﻿ Normal values - Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness: With access to Ross & Wilson website for electronic ancillaries and eBook, 11 ed.

## Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness: With access to Ross & Wilson website for electronic ancillaries and eBook, 11 ed.

### Normal values

Note. Some biological measures have been extracted from the text and listed here for easy reference. In some cases slightly different ‘normals’ may be found in other texts and used by different medical practitioners.

Metric measures, units and SI symbols

 Name SI unit Symbol Length metre m Mass kilogram kg Amount of substance mole mol Pressure pascal Pa Energy joule J

Decimal multiples and submultiples of the units are formed by the use of standard prefixes.

Conversion table for kPa/mmHg (for e.g. capillary pressures)

 1 mmHg = 0.13 kPa 1 kPa = 7.5 mmHg 35 mmHg = 4.7 kPa 25 mmHg = 3.3 kPa 15 mmHg = 2.0 kPa 10 mmHg = 1.3 kPa

Hydrogen ion concentration (pH)

Neutral = 7 Acid = 0 to 7 Alkaline = 7 to 14

 Normal pH of some body fluids Blood 7.35 to 7.45 Saliva 5.8 to 7.4 Gastric juice 1.5 to 3.5 Bile 6.0 to 8.5 Urine 4.5 to 8.0

Some normal plasma levels in adults

 Calcium 2.12 to 2.62 mmol/l (8.5 to 10.5 mg/100 ml) Chloride 97 to 106 mmol/l (97 to 106 mEq/l) Cholesterol 3.6 to 6.7 mmol/l (140 to 260 mg/100 ml) Glucose 3.5 to 8 mmol/l (63 to 144 mg/100 ml) Fasting glucose 3.6 to 5.8 mmol/l (65 to 105 mg/100 ml) Potassium 3.3 to 4.7 mmol/l (3.3 to 4.7 mEq/l) Sodium 135 to 143 mmol/l (135 to 143 mEq/l) Urea 2.5 to 6.6 mmol/l (15 to 44 mg/100 ml)

Arterial blood gases

 PO2 12 to 15 kPa (90 to 110 mmHg) PCO2 4.5 to 6 kPa (34 to 46 mmHg) Bicarbonate 21 to 27.5 mmol/l H+ ions 36 to 44 nmol/l (7.35 to 7.45 pH units)

Blood pressure

Blood pressure above 140/90 is generally considered high.

Heart rate

 At rest 60 to 80/min Sinus bradycardia <60/min Sinus tachycardia >100/min

Respiration rate

At rest 15 to 18/min

 Tidal volume 500 ml Dead space 150 ml Alveolar ventilation 15 (500 – 150) = 5.25 l/min

Blood count

Diet

Vitamins. Daily requirements see pages 272–274.

 1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.182 kilojoules (kJ) 1 kilojoule = 0.24 kilocalories
 Energy source Energy released Recommended proportion in diet Carbohydrate 1 g = 17 kJ = 4 kcal 55–75% Protein 1 g = 17 kJ = 4 kcal 10–15% Fat 1 g = 38 kJ = 9 kcal 15–30%

Urine

 Specific gravity 1.020 to 1.030 Volume excreted 1000 to 1500 ml/day

Glucose is normally absent, but appears in urine when blood glucose levels exceed 9 mmol/l

Body temperatures

 Normal 36.8°C: axillary Hypothermia ≤35°C: core temperature Death when below 25°C

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure

Lying on the side 60–180 mm H2O

Intraocular pressure

1.3 to 2.6 kPa (10 to 20 mmHg)

﻿﻿