Radiation Oncology: A Question-Based Review

ABBREVIATION KEY

  Abbrev

  Full Spell-Out

2D

two-dimensional

3D

three-dimensional

3D-CRT

three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

5-FU

5-fluoro uracil

ABMT

autologous bone marrow transplant

abnl

abnormal

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

adj

adjuvant

Adr

Adriamycin

AFP

alpha-feto protein

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AJCC

American Joint Committee on Cancer

aka

also known as

alk phos

alkaline phosphatase

am

morning (ante meridian)

ANC

absolute neutrophil count (lab)

ant

anterior

anterolat

anterolateral

AP

anterior-posterior

APC

adenomatous polyposis coli (gene mutation)

ARUBA

A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

ASCUS

atypical squamous cells of unknown significance

ASTRO

American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology

AUC

area under the curve

avg

average

BAT

B-mode acquisition and targeting

b/c

because

β-HCG

beta-human chorionic gonadotropin

bid

twice daily

bilat

bilateral

BM

bone marrow

BMI

body mass index

BMP

basic metabolic panel

BMT

bone marrow transplant

BTSG

Brain Tumor Study Group

Bx

biopsy/biopsies

C

cervical (spine level)

CA 19-9

cancer antigen 19-9

CA 125

cancer antigen 125

CALGB

Cancer and Leukemia Group B

C/A/P

chest/abdomen/pelvis

CBC

complete blood count (lab)

CCCG

Colorectal Cancer Collaborative Group

cCR

clinical complete response

CD

cone-down

CD4

cluster of differentiation 4 (for immune cells)

CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen

CESS

Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study

CHART

Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy Trial

chemo

chemotherapy

CHF

congestive heart failure

CIN

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CIS

carcinoma in situ

cm

centimeter/centimeters

CMP

complete metabolic panel (lab)

c-myc

(gene)

cN0

clinically node-negative

CN

cranial nerve

CNS

central nervous system

Co-60

cobalt-60

COG

Children's Oncology Group

contralat

contralateral

Cr

creatinine

CR

complete response

CRT

chemoradiation

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

CSI

craniospinal irradiation

CSM

cancer-specific mortality

CSS

cause-specific survival

CT

computed tomography

CTV

clinical target volume

CXR

chest x-ray

D/C

discontinue/discontinued

D&C

dilation and curettage

DCC

deleted in colorectal cancer (gene)

DDx

differential diagnosis

DFS

diseasefree survival

DLCO

lung diffusion capacity testing

DM

distant metastasis

DMFS

distant metastasisfree survival

DOI

depth of invasion

DRE

digital rectal examination

DSS

disease-specific survival

DVH

dose volume histogram

DVT

deep venous thrombosis

Dx

diagnosis/diagnoses

Dz

disease/diseases

EB

external beam

EBRT

external beam radiation therapy

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

ECE

extracapsular extension

ECOG

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

EFS

eventfree survival

e.g.

for example

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

ENI

elective nodal irradiation

EORTC

European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (lab)

et al.

and others

EUA

exam under anesthesia

EUS

endoscopic ultrasound

exam

examination

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FDG

fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

FEV

forced expiratory volume

FFS

failurefree survival

FIGO

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

FISH

fluorescence in situ hybridization

FKHR

Forkhead (drosophilia) homolog 1 (rhabdomyosarcoma) (gene)

FLAIR

fluid attenuation inversion recovery

F:M

female to male ratio

FN rate

false-negative rate

FNA

fine needle aspiration

FOLFOX

5-FU/leukovorin/oxaliplatin

FPR

false-positive rate

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

FSR

fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

fx

fraction/fractions

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GH

growth hormone

GI

gastrointestinal

GnRH

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GTR

gross total resection

GTV

gross target volume

GU

genitourinary

Gy

Gray

gyn

gynecologic

H&N

head and neck

H&P

history and physical

HA

headache

HAART

highly active antiretroviral therapy

HCG

human chorionic gonadotropin (lab test)

HDR

high dose rate

Hgb

hemoglobin

HGSIL

high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HNPCC

hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer

HPV

human papilloma virus

hr/hrs

hour/hours

HR

hazard ratio

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

HSV

herpes simplex virus

HTN

hypertension

Hx

history/histories

IBCSG

International Breast Cancer Study Group

ICP

intracranial pressure

IDL

isodose line

i.e.

that is

IELCAP

International Early Lung Cancer Action Project

IFN

interferon

IgA

immunoglobulin A

IGF

insulinlike growth factor

IgG

immunoglobulin G

IGRT

image-guided radiation therapy

IJROBP

International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics

IMRT

intensity-modulated radiation therapy

inf

inferior

INR

international normalized ratio

intraop

intraoperative

IORT

intraoperative radiation therapy

ipsi

ipsilateral

IQ

intelligence quotient

ITV

internal target volume

IVC

inferior vena cava

JAMA

Journal of the American Medical Association

JCO

Journal of Clinical Oncology

JCOG

Japan Clinical Oncology Group

JCRT

Joint Center for Radiation Therapy

JNCI

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

L

lumbar (spine level)

lab

laboratory/laboratory test

LAD

lymphadenopathy

LAMP

Locally Advanced Multimodality Protocol

LAO

left anterior oblique

lat

lateral

LC

local control

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LDR

low dose rate

LEEP

loop electrosurgical excision procedure

LF

local failure

LFT

liver function test

LGSIL

low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

LH

luteinizing hormone

LINAC

linear accelerator

LLL

left lower lobe

LML

left middle lobe

LN

lymph node

LND

lymph node dissection

LOH

loss of heterozygosity

LP

lumbar puncture

LPO

left posterior oblique

LR

local recurrence

LRC

locoregional control

LRF

locoregional failure

LRFS

local recurrencefree survival

LRR

locoregional recurrence

LUL

left upper lobe

LVI

lymphovascular invasion

LVSI

lymphovascular stromal invasion

MALT

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

max

maximal/maximum

MDACC

MD Anderson Cancer Center

med

medication

MEN

multiple endocrine neoplasia

mets

metastasis/metastases

M:F

male to female ratio

MFS

metastasesfree survival

MGMT

O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase

min

minimal/minimum

mo/mos

month/months

MRC

Medical Research Council

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MS

median survival

MTD

maximum tolerated/tolerable dose

MVA

multivariate analysis

N/C

nuclear to cytoplasm ratio

NCCN

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

NCCTG

North Central Cancer Treatment Group

NCI

National Cancer Institute

NCIC

National Cancer Institute of Canada

NED

no evidence of disease

NEJM

New England Journal of Medicine

neoadj

neoadjuvant

NF

neurofibromatosis

NPV

negative predictive value

NR

no response

NSABP

National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project

NSAID

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSS

not statistically significant

NTR

near-total resection

n/v

nausea/vomiting

NZ

New Zealand

OR

odds ratio

ORR

overall response rate

OS

overall survival

PA

posterior-anterior

PAP

Papanicolau

PCI

prophylactic cranial irradiation

PCP

pneumocystic pneumonia

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

pCR

pathologic complete response

PDGFR

platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PEG (tube)

percutanous endoscopic gastrostomy tube

periop

perioperative

PET

positron emission tomography

PFS

progressionfree survival

PFT

pulmonary function test

Plt

platelets

pm

afternoon (post meridian)

pN0

pathologically node negative

PNET

primitive neuroectodermal tumor

PNI

perineural invasion

PORT

postoperative radiation therapy

post

posterior

posterolat

posterolateral

postop

postoperative

PPV

positive predictive value

PR

partial response

preop

preoperative

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

pt/pts

patient/patients

PTHrP

parathyroid hormone–related peptide

PT

prothrombin time

PTV

planning target volume

PUVA

psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet radiation

q

every

qd

daily

QOL

quality of life

RAO

right anterior oblique

RBE

relative biologic effectiveness

RCT

randomized controlled trial

rcv

receive/received

RFS

relapsefree survival

RLL

right lower lobe

RML

right middle lobe

r/o

rule out

RPO

right posterior oblique

RR

relative risk

RT

radiation or radiation therapy

RTOG

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

RUL

right upper lobe

RUQ

right upper quadrant

Rx

prescription/prescriptions

S

sacral (spine level)

SBO

small bowel obstruction

SEER

Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (data)

SFOP

French Society of Pediatric Oncology

SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

SIL

squamous intraepithelial lesion

SQ

subcutaneous

s/p

status post

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

SRS

stereotactic radiosurgery

SS

statistically significant

SSD

source to skin distance

STD

sexually transmitted disease

STR

subtotal resection

sup

superior

SVC

superior vena cava

Sx

symptom/symptoms

T

thoracic (spine level)

TD

tolerance dose

TFT

thyroid function test

tid

three times a day

TNM

Tumor/Node/Metastasis

trilat

trilateral

TRUS

transrectal ultrasound

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

Tx

treatment/treatments

UA

urinalysis

UCSF

University of California at San Francisco

UK

United Kingdom

unilat

unilateral

US

ultrasound

U.S.

United States

UV

ultraviolet

vs.

versus

WBC

white blood cell

WBRT

whole brain radiation therapy

WHO

World Health Organization

wk/wks

week/weeks

WLE

wide local excision

yo

year old/years old

yr/yrs

year/years

  Symbols

+

meaning with or and (as in Surgery + RT)

meaning followed by

meaning increasinghigh(er), or elevated

meaning decreasing or low(er)


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