The Wills Eye Manual

Ophthalmic Acronyms and Abbreviations


ABK Aphakic bullous keratopathy

ABMD or EBMD Anterior (or epithelial) basement membrane dystrophy

AC Anterior chamber

AC/A Accommodative convergence/accommodation angle

ACIOL Anterior chamber intraocular lens

AFB Acid-fast bacillus

AFGE Air-fluid gas exchange

AFX Air-fluid exchange

AGIS Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study

AION Arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy

AK Astigmatic keratotomy

ALT Argon laser trabeculoplasty

AMD Age-related macular degeneration

AMT Amniotic membrane tissue or transplant

APMPPE Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy

Anti-VEGF Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

APD or RAPD (Relative) afferent pupillary defect

ARC Abnormal retinal correspondence

ARN Acute retinal necrosis

ASC Anterior subcapsular cataract

ASP Anterior stromal puncture

AV Arteriovenous

AZOOR Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy


BCVA Best corrected visual acuity

BDR Background diabetic retinopathy

BRAO Branch retinal artery occlusion

BRVO or BVO Branch retinal vein occlusion

BSCL Bandage soft contact lens

BSS Balanced salt solution

Bx Biopsy


C3F8 Perfluoropropane

CACG Chronic angle closure glaucoma

CAI Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

CAR Cancer-associated retinopathy

CB Ciliary body

CBC Complete blood count

CCF Carotid-cavernous (sinus) fistula

CCT Central corneal thickness

C/D Cup/disc ratio

CE Cataract extraction

C/F Cell/flare

CF Count fingers

CHED Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy

CHRPE Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium

CIN Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia

CL Contact lens

CLW Contact lens wearer

CME Cystoid macular edema

CMV Cytomegalovirus

CN Cranial nerve

CNV or CNVM Choroidal neovascularization or choroidal neovascular membrane

CPA Cerebellopontine angle

CPC Cyclophotocoagulation

CPEO Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

CRA Chorioretinal atrophy or central retinal artery

CRAO Central retinal artery occlusion

CRVO or CVO Central retinal vein occlusion

CSCR or CSR Central serous (chorio)retinopathy

CSM Central, steady, and maintained fixation

CSME Clinically significant macular edema

CSNB Congenital stationary night blindness

CVF Confrontation visual field

CVOS Central Vein Occlusion Study

CWS Cotton-wool spot

CXL Corneal crosslinking


DALK Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

DBD Diamond burr debridement

DCR Dacryocystorhinostomy

DDT Dye disappearance test

DD Disc diameter(s)

DES Dry eye syndrome

DFE Dilated fundus examination

DLK Diffuse lamellar keratitis

DM Diabetes mellitus

DMEK Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty

D/Q Deep and quiet

DR Diabetic retinopathy

DRS Diabetic Retinopathy Study

DS(A)EK Descemet stripping (automated) endothelial keratoplasty

DSO Descemet stripping only

DUSN Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis

DVD Dissociated vertical deviation


E Esophoria

EBMD Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy

ECCE Extracapsular cataract extraction

ECD Endothelial cell density

EDTA Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

EKC Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

EL Endolaser

EOG Electrooculogram

EOM Extraocular muscles or motility

ERG Electroretinogram

ERM Epiretinal membrane

ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ET Esotropia

ETDRS Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study

EUA Examination under anesthesia


FA Fluorescein angiogram

FAF Fundus autofluorescence

FHIC Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis

FAZ Foveal avascular zone

FB Foreign body

FBS Fasting blood sugar or foreign body sensation

FEVR Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

FNA Fine needle aspiration

FTA-ABS Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption

FTFC Full to finger counting

FTN Finger tension normal


GA Geographic atrophy

GC Gonococcus

GCA Giant cell arteritis

GLT Glaucoma Laser Trial

GPC Giant papillary conjunctivitis


HA Headache

HM Hand motion

HSV Herpes simplex virus

HT Hypertropia

HVF Humphrey visual field

HZO Herpes zoster ophthalmicus


ICCE Intracapsular cataract extraction

ICE Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome

ICG Indocyanine green

IGRA Interferon-gamma release assay

IK Interstitial keratitis

ILM Internal limiting membrane

INO Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

IO Inferior oblique muscle

IOFB Intraocular foreign body

IOIS Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome

IOL Intraocular lens

IOO Inferior oblique overaction

IOP Intraocular pressure

IR Inferior rectus muscle

IRMA Intraretinal microvascular abnormalities

IVFA Intravenous fluorescein angiography


JOAG Juvenile open angle glaucoma

JIA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

JXG Juvenile xanthogranuloma


K Keratometry or cornea

K-pro Keratoprosthesis

KCN Keratoconus

KP Keratic precipitates


LASER Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

LASIK Laser in situ keratomileusis

LASEK Laser subepithelial keratomileusis

LL Lower eyelid

LF Levator function

LP Light perception

LPI Laser peripheral iridotomy

LR Lateral rectus muscle

LTG Low-tension glaucoma


MA Microaneurysm

MAR Melanoma-associated retinopathy

MCE Microcystic corneal edema

ME Macular edema

MEWDS Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome

MG Myasthenia gravis

MGD Meibomian gland dysfunction

MHA-TP Microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum

MIGS Microinvasive glaucoma surgery

MM Malignant melanoma

MMC Mitomycin C

MMP Mucous membrane pemphigoid

MP Membrane peel

MPS Macular Photocoagulation Study

MR Medial rectus muscle

MRD Margin to reflex distance

MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MS Multiple sclerosis


NAION Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy

Nd-YAG Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (laser)

NFL Nerve fiber layer

NI No improvement

NK Neurotrophic keratopathy or keratitis

NLDO Nasolacrimal duct obstruction

NLP No light perception

NPA Near point of accommodation

NPC Near point of convergence

NPDR Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy

NRC Normal retinal correspondence

NS Nuclear sclerosis

NTG Normal tension glaucoma

NV (A, D, E, or I) Neovascularization (angle, disc, elsewhere [in retina], or iris)

NVG Neovascular glaucoma


OCP Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid

OCS Orbital compartment syndrome

OCT Optical coherence tomography

OD Oculus dexter, or right eye

OHT Ocular hypertension

OIS Ocular ischemic syndrome

OKN Optokinetic nystagmus

ON Optic nerve

OS Oculus sinister, or left eye

OU Oculus uterque, or both eyes


P Pupils

PAM Primary acquired melanosis or potential acuity meter

PAS Peripheral anterior synechiae

PBK Pseudophakic bullous keratopathy

PC Posterior chamber

PCIOL Posterior chamber intraocular lens

PCO Posterior capsular opacity

PD Prism diopters or pupillary distance

PDR Proliferative diabetic retinopathy

PDS Pigment dispersion syndrome

PDT Photodynamic therapy

PE Phacoemulsification or physical examination

PED Pigment epithelial detachment

PERRL(A) Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light (and accommodation)

PF Palpebral fissure

PFAT Preservative-free artificial tear

PFV Persistent fetal vasculature

PH Pinhole

PI Peripheral iridectomy/iridotomy

PK Penetrating keratoplasty

PLE Pen light examination

PMD Pellucid marginal degeneration

PMMA Polymethylmethacrylate

POAG Primary open angle glaucoma

POHS Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome

PORN Progressive outer retinal necrosis

PPCD Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy

PPD Purified protein derivative

PPL Pars plana lensectomy

PPV Pars plana vitrectomy

PRP Panretinal photocoagulation

PRK Photorefractive keratectomy

PSC Posterior subcapsular cataract

PTK Phototherapeutic keratectomy

PVD Posterior vitreous detachment

PVR Proliferative vitreoretinopathy

PXE Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

PXF Pseudoexfoliation


RA Rheumatoid arthritis

RAPD or APD Relative afferent pupillary defect

Rb Retinoblastoma

RCE Recurrent corneal erosion

(R)RD (Rhegmatogenous) retinal detachment

RGP Rigid gas permeable (contact lens)

RK Radial keratotomy

ROP Retinopathy of prematurity

RP Retinitis pigmentosa

RPR Rapid plasma reagin

RPE Retinal pigment epithelium


SB Scleral buckle

SCH Subconjunctival hemorrhage

SEI Subepithelial (anterior stromal) infiltrate

SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride

SLE Slit lamp examination or systemic lupus erythematosus

SLK Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis

SLT Selective laser trabeculoplasty

SMILE Small incision lenticule extraction

SO Superior oblique muscle or sympathetic ophthalmia or silicone oil

SPK Superficial punctate keratopathy or keratitis

SR Superior rectus muscle

SRF Subretinal fluid

SS Scleral spur

SVP Spontaneous venous pulsation


T (a,t) Tension or tonometry (applanation, Tonopen)

TBUT Tear break-up time

TED Thyroid eye disease

TIA Transient ischemic attack

TID Transillumination defect

TM Trabecular meshwork

TRD Tractional retinal detachment

TTT Transpupillary thermotherapy


UCVA Uncorrected visual acuity

UGH Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome

UBM Ultrasound biomicroscopy

UL Upper eyelid


VA (cc or sc) Visual acuity (with correction or without correction)

VDRL Venereal Disease Research Laboratory

VER Visual-evoked response

VF Visual field

VH Vitreous hemorrhage

VKH Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

VZV Varicella zoster virus


WEBOF White-eyed blowout fracture


X Exophoria

XT Exotropia


YAG Yttrium aluminum garnet (laser)