Laboratory Diagnosis in Neurology, 1 Ed.

Abbreviations

Ab

antibody

ABGA

anti-basalganglia antibody

ACE

angiotensin-convertingenzyme

AchR

acetylcholinereceptor

ACLA

anti-cardiolipin antibody

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADEM

acutedemyelinatingencephalomyelitis

ADC

AIDSdementia complex

AECA

anti-endothelial cell antibody

AFP

alpha fetoprotein

Ag

antigen

AHLAI

acutehemorrhagicleukoencephalitis antibodyindex

AIDP

acute inflammatory demyelinatingpoly-neuropathy

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AIP

acuteintermittent porphyria

ALD

adrenoleukodystrophy

ALL

acutelymphoblastic leukemia

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALS

5-aminolevulinic acid

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

AMA

anti-mitochondria antibody

AMAN

acutemotor axonal neuropathy

AMSAN

acute motorand sensoryaxonal neuropathy

ANA

antinuclear antibody

ANab

antineural antibody

ANCA

anti-neutrophilcytoplasmic antibody

ANNA

anti-neuronal nuclear antibody

APAAP

alkalinephosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase

APase

alkaline phosphatase

ApoE

apolipoproteinE

APP

amyloid precursor protein

APS

antiphospholipid syndrome

aPTT

activated partialthromboplastin time

ASA

acetylsalicylic acid

ASL

antistreptolysin (titer)

ASAT

aspartateaminotransferase

ATG

anti-thymocyte globulin

ATPase

adenosinetriphosphatase

bAk

Bundesarztekammer (GermanMedical Association)

bDNA

branched DNA

BGA

blood gasanalysis

BHI

brain-heart infusion

BJP

BenceJones protein

BMI

bodymassindex

bp

base pair

CADASIL

cerebralautosomaldominantarteriopathy with subcortical infarcts andleukoencephal-opathy

CANOMAD

chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, IgMparaprotein, cold agglutinins, and disialosyl antibodies

CC

cell count

CCT

cranial computed tomography

CD

clusterofdifferentiation

CDC

Centersfor Disease Control andPrevention

CT

computedtomography

CDG

carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein

cDNA

complementaryDNA

CDR

complementarydeterminingregion

CDT

carbohydrate-deficienttransferrin

CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen

CEE

Central European encephalitis

CFT

complementfixation test

CHD

coronary heart disease

CIDP

chronic inflammatorydemyelinatingpoly-neuropathy

CJD

Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease

CK

creatine kinase

CMT

Charcot-Marie-Toothdisease

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CNPase

cyclic nucleotidephosphohydrolase

CNS

central nervoussystem

COHb

carboxyhemoglobin

COX

cytochrome coxidase

CPE

cytopathic effect

CPEO

chronic progressiveexternalophthalmoplegia

CREST

calcinosis, Raynaud'sphenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia

CRH

corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRMP

collapsin-responsive mediator protein

CRP

C-reactive protein

CSF

cerebrospinalfluid

CV

coefficient of variation

CZF

cerebellar zincfinger

DAD

diabetes mellitusand deafness

DGUOK

deoxyguanosine kinase

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

dsDNA

double-strandedDNA

DST

dexamethasone suppression test

DTR

deep tendon reflexes

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

EEG

electroencephalogram

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EIA

enzymeimmunoassay

EITB

enzyme-linkedimmunoelectrotransfer blot

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM

electron microscopy

EMA

epithelialmembraneantigen

ENA

extractable nuclear antigen

ERG

electroretinogram

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentationrate

ET

essentialthrombocythemia

FABP

fatty-acid-binding protein

FFI

fatal familial insomnia

FDG-PET

positron emissiontomographyusing fluoro-deoxyglucose

FIA

fluorescence immunoassay

FITC

fluorescein isothiocyanate

FPIA

fluorescence-polarization immunoassay

FRDA

Friedreich'sataxia

FSH

follicle-stimulatinghormone

FSHD

facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

FSME

Fruhsommer-Meningo-Encephalitis (r CEE, TBE)

FT3

free triiodothyronine

FT4

free thyroxine

FTA-ABS

fluorescenttreponemal antibodyabsorption

FTD

frontotemporal dementia

FTDP-17

frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linkedtochromosome 17

FTLD

frontotemporal lobar degeneration

GAD

glutamate decarboxylase

GalNAc

N-acetylgalactosamine

GBS

Guillian-Barre syndrome

GC

gaschromatography

GFAP

glial fibrillaryacidic protein

GGT

gamma-glutamyl transferase

GH

growthhormone

GLG

gasliquid chromatography

GOT

glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase

GPL

IgG-phospholipid antibody unit

GPT

glutamate pyruvate transaminase

GROD

granular osmophilic deposits

GSS

Gerstmann-Strausslersyndrome

HAI

hemagglutination inhibition assay

Hb

hemoglobin

HbA1c

glycosylated hemoglobin

HBV

hepatitis Bvirus

HbS

sickle cell hemoglobin

HC

homocysteine

hCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

HCP

hereditarycoproporphyria

Hct

hematocrit

HCV

hepatitis Cvirus

HD

Huntington'sdisease

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HE

hematoxylin-eosin

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HLA

human leukocyteantigen

HMSN

hereditarymotor sensoryneuropathy

HNA

hereditary neuralgicamyotrophy

HNPP

hereditaryneuropathywith liabilityto pressurepalsy

HSAN

hereditary sensory andautonomic neuropathy

HPLC

high-pressure liquid chromatography

HRP

horseradishperoxidase

HSP

heatshock protein

HSS

Hallervorden-Spatzsyndrome

HSV

herpes simplexvirus

IBM

inclusionbodymyositis

ICAM

intracellular adhesion molecule

ICP

intracranial pressure

IDL

intermediate densitylipoprotein

IEF

isoelectric focusing

IF

intrathecal fraction

IFT

indirect immunofluorescence test

Ig

immunoglobulin

IHA

indirect hemagglutination

IL

interleukin

INCAT

Inflammatory NeuropathyCause and Treatment(group)

INR

international normalizedratio

INSTAND

Institutefor Standardizationand Documentation in theMedical Laboratory

IRMA

immunoradiometric assay

ITPA

intrathecal Treponema pallidum antibody

JCV

John Cunningham virus

kDa

kilodalton

KSS

Kearns-Sayre syndrome

LAL

Limulus amebocyte lysate

LAMP

lysosome-associatedmembrane protein

LBD

Lewybody dementia

LC

liquidchromatography

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LDL

low density lipoprotein

LEMS

Lambert-Eatonmyasthenic syndrome

LH

luteinizinghormone

LHON

Leber'shereditaryoptic atrophy

LIA

luminescenceimmunoassay

LP

lumbarpuncture

LPL

lipoprotein lipase

LS

Leigh'ssyndrome

mAb

monoclonal antibody

MAD

myoadenylate deaminase

MADD

myoadenylate deaminase deficiency

MAG

myelin-associatedglycoprotein

Mb

megabase

MBP

myelin basic protein

MCH

meancorpuscularhemoglobin

MCTD

mixedconnective tissuedisease

MCV

meancorpuscular volume

MELAS

mitochondrial encephalomyelopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelikeepisodes

MERRF

myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers

MetHb

methemoglobin

MFS

Miller-Fischer syndrome

MG

myastheniagravis

MGUS

monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

MHC

majorhistocompatibilitycomplex

MID

multi-infarctdementia

MLD

metachromaticleukodystrophy

MMA

methylmalonic acid

MMN

multifocal motor neuropathy

MND

muscle-specific tyrosine kinase

MNGIE

myoneurogenicgastrointestinal encephalopathy

MOG

myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

MPL

IgM-phospholipid antibody unit

MPO

myeloperoxidase

MPS

mucopolysaccharidosis

MRI

magnetic resonanceimaging

mRNA

messengerRNA

MRZ

measles, rubella, (varicella) zoster

MS

multiple sclerosis

MS

mass spectrometry

MSA

multiple system atrophy

MuSK

muscle-specific(receptortyrosine)kinase

MW

molecular weight

NAB

neutralizingantibody

NAD

nicotinamideadeninedinucleotide

NADH

reducedform of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADH-TR

ADHtetrazoliumreductase

NARP

neuropathywith ataxia andretinitis pigmentosa

NASBA

nucleic-acid-sequence-basedamplification

NAT

nucleic acid amplification technique

NC

nitrocellulose

NCL

neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

NF

neurofilament

NFT

neurofibrillarytangle

NHL

non-Hodgkinlymphoma

NMO

neuromyelitis optica

Nova

neuro-oncological ventral antigen

NSE

neuron-specific enolase

OCB

oligoclonalIgG band

OD

optical density

oGTT

oralglucose tolerancetest

OKT3

anti-CD3 monoclonalantibody

OMS

Opsoclonus-myoclonussyndrome

OSP

oligodendrocyte-specific protein

Osp

outersurface protein

OTC

ornithinetranscarbamylase

PA

progressiveaphasia

PAGE

polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis

PAI

plasminogen activator inhibitor

PACNS

primaryangiitis of thecentral nervoussystem

PAN

polyarteritis nodosa

PANDAS

pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric dis-ordersassociated withstreptococcal Infections

PAP

peroxidase-anti-peroxidase

PAS

periodic-acid - Schiff

PBG

porphobilinogen

PBG-D

porphobilinogendeaminase

PCA

Purkinjecellantibody

PCD

paraneoplastic cerebellardegeneration

PCNSL

primaryCNS lymphoma

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PCT

procalcitonin

PDH

pyruvatedehydrogenase

PEEP

positive end-expiratory pressure

PEM

paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis

PERM

progressive encephalitis with rigidity and myoclonus

PET

positron emissiontomography

PHF

pairedhelical filaments

Pi

inorganic phosphate

pI

isoelectric point

PLAP

placentalalkaline phosphatase

PLP

proteolipid protein

PML

progressivemultifocal leukoencephalopathy

PMP

peripheral myelinprotein

PM-Scl

polymyositis scleroderma

PNP

polyneuropathy

PNS

peripheral nervoussystem

POEMS

polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, Mprotein, and skin changes

POLG

polymerase gamma

PPSB

prothrombincomplex

PrP

prion protein

PT

prothrombintime

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

PVDF

polyvinylidene difluoride

RBC

redblood cell(count)

RBP

retinol-bindingprotein

REAL

Revised European American Lymphoma (classification)

RIA

radioimmunoassay

rilibAk

Richtlinien derBundesdrztekammer (Guidelines of theGermanFederal MedicalSociety)

RNA

ribonucleic acid

RNP

ribonucleoprotein

RRA

radioreceptor assay

rRNA

ribosomalRNA

RT-PCR

reverse transcriptase polymerasechain reaction

RyR

ryanodine receptor

SAE

subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy

SAH

subarachnoid hemorrhage

SAP

sphingolipid activator protein

SCA

spinocerebellar ataxia

sCD25

interleukin-2 receptor

sCJD

sporadicCreutzfeldt-Jacobdisease

Scl-70

scleroderma 70-kDa antigen

SCLC

small-cell lung carcinoma

SD

standard deviation

SD

semanticdementia

SDH

succinatedehydrogenase

SDS

sodiumdodecyl sulfate

SEP

somatosensory evoked potential

SGLPG

sulfate-3-glucuronyl-neolactose paragloboside

SGPG

sulfate-3-glucuronyl paragloboside

SGTC

secondary generalizedtonic-clonic (seizures)

SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

SIRS

systemic inflammatoryresponse syndrome

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

TPHA

Treponemapallidum hemagglutination

SMA

spinal muscularatrophy

TPLA

Treponemapallidum latex agglutination

SMN

survival motorneuron

TPO

thyroidperoxidase

SNE

subacute necrotizing encephalopathy

TPOAb

thyroid peroxidase antibody

SNV

Sin Nombre virus

TP-PA

Treponemapallidum particle agglutination

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

TRAb

thyrotropin receptor antibody

SPP

spastic paraplegia(paraparesis)

TRH

thyrotropin-releasinghormone

SPS

stiffpersonsyndrome

TSD

Tay-Sachs disease

SS

Sjogren'ssyndrome

TSH

thyroid-stimulatinghormone

SSN

subacute sensoryneuronopathy

TT

thrombin time

SSPE

subacute sclerosingpanencephalitis

TTR

transthyretin (prealbumin)

TBE

tick-borne encephalitis

vCJD

variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease

TBG

thyroxine-binding globulin

VDRL

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory

TCA

trichloroacetic acid

VEP

visual evoked potential

TDM

therapeuticdrugmonitoring

VGCC

voltage-gated calciumchannels

TFPI

tissue factorpathway inhibitor

VGKC

voltage-gated potassiumchannels

TGA, TgAb

hyroglobulin antibody

VLCFA

verylongchain fattyacids

TIA

transientischemic attack(s)

VLDL

very lowdensity lipoprotein

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

VlsE

variable lipoprotein surfaceantigen of Borrelia

TLE

temporal lobe epilepsy

VP

variegate porphyria

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

VZV

varicella-zoster virus

TP

thymidinephosphorylase

WHO

World HealthOrganization

Tp

Treponemapallidum

WNV

West Nile virus