAGE:

scraping dead pregnancy tissue from the uterus after a miscarriage

CYANOSIS:

blue color caused by lack of oxygen

DEBRIDEMENT:

removal of dead tissue from a wound

DEHYDRATION:

loss of body water content

DERMATITIS:

inflammation of the skin

DERMIS:

deep layer of the skin

DIABETES:

disease in which the body fails to produce enough insulin to control blood sugar levels (type 1) or is resistant to the insulin it produces (type 2)

DIAGNOSIS:

identification of a medical condition

DILATION:

the act of making more open

DISCHARGE:

drainage from a surface or wound

DISINFECTANT:

substance that kills germs on non-living surfaces

DISLOCATION:

traumatic movement of a bone out of its joint

DISTAL:

away from the torso

DIURETIC:

substance that increases urine flow

DRESSING:

wound covering

DRUG OF CHOICE:

best drug for a particular illness

DUODENUM:

part of the bowel after the stomach

DYSENTERY:

dangerous diarrheal disease

ECLAMPSIA:

seizures caused by elevated blood pressures during a pregnancy

ECTOPIC PREGNANCY:

pregnancy that implants outside of the womb

EDEMA:

fluid accumulation

ELAPID:

family of venomous “coral” snakes

ELECTROLYTES:

elements found in body fluids

ENDEMIC:

native to an area or species

EPIDERMIS:

superficial layer of the skin

EPILEPSY:

convulsive disorder

EPINEPHRINE:

hormone used to treat severe allergic reactions (known as adrenaline outside the US)

EPISTAXIS:

bleeding from the nose

ERYTHEMA:

redness due to inflammation

ESOPHAGUS:

tube that runs from the back of the mouth to the stomach

ESSENTIAL OILS:

highly concentrated liquids of various mixtures of natural compounds obtained from plants

EXPECTORANT:

substance that loosens congestion

FRACTURE:

a broken bone

FROSTBITE:

frozen tissue, usually in extremities

GALL BLADDER:

organ near the liver that stores bile

GANGRENE:

death of tissue due to lack of circulation

GASTROENTERITIS:

inflammation of the stomach/intestine

GINGIVITIS:

inflammation of the gums

GLAND:

organ that produces hormones

GLUCOSE:

blood sugar

GRAND MAL SEIZURE:

generalized convulsion in epileptics

GRANULOMA:

nodule formed by immune system’s attempt to wall off an infection or a foreign object

HEARTBURN:

chest pain caused by stomach acid

HEAT STROKE:

symptoms caused by overheating

HEIMLICH MANEUVER:

action taken to remove foreign object from the airways

HEMOGLOBIN:

red blood cell component that carries oxygen to the tissues

HEMORRHAGE:

blood loss

HEMORRHOID:

varicose vein near the anus

HEMOPTYSIS:

coughing up blood

HEMOSTATIC AGENT:

substance that stops bleeding

HEPATITIS:

inflammation of the liver

HERNIA:

weakness in the body wall

HESITANCY:

difficulty starting a urine stream

HISTAMINES:

substances formed in allergies that cause physical symptoms

HIVES:

bumpy red rash caused by allergies

HORMONE:

substance produced by a gland that affects body functions

HYDRATION:

addition of water to the system

HYGIENE:

cleanliness as health strategy

HYPEROPIA:

farsightedness

HYPERTENSION:

high blood pressure

HYPERTHERMIA:

heat stroke or heat exhaustion

HYPERTHYROIDISM:

condition caused by high thyroid levels

HYPHEMA:

bleeding into the white of the eye

HYPOGLYCEMIA:

low blood glucose levels

HYPOTHERMIA:

syndrome caused by heat loss

HYPOTHYROIDISM:

condition caused by low thyroid levels

IMMOBILIZATION:

prevention of movement

IMMUNITY:

protection against a disease

IMPETIGO:

skin infection with weeping sores

INFARCTION:

death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen

INFLAMMATION:

reaction to injury characterized by redness, swelling, discharge, pain and heat

INFLUENZA:

viral respiratory illness

INTEGRATED CARE:

treatment using different medical methods

INTOXICATION:

state of being poisoned

INTRAVENOUS:

inside the vein

IRIS:

colored portion of the eye

IRRIGATION:

forceful application of fluid to a wound to clean out debris, blood clots, and dead tissue

IRRITANT:

substance that causes inflammation of tissue

ISCHEMIC:

lacking oxygen due to circulatory failure

JAUNDICE:

yellowing of the skin and eyes due to liver malfunction

KETOACIDOSIS:

life-threatening condition related to failure of blood glucose control

KILOGRAM:

2.2 pounds

LACERATION:

penetration of both skin layers by injury

LARYNX:

the voice box

LASIK:

laser surgery to correct vision

LETHARGY:

extreme fatigue or drowsiness

LIGAMENT:

supportive tissue that connects bones

LITER:

0.264 gallons

LOCALIZED:

isolated to an area

LYMPHATICS:

drainage system for body fluids

MASS CASUALTY INCIDENT:

more victims than available help

MENINGITIS:

inflammation of the brain/spinal cord

MENSTRUATION:

periodic blood flow from the uterus

MIGRAINE:

headaches caused by vascular spasms

MISCARRIAGE:

early pregnancy loss

MOLESKIN:

protective material for blisters

MYOPIA:

nearsightedness

NEUROLOGIC:

pertaining to the nervous system

OPEN FRACTURE:

broken bone that pierces the skin

OPTHALMOSCOPE:

instrument used to look into the eyes

OTITIS:

inflammation of the ear

OTOSCOPE:

instrument used to look into ear canal

OVARY:

female organ that produces eggs

PALPATION:

to feel with the hands

PALPITATIONS:

sensation of dread caused by a rapid heart rate

PATHOGEN:

something that causes disease

PEDIATRIC:

pertaining to children

PELVIC:

pertaining to the bones that provide support for legs and spine

PEPTIC:

relating to stomach acid

PERCUSSION:

to tap on the body to identify hollow and solid areas; for example, when searching for a tumor

PERINEUM:

area between the vagina and anus

PERIOSTEUM:

outside lining of the bone

PETIT MAL SEIZURE:

epilepsy characterized by loss of awareness without generalized convulsive behavior

PHARYNX:

the throat

PHLEBITIS:

inflammation seen in varicose veins

PHLEGM:

mucus discharge from the respiratory tract

PIT VIPER:

snake in the rattlesnake family

PNEUMONIA:

an infection of the lungs

PNEUMOTHORAX:

free air in the lung cavity affecting breathing

POST-ICTAL STATE:

semiconscious state after experiencing a grand mal seizure

POTABLE:

safe to drink

PRE-ECLAMPSIA:

pregnancy-induced hypertension

PRESSURE POINTS:

areas where pressure on blood vessels stops bleeding to distal areas

PROGNOSIS:

likely outcome of a medical condition

PRONE:

lying face down

PROPHYLAXIS:

preventative measures

PROTOZOA:

microscopic organisms that sometimes act as parasites

PROXIMAL:

closer to the torso

PULMONARY:

relating to the lungs

PRURITIS:

itchiness

PULMONARY:

relating to the lungs

PUS:

inflammatory discharge caused by the body’s response to infection

PYELONEPHRITIS:

inflammation of the kidney

QUADRANT:

body area divided into quarters

REBOUND:

pain elicited by pressing, then made worse by releasing the pressure on a part of the body

REFLUX:

acid traveling up the esophagus

RELAPSE:

recurrence of a disease’s symptoms

RENAL:

relating to the kidneys

RESPIRATORY:

relating to breathing

RHYTHM METHOD:

method of determining fertile periods by tracking menstrual cycles

SALINE:

salt water solution used for IV fluids and irrigating wounds

SEBORRHEA:

oily, itchy rash on scalp and face

SEDATION:

to relax or put to sleep

SEIZURE:

convulsion

SHOCK:

life-threatening syndrome caused by multiple organ failure or malfunction

SOFT TISSUE:

muscle, tendons, ligaments, skin, fat

SPRAIN:

damage to a ligament caused by hyperextension

SPHYGNOMANOMETER:

instrument used to measure pressure

STERILE:

free of germs

STERNUM:

breastbone

STETHOSCOPE:

instrument used for listening to heart, lungs, and for evaluating blood pressure

STRAIN:

damage to a muscle or tendon

STROKE:

brain hemorrhage with paralysis

SUBCUTANEOUS:

under the skin

SUPINE:

lying face up

SUSPENSION:

a drug mixed in a liquid

SUTURE:

wound closure with needle and thread

SYNDROME:

collection of symptoms

SYSTEMIC:

condition affecting the entire body

TACHYCARDIA:

elevated heart rate

TENDON:

connection of a muscle to a bone

THERMOREGULATORY:

related to body temperature

TINCTURE:

plant extract made by soaking herbs in a liquid (such as water, alcohol, or vinegar) for a specified length of time, then straining and discarding the plant material

TINNITUS:

ringing in the ears

TOURNIQUET:

item that uses pressure to stop bleeding from a wound

TRAUMA:

injury caused by impact

TRIAGE:

to sort by priority

TUMOR:

a growth in or on the body

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE:

eardrum

ULCER:

damage to the wall of the skin, stomach or intestine due to pressure, acid or disease

ULTRAVIOLET:

invisible light waves that damage skin or eyes

UMBILICAL:

relating to the “belly button”

URGENCY:

sudden desire to urinate

URTICARIA:

allergic rash

UTERUS:

womb

VARICES:

enlarged and dilated veins

VASCULAR:

relating to blood vessels

VEIN:

blood vessel that carries de-oxygenated blood back to the lungs

VERTIGO:

dizziness

WHEEZING:

high-pitched noises heard while breathing during an asthma attack


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