Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications, 4th Ed.

Suggested reading and selected references

General references: textbooks

Brunton LL (ed) (2011) Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB (eds.) (2009) Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

General references: textbooks in the Essential Psychopharmacology series

Beyer CE, Stahl SM (eds.) (2010) Next Generation Antidepressants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kalali A, Preskorn S, Kwentus J, Stahl SM (eds.) (2012) Essential CNS Drug Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Silberstein SD, Marmura MJ, Stahl SM (2010) Essential Neuropharmacology: the Prescriber’s Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith H, Pappagallo M, Stahl SM (2012) Essential Pain Pharmacology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM (2009) Stahl’s Illustrated Antidepressants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM (2009) Stahl’s Illustrated Chronic Pain and Fibromyalgia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM (2009) Stahl’s Illustrated Mood Stabilizers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM (2011) Case Studies: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM (2011) Essential Psychopharmacology: the Prescriber’s Guide, 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM (2012) Stahl’s Self-Assessment Examination in Psychiatry: Multiple Choice Questions for Clinicians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM, Davis RL (2011) Best Practices in Medical Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM, Grady MM (2010) Stahl’s Illustrated Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM, Grady MM (2012) Stahl’s Illustrated Substance Use and Impulsive Disorders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM, Mignon L (2009) Stahl’s Illustrated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl SM, Mignon L (2010) Stahl’s Illustrated Antipsychotics: Treating Psychosis, Mania and Depression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stein DJ, Lerer B, Stahl SM (eds.) (2012) Essential Evidence-Based Psychopharmacology, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapters 1–3 (basic neuroscience): textbooks

Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Bloom FE, Roth RH (2009) Introduction to Neuropsychopharmacology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Meyer JS, Quenzer LF (2005) Psychopharmacology: Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC (2009) Molecular Neuropharmacology: a Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience, 2nd edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Shepherd GM (ed) (2004) The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, 5th edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Squire LR, Bloom FE, McConnell SK, et al. (eds.) (2003) Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd edn. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Chapters 4 (psychosis and schizophrenia) and 5 (antipsychotic agents), including glutamate

Alphs LD, Summerfelt A, Lann H, Muller RJ (1989) The negative symptom assessment: a new instrument to assess negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 25: 159–163.

Benes FM (2010) Amygdalocortical Circuitry in Schizophrenia: From Circuits to Molecules. (2010) Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 239–257.

Citrome L (2009) Asenapine for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a review of the efficacy and safety profile for this newly approved sublingually absorbed second-generation antipsychotic. International Journal of Clinical Practice 63: 1762–1784.

Citrome L, Meng X, Hochfeld M, Stahl SM (2012) Efficacy of iloperidone in the short-term treatment of schizophrenia: a post hoc analysis of pooled patient data from four phase III, placebo- and active-controlled trials. Human Psychopharmacology 27: 24–32.

Conn PJ, Lindsley CW, Jones CK (2009) Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors as a novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. Trends in Pharmacological Science 30: 25–31.

Cruz DA, Weaver CL, Lovallo EM, Melchitzky DS, Lewis DA (2009) Selective alterations in postsynaptic markers of chandelier cell inputs to cortical pyramidal neurons in subjects with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 34: 2112–2124.

Curley AA, Arion D, Volk DW, et al. (2011) Cortical deficits of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression in schizophrenia: clinical, protein, and cell type-specific features. American Journal of Psychiatry158: 921–929.

Dragt S, Nieman DH, Schultze-Lutter F, et al. (2012) Cannabis use and age at onset of symptoms in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 125: 45–53.

D’Souza DC, Singh N, Elander J, et al. (2012) Glycine transporter inhibitor attenuates the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine in healthy males: preliminary evidence. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1036–1046.

Eisenberg DP, Berman KF (2010) Executive function, neural circuitry, and genetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 258–277.

Enomoto T, Tse MT, Floresco SB (2011) Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 69: 432–441.

Fleischhacker WW, Gopal S, Lane R, et al. (2012) A randomized trial of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 107–118.

Foti DJ, Kotov R, Guey LT, Bromet EJ (2010) Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization. American Journal of Psychiatry 167: 987–993.

Fusar-Poli P, Bonoldi I, Yung AR, et al. (2012) Predicting psychosis: meta-analysis of transition outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 220–229.

Hall J, Whalley HC, McKirdy JW, et al. (2008) Overactivation of fear systems to neutral faces in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 64: 70–73.

Howes OD, Montgomery AJ, Asselin MC, et al. (2009) Elevated striatal dopamine function linked to prodromal signs of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 66: 13–20.

Jensen NH, Rodriguiz RM, Caron MG, et al. (2008) N-Desalkylquetiapine, a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and partial 5-HT1A agonist, as a putative mediator of quetiapine’s antidepressant activity. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 2303–2312.

Kane JM, Sanches R, Perry PP, et al. (2012) Aripiprazole intramuscular depot as maintenance treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a 52-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73: 617–624.

Karlsgodt KH, Robleto K, Trantham-Davidson H, et al. (2011) Reduced dysbindin expression mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction and impaired working memory performance. Biological Psychiatry 69: 28–34.

Kegeles LS, Mao X, Stanford AD, et al. (2012) Elevated prefrontal cortex γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate-glutamine levels in schizophrenia measured in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 449–459.

Large M, Sharma S, Compton MT, Slade T, Nielssen O (2011) Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 555–561.

Lewis DA, Gonzalez-Burgos G (2008) Neuroplasticity of neocortical circuits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 141–165.

Lodge DJ, Grace AA (2011) Hippocampal dysregulation of dopamine system function and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Trends in Pharmacological Science 32: 507–513.

Mechelli A, Riecher-Rossler A, Meisenzahl EM, et al. (2011) Neuroanatomical abnormalities that pre-date the onset of psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 489–495.

Meltzer HY, Cucchiaro J, Silva R, et al. (2011) Lurasidone in the treatment of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and olanzapine-controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 957–967.

Meyer JM, Stahl SM (2009) The metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 119: 4–14.

Nicodemus KK, Law AJ, Radulescu E, et al. (2010) Biological validation of increased schizophrenia risk with NRG1, ERBB4, and AKT1 epistasis via functional neuroimaging in healthy controls. Archives of General Psychiatry 67: 991–1001.

Patil ST, Zhang L, Martenyi F, et al. (2007) Activation of mGlu 2/3 receptors as a new approach to treat schizophrenia: a randomized phase 2 clinical trial. Nature Medicine 13: 1102–1107.

Perkins DO, Gu H, Boteva K, Lieberman JA (2005) Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first episode schizophrenia: a critical review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 162: 1785–1804.

Pinkham AE, Loughead J, Ruparel K, et al. (2011) Abnormal modulation of amygdala activity in schizophrenia in response to direct- and averted-gaze threat-related facial expressions. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 293–301.

Ragland JD, Laird AR, Ranganath C, et al. (2009) Prefrontal activation deficits during episodic memory in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 166: 863–874.

Rasetti R, Mattay VS, Wiedholz LM, et al. (2009) Evidence that altered amygdala activity in schizophrenia is related to clinical state and not genetic risk. American Journal of Psychiatry 166: 216–225.

Roffman JL, Gollub RL, Calhoun VD, et al. (2008) MTHFR 677CU+2192T genotype disrupts prefrontal funciton in schizophrenia through an interaction with COMT 158 VA U+2192 Met. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 17573–17578.

Roth BL. Ki determinations, receptor binding profiles, agonist and/or antagonist functional data, HERG data, MDR1 data, etc. as appropriate was generously provided by the National Institute of Mental Health’s Psychoactive Drug Screening Program, Contract # HHSN-271-2008-00025-C (NIMH PDSP). The NIMH PDSP is directed by Bryan L.Roth MD, PhD at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Project Officer Jamie Driscol at NIMH, Bethesda MD, USA. For experimental details please refer to the PDSP website

Satterthwaite TD, Wolf DH, Loughead J, et al. (2010) Association of enhanced limbic response to threat with decreased cortical facial recognition memory response in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 167: 418–426.

Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EHF (2009) Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. Journal of Psychopharmacology 23: 65–73.

Singh J, Robb A, Vijapurkar U, Nuamah I, Hough D (2011) A randomized, double-blind study of paliperidone extended-release in treatment of acute schizophrenia in adolescents. Biological Psychiatry 70: 1179–1187.

Stahl SM (2010) The serotonin-7 receptor as a novel therapeutic target. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71: 1414–1415.

Stahl SM, Mignon L, Meyer JM (2009) What comes first: atypical antipsychotic or the metabolic syndrome? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 119: 171–179.

Tamminga CA, Stan AD, Wagner AD (2010) The hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 167: 1178–1193.

Tan HY, Chen Q, Sust S, et al. (2007) Epistasis between catechol-O-methyltransferase and type II metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genes on working memory brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences104: 12536–12541.

Umbricht D, Yoo K, Youssef E, et al. (2010) Investigational glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor RG1678: results of the proof-of-concept study for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Abstract from the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) 49th Annual Meeting, Miami Beach, Florida, December 5–9, 2010.

Ursu S, Kring AM, Gard MG, et al.(2011) Prefrontal cortical deficits and impaired cognition-emotion interactions in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 276–285.

Wykes T, Huddy V, Cellard C, McGurk SR, Czobar P (2011) A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 472–485.

Chapters 6 (mood disorders), 7 (antidepressants), and 8 (mood stabilizers)

aan het Rot, M, Collins KA, Murrough JW, et al. (2010) Safety and efficacy of repeated-dose intravenous ketamine for treatment-resistant depression. Biological Psychiatry 67: 139–145.

Alvarez E, Perez V, Dragheim M, Loft H, Artigas F (2012) A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, active reference study of Lu AA21004 in patients with major depressive disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 589–600.

BALANCE investigators and collaborators; Geddes JR, Goodwin GM, Rendell J, et al. (2010) Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder (Balance): a randomized open-label trial. Lancet 375: 385–395.

Bang-Andersen B, Ruhland T, Jorgensen M, et al. (2011) Discovery of 1-[2-(2,4-Dimethylphenylsulfanyl) phenyl] piperazine (LuAA21004): a novel multimodal compound for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 54: 3206–3221.

Bergink V, Bouvy PF, Vervoort JSP, et al. (2012) Prevention of postpartum psychosis and mania in women at high risk. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 609–616.

Bogdan R, Williamson DE, an Hariri AR (2012) Mineralocorticoid receptor Iso/Val (rs5522) genotype moderates the association between previous childhood emotional neglect and amygdala reactivity. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 515–522.

Chiu CT, Chuan DM (2010) Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 128: 281–304.

Chowdhury GMI, Behar KL, Cho W, et al. (2012) 1H-[13C]-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures of ketamine’s effect on amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Biological Psychiatry 71: 1022–1025.

Cipriani A, Pretty H, Hawton K, Geddes JR (2005) Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: a systematic review of randomized trials. American Journal of Psychiatry 162: 1805–1819.

DiazGranados N, Ibrahim LA, Brutsche NE, et al. (2010) Rapid resolution of suicidal ideation after a single infusion of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71: 1605–1611.

Duman RS, Voleti B (2012) Signaling pathways underlying the pathophysiology and treatment of depression: novel mechanisms for rapid-acting agents. Trends in Neurosciences 35: 47–56.

Frodl T, Reinhold E, Koutsouleris N, et al. (2010) Childhood stress, serotonin transporter gene and brain structures in major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1383–1390.

Goldberg JF, Perlis RH, Bowden CL, et al. (2009) Manic symptoms during depressive episodes in 1,380 patients with bipolar disorder: findings from the STEP-BD. American Journal of Psychiatry 166: 173–181.

Grady M, Stahl SM (2012) Practical guide for prescribing MAOI: debunking myths and removing barriers. CNS Spectrums 17: 2–10.

Ibrahim L, DiazGranados N, Franco-Chaves J, et al. (2012) Course of improvement in depressive symptoms to a single intravenous infusion of ketamine vs add-on riluzole: results from a 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1526–1533.

Leon AC, Solomon DA, Li C, et al. (2012) Antiepileptic drugs for bipolar disorder and the risk of suicidal ' text-align:justify; line-height:normal'>Mork A, Pehrson A, Brennum LT, et al. (2012) Pharmacological effects of Lu AA21004: a novel multimodal compound for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics340: 666–675.

Pasquali L, Busceti CL, Fulceri F, Paparelli A, Fornai F (2010) Intracellular pathways underlying the effects of lithium. Behavioral Pharmacology 21: 473–492.

Perlis RH, Ostacher MJ, Goldberg JF, et al. (2010) Transition to mania during treatment of bipolar depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 2545–2552.

Price JL, Drevets WC (2010) Neurocircuitry of mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 192–216.

Price RB, Nock MK, Charney DS, Mathew SJ (2009) Effects of intravenous ketamine on explicit and implicit measures of suicidality in treatment-resistant depression. Biological Psychiatry 66: 522–526.

Rao U, Chen LA, Bidesi AS, et al. (2010) Hippocampal changes associated with early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression. Biological Psychiatry 67: 357–364.

Roiser JP, Elliott R, Sahakian BJ (2012) Cognitive mechanisms of treatment in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 117–136.

Roy A, Gorodetsky E, Yuan Q, Goldman D, Enoch MA (2010) Interaction of FKBP5, a stress-related gene, with childhood trauma increases the risk for attempting suicide. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1674–1683.

Salvadore G, Cornwell BR, Sambataro F, et al. (2010) Anterior cingulate desynchronization and functional connectivity with the amygdala during a working memory task predict rapid antidepressant response to ketamine. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1415–1422.

Schwartz TL, Siddiqui US, Stahl SM (2011) Vilazodone: a brief pharmacologic and clinical review of the novel SPARI (serotonin partial agonist and reuptake inhibitor). Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology 1: 81–87.

Stahl SM (2010) Psychiatric stress testing: novel strategy for translational psychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1413–1414.

Stahl SM, Fava M, Trivedi M, et al. (2010) Agomelatine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: an 8 week, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71: 616–626.

Undurraga J, Baldessarini RJ, Valenti M, et al. (2012) Bipolar depression: clinical correlates of receiving antidepressants. Journal of Affective Disorders 139: 89–93.

Yatham LN, Liddle PF, Sossi V, et al. (2012) Positron emission tomography study of the effects of tryptophan depletion on brain serotonin2 receptors in subjects recently remitted from major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 601–609.

Zajecka J, Schatzberg A, Stahl SM, et al. (2010) Efficacy and safety of agomelatine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 30: 135–144.

Zarate CA, Brutsche NE, Ibrahim L, et al. (2012) Replication of ketamine’s antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression: a randomized controlled add-on trial. Biological Psychiatry 71: 939–946.

Chapter 9 (anxiety)

Anderson KC, Insel TR (2006) The promise of extinction research for the prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry 60: 319–321.

Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Grimes EM, et al. (2012) Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during emotional anticipation and neuropsychological performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 360–371.

Barad M, Gean PW, Lutz B (2006) The role of the amygdala in the extinction of conditioned fear. Biological Psychiatry 60: 322–328.

Batelaan NM, Van Balkom AJLM, Stein DJ (2010) Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of panic disorder: an update. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 403–415.

Bonne O, Vythilingam M, Inagaki M, et al. (2008) Reduced posterior hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69: 1087–1091.

De Kleine RA, Hendriks GJ, Kusters WJC, Broekman TG, van Minnen A (2012) A randomized placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine to enhance exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 71: 962–968.

Hermans D, Craske MG, Mineka S, Lovibond PF (2006) Extinction in human fear conditioning. Biological Psychiatry 60: 361–368.

Ipser JC, Stein DJ (2012) Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 825–840.

Jovanovic T, Ressler KJ (2010) How the neurocircuitry and genetics of fear inhibition may inform our understanding of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry 167: 648–662.

Linnman C, Zeidan MA, Furtak SC, et al. (2012) Resting amygdala and medial prefrontal metabolism predicts functional activation of the fear extinction circuit. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 415–423.

Mercer KB, Orcutt HK, Quinn JF, et al. (2012) Acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a prospective gene X environment study of a university campus shooting. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 89–97.

Monk S, Nelson EE, McClure EB, et al. (2006) Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 163: 1091–1097.

Myers KM, Carlezon WA (2012) D-cycloserine effects on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues. Biological Psychiatry 71: 947–955.

Onur OA, Schlaepfer TE, Kukolja J, I. (2010) The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-agonist D-cycloserine facilitates declarative learning and hippocampal activity in humans. Biological Psychiatry 67: 1205–1211.

Orr SP, Milad MR, Metzger LJ, et al. (2006) Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biological Psychology 732: 262–271.

Otto MW, Basden SL, Leyro TM, McHugh K, Hofmann SG (2007) Clinical perspectives on the combination of D-cycloserine and cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders. CNS Spectrums 12: 51–56, 59–61.

Otto MW, Tolin DF, Simon NM, et al. (2010) Efficacy of D-cycloserine for enhancing response to cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry 67: 365–370.

Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Hoff DJ, et al. (2007) A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry61: 928–934.

Rauch SL, Shin LM, Phelps EA (2006) Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research – past, present and future. Biological Psychiatry 60: 376–382.

Sandweiss DA, Slymen DJ, Leardmann CA, et al.; Millennium Cohort Study Team (2011) Preinjury psychiatric status, injury severity, and postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 496–504.

Sauve W, Stahl SM (2011) Psychopharmacological treatment.In Moore BA, Penk WE (eds.) Treating PTSD in Military Personnel: a Clinical Handbook. New York, NY: Guilford Press, pp. 155–172.

Shin LM, Bush G, Milad MR, et al. (2011) Exaggerated activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during cognitive interference: a monozygotic twin study of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 979–985.

Stein MB, McAllister TW (2009) Exploring the convergence of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Psychiatry 166: 768–776.

Vaiva G, Ducrocq F, Jezequel K, Averland B, et al. (2003) Immediate treatment with propranolol decreases postraumatic stress disorder two months after trauma. Biological Psychiatry 54: 947–949.

van Zuiden M, Geuze E, Willemen HLDM, et al. (2011) Pre-existing high glucocorticoid receptor number predicting development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after military deployment. American Journal of Psychiatry168: 89–96.

Chapter 10 (pain)

Apkarian AV, Sosa Y, Sonty S, et al. (2004) Chronic back pain is associated with decreased prefrontal and thalamic gray matter density. Journal of Neuroscience 24: 10410–10415.

Bar KJ, Wagner G, Koschke M, et al. (2007) Increased prefrontal activation during pain perception in major depression. Biological Psychiatry 62: 1281–1287.

Benarroch EE (2007) Sodium channels and pain. Neurology 68: 233–236.

Brandt MR, Beyer CE, Stahl SM (2012) TRPV1 antagonists and chronic pain: beyond thermal perception. Pharmaceuticals, special issue “Emerging pain targets and therapy” 5: 114–132.

Davies A, Hendrich J, Van Minh AT, et al. (2007) Functional biology of the alpha 2 beta subunits of voltage gated calcium channels. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 28: 220–228.

Dooley DJ, Taylor CP, Donevan S, Feltner D (2007) Ca2+ channel α2δ ligands: novel modulators of neurotransmission. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 28: 75–82.

Farrar JT (2006) Ion channels as therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain. Journal of Pain 7 (1, Supplement 1).

Gracely RH, Petzke F, Wolf JM, Clauw DJ (2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of augmented pain processing in fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism 46: 1222–1343.

McLean SA, Williams DA, Stein PK, et al. (2006) Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor concentration is associated with pain but not fatigue symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 2776–2782.

Miljanich GP (2004) Ziconotide: neuronal calcium channel blocker for treating severe chronic pain. Current Medicinal Chemistry 11: 3029–3040.

Nickel FT, Seifert F, Lanz S, Maihofner C (2012) Mechanisms of neuropathic pain. European Neuropsychopharmacology 22: 81–91.

Norman E, Potvin S, Gaumond I, et al. (2011) Pain inhibition is deficient in chronic widespread pain but normal in major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72: 219–224.

Stahl SM (2009) Fibromyalgia: pathways and neurotransmitters. Human Psychopharmacology 24: S11–S17.

Wall PD, Melzack R (eds.) (1999) Textbook of Pain, 4th edn. London: Harcourt.

Williams DA, Gracely RH (2006) Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Research and Therapy 8: 224–232.

Chapter 11 (sleep/wake)

Abadie P, Rioux P, Scatton B, et al. (1996) Central benzodiazepine receptor occupancy by zolpidem in the human brain as assessed by positron emission tomography. Science 295: 35–44.

Aloia MS, Arnedt JT, Davis JD, Riggs RL, Byrd D (2004) Neuropsychological sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: a critical review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 10: 772–785.

Bettica P, Squassante L, Groeger JA, et al. (2012) Differential effects of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (SB-649868) and zolpidem on sleep initiation and consolidation, SWS, REM sleep, and EEG power spectra in a model of situational insomnia. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1224–1233.

Cao M, Guilleminault C (2011) Hypocretin and its emerging role as a target for treatment of sleep disorders. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 11: 227–234.

Cauter EV, Plat L, Scharf MB, et al. (1997) Simultaneous stimulation of slow-wave sleep and growth hormone secretion by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in normal young men. Journal of Clinical Investigation100: 745–753.

Chahine LM, Chemali ZN (2006) Restless legs syndrome: a review. CNS Spectrums 11: 511–520.

Coleman PJ, Schreier JD, Cox CD, et al. (2012) Discovery of [(2R,5R)-5-{[(5-fluoropyridin-2-yl)oxy]methyl}-2-methylpiperidin-1-yl][5-methyl-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl]methanone (MK-6096): a dual orexin receptor antagonist with potent sleep-promoting properties. ChemMedChem 7: 415–424.

Czeisler CA, Walsh JK, Roth T, et al. (2005) Modafinil for excessive sleepiness associated with shift-work sleep disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 353: 476–486.

Dawson GR, Collinson N, Atack JR (2005) Development of subtype selective GABAA modulators. CNS Spectrums 10: 21–27.

DiFabio R, Pellacani A, Faedo S, et al. (2011) Discovery process and pharmacological characterization of a novel dual orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor antagonist useful for treatment of sleep disorders. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 21: 5562–5567.

Dinges DF, Weaver TE (2003) Effects of modafinil on sustained attention performance and quality of life in OSA patients with residual sleepiness while being treated with CPAP.Sleep Medicine 4: 393–402.

Drover DR (2004) Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of short-acting hypnosedatives: zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 43: 227–238.

Durmer JS, Dinges DF (2005) Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Seminars in Neurology 25: 117–129.

Ellis CM, Monk C, Simmons A, et al. (1999) Functional magnetic resonance imaging neuroactivation studies in normal subjects and subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome: actions of modafinil. Journal of Sleep Research 8: 85–93.

Fava M, McCall WV, Krystal A, et al. (2006) Eszopiclone co-administered with fluoxetine in patients with insomnia coexisting with major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry 59: 1052–1060.

Hart CL, Haney M, Vosburg SK, et al. (2006) Modafinil attentuates disruptions in cognitive performance during simulated night-shift work. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 1526–1536.

Hening W, Walters AS, Allen RP, et al. (2004) Impact, diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a primary care population: the REST (RLS Epidemiology, Symptoms, and Treatment) primary care study. Sleep Medicine 5: 237–246.

Krystal AD, Walsh JK, Laska E, et al. (2003) Sustained efficacy of eszopiclone over 6 months of nightly treatment: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adults with chronic insomnia. Sleep 26: 793–799.

Landrigan CP, Rothschild JM, Cronin JW, et al. (2004) Effect of reducing interns’ work hours on serious medical errors in intensive care units. New England Journal of Medicine 351: 1838–1848.

Madras BK, Xie Z, Lin Z, et al. (2006) Modafinil occupies dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in vivo and modulates the transporters and trace amine activity in vitro. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 319: 561–569.

Makris AP, Rush CR, Frederich RC, Kelly TH (2004) Wake-promoting agents with different mechanisms of action: comparison of effects of modafinil and amphetamine on food intake and cardiovascular activity. Appetite 42: 185–195.

Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ, Germain A, et al. (2004) Functional neuroimaging evidence for hyperarousal in insomnia. American Journal of Psychiatry 161: 2126–2129.

Nutt D, Stahl SM (2010) Searching for perfect sleep: the continuing evolution of GABAA receptor modulators as hypnotics. Journal of Psychopharmacology 24: 1601–1612.

Sakurai T, Mieda M (2011) Connectomics of orexin-producing neurons: interface of systems of emotion, energy homeostasis and arousal. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 32: 451–462.

Saper CB, Lu J, Chou TC, Gooley J (2005) The hypothalamic integrator for circadian rhythms. Trends in Neurosciences 3: 152–157.

Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J (2005) Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature 437: 1257–1263.

Scammell TE, Winrow CJ (2011) Orexin receptors: pharmacology and therapeutic opportunities. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 51: 243–266.

Schwartz JRL, Nelson MT, Schwartz ER, Hughes RJ (2004) Effects of modafinil on wakefulness and executive function in patients with narcolepsy experiencing late-day sleepiness. Clinical Neuropharmacology 27: 74–79.

Steiner MA, Lecourt H, Strasser DS, Brisbare-Roch C, Jenck F (2011) Differential effects of the dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant and the GABAA-α1 receptor modulator zolpidem, alone or combined with ethanol, on motor performance in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 36: 848–856.

Thomas RJ, Kwong K (2006) Modafinil activates cortical and subcortical sites in the sleep-deprived state. Sleep 29: 1471–1481.

Thomas RJ, Rosen BR, Stern CE, Weiss JW, Kwong KK (2005) Functional imaging of working memory in obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Journal of Applied Physiology 98: 2226–2234.

U.S. Xyrem Multicenter Study Group (2003) A 12-month, open-label, multicenter extension trial of orally administered sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. Sleep 26: 31–35.

Willie JT, Chemelli RM, Sinton CM, et al. (2003) Distinct narcolepsy syndromes in orexin recepter-2 and orexin null mice: molecular genetic dissection of non-rem and rem sleep regulatory processes. Neuron38: 715–730.

Winrow CJ, Gotter AL, Cox CD, et al. (2012) Pharmacological characterization of MK-6096 – a dual orexin receptor antagonist for insomnia. Neuropharmacology 62: 978–987.

Wu JC, Gillin JC, Buchsbaum MS, et al. (2006) Frontal lobe metabolic decreases with sleep deprivation not totally reversed by recovery sleep. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 2783–2792.

Zeitzer JM, Morales-Villagran A, Maidment NT, et al. (2006) Extracellular adenosine in the human brain during sleep and sleep deprivation: an in vivo microdialysis study. Sleep 29: 455–461.

Chapter 12 (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

Arnsten AFT (2006) Fundamentals of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: circuits and pathways. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67 (Suppl 8): 7–12.

Arnsten AFT (2006) Stimulants: therapeutic actions in ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 2376–2383.

Arnsten AFT (2009) Stress signaling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 10: 410–422.

Arnsten AFT, Li BM (2005) Neurobiology of executive functions: catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical functions. Biological Psychiatry 57: 1377–1384.

Avery RA, Franowicz JS, Phil M, et al. (2000) The alpha 2A adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, increases regional cerebral blood flow in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a spatial working memory task. Neuropsychopharmacology 23: 240–249.

Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM, Andrzejewski ME, et al. (2006) Methylphenidate preferentially increases catecholamine neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex at low doses that enhance cognitive function. Biological Psychiatry 60; 1111–1120.

Berridge CW, Shumsky JS, Andrzejewski ME, et al. (2012) Differential sensitivity to psychostimulants across prefrontal cognitive tasks: differential involvement of noradrenergic α1- and α2-receptors. Biological Psychiatry 71: 467–473.

Biederman J (2004) Impact of comorbidity in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 (Suppl 3): 3–7.

Biederman J, Petty CR, Fried R, et al. (2007) Stability of executive function deficits into young adult years: a prospective longitudinal follow-up study of grown up males with ADHD. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116: 129–136.

Clerkin SM, Schulz KP, Halperin JM, et al. (2009) Guanfacine potentiates the activation of prefrontal cortex evoked by warning signals. Biological Psychiatry 66: 307–312.

Easton N, Shah YB, Marshall FH, Fone KC, Marsden CA (2006) Guanfacine produces differential effects in frontal cortex compared with striatum: assessed by phMRI BOLD contrast. Psychopharmacology189: 369–385.

Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, et al. (2006) Diagnosing adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: are late onset and subthreshold diagnoses valid? American Journal of Psychiatry 163: 1720–1729.

Fusar-Poli P, Rubia K, Rossi G, Sartori G, Balottin U (2012) Striatal dopamine transporter alterations in ADHD: pathophysiology or adaptation to psychostimulants? A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 264–272.

Grady M, Stahl SM (2012) A horse of a different color: how formulation influences medication effects. CNS Spectrums 17: 63–69

Hannestad J, Gallezot JD, Planeta-Wilson B, et al. (2010) Clinically relevant doses of methylphenidate significantly occupy norepinephrine transporters in humans in vivo. Biological Psychiatry 68: 854–860.

Jakala P, Riekkinen M, Sirvio J, et al. (1999) Guanfacine, but not clonidine, improves planning and working memory performance in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 20: 460–470.

Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, et al. (2006) The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry163: 716–723.

Kessler RC, Green JG, Adler LA, et al. (2010) Structure and diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 67: 1168–1178.

Kollins SH, McClernon JM, Fuemmeler BF (2005) Association between smoking and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry 62: 1142–1147.

Madras BK, Miller GM, Fischman AJ (2005) The dopamine transporter and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 57: 1397–1409.

Pingault JB, Tremblay RE, Vitaro F, et al. (2011) Childhood trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity and prediction of educational attainment in early adulthood: a 16-year longitudinal population-based study. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 1164–1170.

Seidman LJ, Valera EM, Makris N, et al. (2006) Dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex volumetric abnormalities in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry 60: 1071–1080.

Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Madras BK, et al. (2005) In vivo neuroreceptor imaging in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on the dopamine transporter. Biological Psychiatry 57: 1293–1300.

Spencer TJ, Bonab AA, Dougherty DD, et al. (2012) Understanding the central pharmacokinetics of spheroidal oral drug absorption system (SODAS) dexmethylphenidate: a positron emission tomography study of dopamine transporter receptor occupancy measured with C-11 altropane. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73: 346–352.

Stahl SM (2009) Norepinephrine and dopamine regulate signals and noise in the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70: 617–618.

Stahl SM (2009) The prefrontal cortex is out of tune in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70: 950–951.

Stahl SM (2010) Mechanism of action of stimulants in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71: 12–13.

Stahl SM (2010) Mechanism of action of α2A-adrenergic agonists in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with or without oppositional symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71: 223–224.

Steere JC, Arnsten AFT (1997) The alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine improves visual object discrimination reversal performance in aged rhesus monkeys. Behavioral Neuroscience 111: 883–891.

Surman CBH, Biederman J, Spencer T, et al. (2011) Deficient emotional self regulation and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a family risk analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 617–623.

Swanson J, Baler RD, Volkow ND (2011) Understanding the effects of stimulant medications on cognition in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a decade of progress. Neuropsychopharmacology 36: 207–226.

Turgay A, Goodman DW, Asherson P, et al.; for the ADHD Transition Phase Model Working Group (2012) Lifespan persistence of ADHD: the life transition model and its application. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73: 192–201.

Turner DC, Clark L, Dowson J, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2004) Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 55: 1031–1040.

Turner DC, Robbins TW, Clark L, et al. (2003) Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 165: 260–269.

Vaughan BS, March JS, Kratochvil CJ (2012) The evidence-based pharmacological treatment of pediatric ADHD. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 27–39.

Wang M, Ramos BP, Paspalas CD, et al. (2007) α2A-Adrenoceptors strengthen working memory networks by inhibiting cAMP-HCN channel signaling in prefrontal cortex. Cell 129: 397–410.

Wigal T, Brams M, Gasior M, et al.; 316 Study Group (2010) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design. Behavioral and Brain Functions 6: 34–48.

Wilens TE (2007) Lisdexamfetamine for ADHD. Current Psychiatry 6: 96–98, 105.

Yang L, Cao Q, Shuai L, et al. (2012) Comparative study of OROS-MPH and atomoxetine on executive function improvement in adhd: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 15–16.

Zang YF, Jin Z, Weng XC, et al. (2005) Functional MRI in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence for hypofrontality. Brain and Development 27: 544–550.

Zuvekas SH, Vitiello B (2012) Stimulant medication use in children: a 12-year perspective. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 160–166.

Chapter 13 (dementia)

Albert MS, DeKosky ST, Dickson D, et al. (2011) The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer’s Association Workgroup. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7: 270–279.

Alexopoulos GS (2003) Role of executive function in late life depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (Suppl 14): 18–23.

Bacher I, Rabin R, Woznica A, Sacvco KA, George TP (2010) Nicotinic receptor mechanisms in neuropsychiatric disorders: therapeutic implications. Primary Psychiatry 17: 35–41.

Ballard C, Ziabreva I, Perry R, et al. (2006) Differences in neuropathologic characteristics across the Lewy Cody dementia spectrum. Neurology 67: 1931–1934.

Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Byers AL, et al. (2012) Midlife vs late-life depressive symptoms and risk of dementia. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 493–498.

Buccafusco JJ (2009) Emerging cognitive enhancing drugs. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 14: 577–589.

Buchman AS, Boyle PA, Yu L, et al. (2012) Total daily physical activity and the risk of AD and cognitive decline in older adults. Neurology 78: 1323–1329.

Chetelat G, Villemagne VL, Villain N, et al. (2012) Accelerated cortical atrophy in cognitively normal elderly with high β-amyloid deposition. Neurology 78: 477–484.

Citron M (2004) β-Secretase inhibition for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: promise and challenge. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 25: 92–97.

Clark CM, Schneider JA, Bedell BJ, et al.; AV45-A07 study group (2011) Use of florbetapir-PET for imaging β-amyloid pathology. JAMA 305: 275–283.

Cummings JL (2011) Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease drug development. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7: e13–e44.

Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Deutsch LH (2006) Faulty regulation of tau phosphorylation by the reelin signal transduction pathway is a potential mechanism of pathogenesis and therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease. European Neuropsychopharmacology 16: 547–551.

Dickerson BC, Stoub TR, Shah RC, et al. (2011) Alzheimer-signature MRI biomarker predicts AD dementia in cognitively normal adults. Neurology 76: 1395–1402.

Ercoli L, Siddarth P, Huang SC, et al. (2006) Perceived loss of memory ability and cerebral metabolic decline in persons with the apoplipoprotein E-IV genetic risk for Alzheimer disease. Archives of General Psychiatry 63: 442–448.

Ewers M, Sperling RA, Klunk WE, Weiner MW, Hampel H (2011) Neuroimaging markers for the prediction and early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Trends in Neuroscience 34: 430–442.

Fleisher AS, Chen K, Liu X, et al. (2011) Using positron emission tomography and florbetapir F 18 to image amyloid in patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia due to Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology 68: 1404–1411.

Forster S, Grimmer, T, Miederer I, et al. (2012) Regional expansion of hypometabolism in Alzheimer’s disease follows amyloid deposition with temporal delay. Biological Psychiatry 71: 792–797.

Frakey LL, Salloway S, Buelow M, Malloy P (2012) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of apathy in individuals with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 73: 796–801.

Gomar JJ, Bobes-Bascaran MT, Conejero-Goldberg C, Davies P, Goldbert TE; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2011) Utility of combinations of biomarkers, cognitive markers, and risk factors to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease in patients in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 961–969.

Grimmer T, Tholen S, Yousefi BH, et al. (2010) Progression of cerebral amyloid load is associated with the apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype in Alzheimer’s disease. Biological Psychiatry 68: 879–884.

Grothe M, Heinsen H, Teipel SF (2012) Atrophy of the cholinergic basal forebrain over the adult age range and in early states of Alzheimer’s disease. Biological Psychiatry 71: 805–813.

Hasselmo ME, Sarter M (2011) Nodes and models of forebrain cholinergic neuromodulation of cognition. Neuropsychopharmacology 36: 52–73.

Herrmann N, Chau SA, Kircanski I, Lanctot KL (2011) Current and emerging drug treatment options for Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs 71: 2031–2065.

Huey ED, Putnam KT, Grafman J (2006) A systematic review of neurotransmitter deficits and treatments in frontotemporal dementia. Neurology 66: 17–22.

Jack CR, Albert MS, Knopman DS, et al. (2011) Introduction to the recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7: 257–262.

Jack CR, Lowe VJ, Weigand SD, et al.; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2009) Serial PIB and MRI in normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: implications for sequence of pathological events in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 132: 1355–1365.

Kales HC, Kim HM, Zivin K, et al. (2012) Risk of mortality among individual antipsychotics in patients with dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 71–79.

Lane RM, Potkin SG, Enz A (2006) Targeting acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in dementia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 9: 101–124.

Lee GJ, Lu PH, Hua X, et al.; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2012) Depressive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment predict greater atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease-related regions. Biological Psychiatry 71: 814–821.

Matsuzaki T, Sasaki K, Tanizaki Y, et al. (2010) Insulin resistance is associated with the pathology of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 75: 764–770.

McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, et al. (2011) The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association Workgroup. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7: 263–269.

Pomara N, Bruno D, Sarreal AS, et al. (2012) Lower CSF amyloid beta peptides and higher F-2 isoprostanes in cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 523–530.

Purandare N, Burns A, Morris J, et al. (2012) Association of cerebral emboli with accelerated cognitive deterioration in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 300–308.

Rabinovici GD, Rosen HJ, Alkalay A, et al. (2011) Amyloid vs FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of AD and FTLD. Neurology 77: 2034–2042.

Reisberg B, Doody R, Stöffler A, et al. (2003) Memantine in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine 348: 1333–1341.

Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, Devous MD, et al. (2012) Β-amyloid burden in healthy aging. regional distribution and cognitive consequences. Neurology 78: 387–395.

Scheinin NM, Aalto S, Kaprio J, et al. (2011) Early detection of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 77: 453–460.

Schneider LS, Dagerman KS, Insel P (2005) Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia. JAMA 294: 1935–1943.

Sink KM, Holden KF, Yaffe K (2005) Pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. JAMA 293: 596–608.

Sperling RA, Aisen PS, Beckett LA, et al. (2011) Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association Workgroup. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7: 280–292.

Tariot PN, Farlow MR, Grossberg GT, et al. (2004) Memantine treatment in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease already receiving donepezil. JAMA 291: 317–324.

Tartaglia MC, Rosen JH, Miller BL (2011) Neuroimaging in dementia. Neurotherapeutics 8: 82–92.

Townsend M (2011) When will Alzheimer’s disease be cured? A pharmaceutical persepctive. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 24: 43–52.

Valenzuela MJ, Matthews FE, Brayne C, et al.; Medical Research Council Cognitive Funciton and Ageing Study (2012) Multiple biological pathways link cognitive lifestyle to protection from dementia. Biological Psychiatry71: 783–791.

Vigen CLP, Mack WJ, Keefe RSE, et al. (2011) Cognitive effects of atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: outcomes from CATIE-AD. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 831–839.

Wagner M, Wolf S, Reischies FM, et al. (2012) Biomarker validation of a cued recall memory deficit in prodromal Alzheimer disease. Neurology 78: 379–386.

Williams MM, Xiong C, Morris JC, Galvin JE (2006) Survival and mortality differences between dementia with Lewy bodies vs Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 67: 1935–1941.

Wishart HA, Saykin AJ, McAllister TW, et al. (2006) Regional brain atrophy in cognitively intact adults with a single APOE ε4 allele. Neurology 67: 1221–1224.

Wolk DA, Grachev ID, Buckley C, et al. (2011) Association between in vivo fluorine 18-labeled flutemetamol amyloid positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo cerebral cortical histopathology. Archives of Neurology68: 1398–1403.

Chapter 14 (disorders of reward, drug abuse, and their treatment)

Adan RAH, Vanderschuren LJMJ, la Fleur SE (2008) Anti-obesity drugs and neural circuits of feeding. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 29: 208–217.

Anton RF, O’Malley SS, Ciraulo DA, et al. (2006) Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence. The COMBINE study: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association 295: 2003–2017.

Balodis IM, Kober H, Worhunsky PD, et al. (2012) Diminished frontostriatal activity during processing of monetary rewards and losses in pathological gambling. Biological Psychiatry 71: 749–757.

Bauman MH, Ayestas MA, Partilla JS, et al. (2012) The designer methcathinone analogs, mephedrone and methylone, are substrates for monoamine transporters in brain tissue. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1192–1203.

Berlin HA, Rolls ET, Iversen SD (2005) Borderline personality disorder, impulsivity, and the orbitofrontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry 162: 2360–2373.

Bradberry CW (2002) Dose-dependent effect of ethanol on extracellular dopamine in mesolimbic striatum of awake rhesus monkeys: comparison with cocaine across individuals. Psychopharmacology 165: 67–76.

Carhart-Harris RL, Erritzoe D, Williams T, et al. (2012) Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 2138–2143.

Chamberlain SR, del Campo N, Dowson J, et al. (2007) Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 62: 977–984.

Chamberlain SR, Menzies L, Hampshire A, et al. (2008) Orbitofrontal dysfunction in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder and their unaffected relatives. Science 321: 421–422.

Chamberlain SR, Muller U, Blackwell AD, et al. (2006) Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans. Science 311: 861–863.

Chamberlain SR, Robbins TW, Winder-Rhodes S, et al. (2011) Translational approaches to frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using a computerized neuropsychological battery. Biological Psychiatry 69: 1192–1203.

Clark L, Robbins TW, Ersche KD, Sahakian BJ (2006) Reflection impulsivity in current and former substance users. Biological Psychiatry 60: 515–522.

Collins GT, Narasimhan D, Cunningham AR, et al. (2012) Long-lasting effects of a PEGylated mutant cocaine esterase (CocE) on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology37: 1092–1103.

Crunelle CL, Miller ML, Booij J, van den Brink W (2010) The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline and the treatment of drug dependence: a review. European Neuropsychopharmacology 20: 69–79.

Culbertson CS, Bramen J, Cohen MS, et al. (2011) Effect of bupropion treatment on brain activation induced by cigarette-related cues in smokers. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 505–515.

Dahchour A, DeWitte P (2003) Effects of acamprosate on excitatory amino acids during multiple ethanol withdrawal periods. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 3: 465–470.

Dalley JW, Everitt BJ (2009) Dopamine receptors in the learning, memory and drug reward circuitry. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 20: 403–410.

Dalley JW, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2011) Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control. Neuron 69: 680–694.

Dalley JW, Mar AC, Economidou D, Robbins TW (2008) Neurobehavioral mechanisms of impulsivity: fronto-striatal systems and functional neurochemistry. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 90: 250–260.

DeWitte P (2004) Imbalance between neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory amino acids causes craving for ethanol. Addictive Behaviors 29: 1325–1339.

DeWitte P, Littleton J, Parot P, Koob G (2005) Neuroprotective and abstinence-promoting effects of acamprosate: elucidating the mechanism of action. CNS Drugs 6: 517–537.

DiIorio CR, Watkins TJ, Dietrich MS, et al. (2012) Evidence for chronically altered serotonin function in the cerebral cortex of female 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine polydrug users. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 399–409.

Erritzoe D, Frokjaer VG, Holst KK, et al. (2011) In vivo imaging of cerebral serotonin transporter and serotonin 2A receptor binding in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) and hallucinogen users. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 562–576.

Ersche KD, Bullmore ET, Craig KJ, et al. (2010) Influence of compulsivity of drug abuse on dopaminergic modulation of attentional bias in stimulant dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry 67: 632–644.

Ersche KD, Jones PS, Williams GB, et al. (2012) Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction. Science 335: 601–604.

Ersche KD, Turton AJ, Pradhan S, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW (2010) Drug addiction endophenotypes: impulsive versus sensation-seeking personality traits. Biological Psychiatry 68: 770–773.

Evins AE, Culhane MA, Alpert JE, et al. (2008) A controlled trial of bupropion added to nicotine patch and behavioral therapy for smoking cessation in adults with unipolar depressive disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 28: 660–666.

Ferris MJ, Calipari ES, Mateo Y, et al. (2012) Cocaine self-administration produces pharmacodynamic tolerance: differential effects on the potency of dopamine transporter blockers, releasers, and methylphenidate: Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1708–1716.

Fineberg NA, Potenza MN, Chamberlain SR, et al. (2010) Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review. Neuropsyhcopharmacology 35: 591–604.

Flament MF, Bissada H, Spettigue W (2012) Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 189–207.

Franklin T, Wang Z, Suh JJ, et al. (2011) Effects of varenicline on smoking cue-triggered neural and craving responses. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 516–526.

Gadde KM, Allison DB, Ryan DH, et al. (2011) Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 377: 1341–1352.

Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR, Krishnan KR (2003) Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults. JAMA 289: 1820–1825.

Gadde KM, Yonish GM, Foust MS, Wagner HR (2007) Combination therapy of zonisamide and bupropion for weight reduction in obese women: a preliminary, randomized, open-label study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 68: 1226–1229.

Garbutt JC, Kranzler HR, O’Malley SS, et al. (2005) Efficacy and tolerability of long-acting injectable naltrexone for alcohol dependence. a randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association 293; 1617–1625.

Gearhardt AN, Yokum S, Orr PT, et al. (2011) Neural correlates of food addiction. Archives of General Psychiatry 68: 808–816.

Gillan CM, Papmeyer M, Morein-Zamir S, et al. (2011) Disruption in the balance between goal-directed behavior and habit learning in obsessive–compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 719–726.

Grant JE, Kim SW, Hartman BK (2008) A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the opiate antagonist naltrexone in the treatment of pathological gambling urges. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69: 783–789.

Greenberg BD, Malone DA, Friehs GM, et al. (2006) Three year outcomes in deep brain stimulation for highly resistant obsessive–compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 2384–2393.

Greenberg BD, Rauch SL, Haber SN (2010) Invasive circuitry-based neurotherapeutics: stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation for OCD. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 317–336.

Greenway FL, Whitehouse MJ, Guttadauria M, et al. (2008) Rational design of a combination medication for the treatment of obesity. Obesity 17: 30–39.

Greeven A, van Balkom AJLM, van Rood YR, van Oppen P, Spinhoven P (2006) The boundary between hypochondriasis and obsessive–compulsive disorder: a cross-sectional study from the Netherlands. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67: 1682–1689.

Haber SN, Knutson B (2010) The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 4–26.

Hart CL, Marvin CB, Silver R, Smith EE (2012) Is cognitive functioning impaired in methamphetamine users? A critical review. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 586–608.

Hay PJ, Claudino AM (2012) Clinical psychopharmacology of eating disorders: a research update. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 209–222.

Heinz A, Reimold M, Wrase J, et al. (2005) Correlation of stable elevations in striatal μ-opioid receptor availability in detoxified alcoholic patients with alcohol craving: a positron emission tomography study using carbon 11-labeled carfentanil. Archives of General Psychiatry 62: 57–64.

Higgins GA, Silenieks LB, Rossmann A, et al. (2012) The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces nicotine self-administration, discrimination, and reinstatement: relationship to feeding behavior and impulse control. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1177–1191.

Jastreboff AM, Potenza MN, Lacadie C, et al. (2011) Body mass index, metabolic factors, and striatal activation during stressful and neutral-relaxing states: a fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology 36: 627–637.

Jonkman S, Pelloux Y, Everitt BJ (2012) Drug intake is sufficient, but conditioning is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking after extended self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1612–1619.

Kiefer F, Jahn H, Tarnaske T, et al. (2003) Comparing and combining naltrexone and acamprosate in relapse prevention of alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry 60: 92–99.

Kiefer F, Wiedemann K (2004) Combined therapy: what does acamprosate and naltrexone combination tell us? Alcohol and Alcoholism 39: 542–547.

King DP, Paciga S, Pickering E, et al. (2012) Smoking cessation pharmacogenetics: analysis of varenicline and bupropion in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 641–650.

King PJ (2005) The hypothalamus and obesity. Current Drug Targets 6: 225–240.

Koob GF, Le Moal M (2008) Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annual Review of Psychology 59: 29–53.

Koob GF, Volkow ND (2010) Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 217–238.

Kovacs FE, Knop T, Urbanski MJ, et al. (2012) Exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids suppress inhibitory neurotransmission in the human neocortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1104–1114.

Kuczenski R, Segal DS (2005) Stimulant actions in rodents: implications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment and potential substance abuse. Biological Psychiatry 57: 1391–1396.

Lawrence AJ, Luty J, Bogdan NA, Sahakian BJ, Clark L (2009) Impulsivity and response inhibition in alcohol dependence and problem gambling. Psychopharmacology 207: 163–172.

Leyton M, Boileau I, Benkelfat C, et al. (2002) Amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine, drug wanting, and novelty seaking: a PET/[11C]raclopride study in healthy men. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 1027–1035.

Lindsey KP, Wilcox KM, Votaw JR, et al. (2004) Effect of dopamine transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: relationship to transporter occupancy determined by positron emission tomography neuroimaging. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 309: 959–969.

Little KY, Krolewski DM, Zhang L, Cassin BJ (2003) Loss of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter protein (VMAT2) in human cocaine users. American Journal of Psychiatry 160: 47–55.

Lobo DSS, Kennedy JL (2006) The genetics of gambling and behavioral addictions. CNS Spectr 11: 931–939.

Lodge DJ, Grace AA (2006) The hippocampus modulates dopamine neuron responsivity by regulating the intensity of phasic neuron activation. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 1356–1361.

Lotipour S, Mandelkern M, Alvarez-Estrada M, Brody AL (2012) A single administration of low-dose varenicline saturates α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the human brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1738–1748.

Mandyam CD, Koob GF (2012) The addicted brain craves new neurons: putative role for adult-born progenitors in promoting recovery. Trends in Neurosciences 35: 250–260.

Martinez D, Gil R, Slifstein M, et al. (2005) Alcohol dependence is associated with blunted dopamine transmission in the ventral striatum. Biological Psychiatry 58: 779–786.

Martinez D, Narendran R, Foltin RW, et al. (2007) Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine. American Journal of Psychiatry 164: 622–629.

Mason BJ (2003) Acamprosate and naltrexone treatment for alcohol dependence: an evidence-based risk-benefits assessment. European NeuroPsychopharmacology 13: 469–475.

Mason BJ (2005) Acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 6: 2103–2115.

Mason BJ, Crean R, Goodell V, et al. (2012) A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1689–1698.

Mason BJ, Goodman AM, Chabac S, Lehert P (2006) Effect of oral acamprosate on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: the role of patient motivation. Journal of Psychiatric Research 40: 382–392.

McElroy SL, Hudson JI, Capece JA, et al. (2007) Topiramate for the treatment of binge eating disorder associated with obesity: a placebo-controlled study. Biological Psychiatry 61: 1039–1048.

Menzies L, Chamberlain SR, Laird AR, et al. (2008) Integrating evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder: the orbitofronto-striatal model revisited. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32: 525–549.

Miedl SF, Peters J, Buchel C (2012) Altered neural reward representations in pathological gamblers revealed by delay and probability discounting. Archives of General Psychiatry 69: 177–186.

Milad MR, Rauch SL (2012) Obsessive–compulsive disorder: beyond segregated cortico-striatal pathways. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16: 43–51.

Narendran R, Lopresti BJ, Martinez D, et al. (2012) In vivo evidence for low striatal vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) availability in cocaine abusers. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 55–63.

Nathan PJ, O’Neill BV, Mogg K, et al. (2012) The effects of the dopamine d3 receptor antagonist GSK598809 on attentional bias to palatable food cues in overweight and obese subjects. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 15: 149–161.

Nestler EJ (2005) Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction? Nature Neuroscience 11: 1445–1449.

Netzeband JG, Gruol DL (1995) Modulatory effects of acute ethanol on metabotropic glutamate responses in cultured purkinje neurons. Brain Research 688: 105–113.

Overtoom CCE, Bekker EM, van der Molen MW, et al. (2009) Methylphenidate restores link between stop-signal sensory impact and successful stopping in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry 65: 614–619.

Peng, XO, Xi ZX, Li X, et al. (2010) Is slow-onset long-acting monoamine transport blockade to cocaine as methadone is to heroin? implication for anti-addiction medications. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 2564–2578.

Petrakis IL, Poling J, Levinson C, et al.; VA New England VISN I MIRECC Study Group (2005) Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry 57: 1128–1137.

Pettinati HM, O’Brien CP, Rabinowitz AR, et al. (2006) The status of naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence: specific effects on heavy drinking. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 26: 610–625.

Richter MA, de Jesus DR, Hoppenbrouwers S, et al. (2012) Evidence for cortical inhibitory and excitatory dysfunction in obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1144–1151.

Robbins TW, Gillan CM, Smith DG, de Wit S, Ersche KD (2012) Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci 16: 81–91.

Roozen HG, deWaart R, van der Windt DAW, et al. (2005) A systematic review of the effectiveness of naltrexone in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence. European Neuropsychopharmacology 16: 311–323.

Salamone JD, Correa M, Mingote S, Weber SM (2002) Nucleus accumbens dopamine and the regulation of effort in food-seeking ' text-align:justify; line-height:normal'>Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, et al. (2012) Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 366: 1567–1576.

Schneider S, Peters J, Bromberg U, et al.; IMAGEN Consortium (2012) Risk taking and the adolescent reward system: a potential common link to substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 39–46.

Selzer J (2006) Buprenorphine: reflections of an addictions psychiatrist. American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology 9: 1466–1467.

Shaw P, Gilliam M, Liverpool M, et al. (2011) Cortical development in typically developing children with symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity: support for a dimensional view of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 168: 143–151.

Smith BM, Thomsen WJ, Grottick AJ (2006) The potential use of selective 5-HT2C agonists in treating obesity. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 15: 257–266.

Solinas M, Goldberg SR (2005) Motivational effects of cannabinoids and opioids on food reinforcement depend on simultaneous activation of cannabinoid and opioid systems. Neuropsychopharmacology 30: 2035–2045.

Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Ciccone PE, et al. (2006) PET study examining pharmacokinetics, detection and likeability, and dopamine transporter receptor occupancy of short- and long-acting oral methylphenidate. American Journal of Psychiatry 163: 387–395.

Steinberg MB, Greenhaus S, Schmelzer AC, et al. (2009) Triple-combination pharmacotherapy for medically ill smokers: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 150: 447–454.

Sugam JA, Day JJ, Wightman RM, Carelki RM (2012) Phasic nucleus accumbens dopamine encodes risk-based decision-making behavior. Biological Psychiatry 71: 199–205.

Thomsen WJ, Grottick AJ, Menzaghi F, et al. (2008) Lorcaserin, a novel selective human 5-hydroxytryptamine2C agonist: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 325: 577–587.

Tiihonen J, Krupitsky E, Verbitskaya E, et al. (2012) Naltrexone implant for the treatment of polydrug dependence: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 531–536.

Urban NBL, Girgis RR, Talbot PS, et al. (2012) Sustained recreational use of ecstasy is associated with altered pre and postsynaptic markers of serotonin transmission in neocortical areas: a PET study with [11C]DASB and [11C]MDL 100907. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1465–1473.

Van de Giessen E, de Bruin K, la Fleur SE, van den Brink W, Booij J (2012) Triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine decreases food intake, body weight, and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in diet-induced obese rats. European Neuropsychopharmacology 22: 290–299.

Van Holst RJ, Veltman DJ, Buchel C, van den Brink W, Goudriaan AE (2012) Distorted expectancy coding in problem gambling: is the addictive in the anticipation? Biological Psychiatry 71: 741–748.

Volkow ND (2006) Stimulant medications: how to minimize their reinforcing effects? American Journal of Psychiatry 163: 359–361.

Volkow ND, O’Brien CP (2007) Issues for DSM-V: should obesity be included as a brain disorder? American Journal of Psychiatry 164: 708–710.

Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, et al. (2004) Evidence that methylphenidate enhances the saliency of a mathematical task by increasing dopamine in the human brain. American Journal of Psychiatry 161: 1173–1180.

Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Tomasi D, Telang F (2011) Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 15037–15042.

Weathers JD, Stringaris AR, Deveney CM, et al. (2012) A development study of the neural circuitry mediating motor inhibition in bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 169: 633–641.

Wee S, Hicks MJ, De BP, et al. (2012) Novel cocaine vaccine linked to a disrupted adenovirus gene transfer vector blocks cocaine psychostimulant and reinforcing effects. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1083–1091.

Wilding J, Van Gaal L, Rissanen A, Vercruysse F, Fitchet M (2004) A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of the long-term efficacy and safety of topiramate in the treatment of obese subjects. International Journal of Obesity 28: 1399–1410.

Zack M, Poulos CX (2007) A D1 antagonist enhances the rewarding and priming effects of a gambling episode in pathological gamblers. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 1678–1686.