Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness: With access to Ross & Wilson website for electronic ancillaries and eBook, 11 ed.

Normal values

Note. Some biological measures have been extracted from the text and listed here for easy reference. In some cases slightly different ‘normals’ may be found in other texts and used by different medical practitioners.

Metric measures, units and SI symbols

Name

SI unit

Symbol

Length

metre

m

Mass

kilogram

kg

Amount of substance

mole

mol

Pressure

pascal

Pa

Energy

joule

J

Decimal multiples and submultiples of the units are formed by the use of standard prefixes.

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Conversion table for kPa/mmHg (for e.g. capillary pressures)

1 mmHg

= 0.13 kPa

1 kPa

= 7.5 mmHg

35 mmHg

= 4.7 kPa

25 mmHg

= 3.3 kPa

15 mmHg

= 2.0 kPa

10 mmHg

= 1.3 kPa

Hydrogen ion concentration (pH)

Neutral = 7 Acid = 0 to 7 Alkaline = 7 to 14

Normal pH of some body fluids

 

Blood

7.35 to 7.45

Saliva

5.8 to 7.4

Gastric juice

1.5 to 3.5

Bile

6.0 to 8.5

Urine

4.5 to 8.0

Some normal plasma levels in adults

Calcium

2.12 to 2.62 mmol/l

(8.5 to 10.5 mg/100 ml)

Chloride

97 to 106 mmol/l

(97 to 106 mEq/l)

Cholesterol

3.6 to 6.7 mmol/l

(140 to 260 mg/100 ml)

Glucose

3.5 to 8 mmol/l

(63 to 144 mg/100 ml)

Fasting glucose

3.6 to 5.8 mmol/l

(65 to 105 mg/100 ml)

Potassium

3.3 to 4.7 mmol/l

(3.3 to 4.7 mEq/l)

Sodium

135 to 143 mmol/l

(135 to 143 mEq/l)

Urea

2.5 to 6.6 mmol/l

(15 to 44 mg/100 ml)

Arterial blood gases

PO2

12 to 15 kPa

(90 to 110 mmHg)

PCO2

4.5 to 6 kPa

(34 to 46 mmHg)

Bicarbonate

21 to 27.5 mmol/l

 

H+ ions

36 to 44 nmol/l

(7.35 to 7.45 pH units)

Blood pressure

Normal adult 120/80 mmHg.

Blood pressure above 140/90 is generally considered high.

Heart rate

At rest

60 to 80/min

Sinus bradycardia

<60/min

Sinus tachycardia

>100/min

Respiration rate

At rest 15 to 18/min

Tidal volume

500 ml

Dead space

150 ml

Alveolar ventilation

15 (500 – 150) = 5.25 l/min

Blood count

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Diet

Vitamins. Daily requirements see pages 272–274.

1 kilocalorie (kcal)

= 4.182 kilojoules (kJ)

1 kilojoule

= 0.24 kilocalories

Energy source

Energy released

Recommended proportion in diet

Carbohydrate

1 g = 17 kJ = 4 kcal

55–75%

Protein

1 g = 17 kJ = 4 kcal

10–15%

Fat

1 g = 38 kJ = 9 kcal

15–30%

Urine

Specific gravity

1.020 to 1.030

Volume excreted

1000 to 1500 ml/day

Glucose is normally absent, but appears in urine when blood glucose levels exceed 9 mmol/l

Body temperatures

Normal

36.8°C: axillary

Hypothermia

≤35°C: core temperature

Death when below

25°C

Cerebrospinal fluid pressure

Lying on the side 60–180 mm H2O

Intraocular pressure

1.3 to 2.6 kPa (10 to 20 mmHg)