Class: Insulin, Rapid-Acting (R); Intermediate-Acting (N)
Dosage Forms. Injection Solution: Humulin R (Regular): 100 units/mL, 500 units/mL; Humulin N (NPH): 100 units/mL; Humulin 70/30 (NPH/Regular): 70 units NPH/30 units Regular/mL
Common FDA Label Indication, Dosing, and Titration.
1. Diabetes mellitus, Type I and II: Subcutaneous dosing is individualized to patient needs
Off-Label Uses. None
MOA. Insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids and their conversion to glycogen, triglycerides, and proteins.
Drug Characteristics: Insulin
Medication Safety Issues: Insulin
Drug Interactions: Insulin
Adverse Reactions: Insulin
Efficacy Monitoring Parameters. Preprandial blood glucose between 70 and 130 mg/dL, HbA1c <7%.
Toxicity Monitoring Parameters. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include nausea, sweating, and loss of consciousness.
Key Patient Counseling Points. Monitor blood glucose in frequent intervals (2-4 times per day); if <70 mg/dL, eat candy or sugar and contact prescriber. Store in refrigerator. Dispose needles in sharps container. Do not share needles; this increases the risk of transmission of infectious diseases. Rotate injection sites.
Clinical Pearls. Beef and pork insulins are extracted and purified from the animal’s pancreas. Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology or enzymatic conversion of pork insulin. No differences in side effects or long-term control of diabetes have been observed between human insulin and highly purified pork insulin. Use caution when dispensing 500 units/mL insulin solution, can result in accidental overdose of insulin and hypoglycemia. Regular is rapid acting; NPH is intermediate acting.