Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness: With access to Ross & Wilson website for electronic ancillaries and eBook, 11 ed.

Common prefixes, suffixes and roots

Prefix/suffix/root

To do with

Examples in the text

a-/an-

lack of

anuria, agranulocyte, asystole, anaemia

ab-

away from

abduct

ad-

towards

adduct

-aemia

of the blood

anaemia, hypoxaemia, uraemia, hypovolaemia

angio-

vessel

angiotensin, haemangioma

ante-

before, in front of

anterior

anti-

against

antidiuretic, anticoagulant, antigen, antimicrobial

-blast

germ, bud

reticuloblast, osteoblast

brady-

slow

bradycardia

broncho-

bronchus

bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchus

card-

heart

cardiac, myocardium, tachycardia

chole-

bile

cholecystokinin, cholecystitis, cholangitis

circum-

around

circumduction

cyto-/-cyte

cell

erythrocyte, cytosol, cytoplasm, cytotoxic

derm-

skin

dermatitis, dermatome, dermis

di-

two

disaccharide, diencephalon

dys-

difficult

dysuria, dyspnoea, dysmenorrhoea, dysplasia

-ema

swelling

oedema, emphysema, lymphoedema

endo-

inner

endocrine, endocytosis, endothelium

enter-

intestine

enterokinase, gastroenteritis

epi-

upon

epimysium, epicardium

erythro-

red

erythrocyte, erythropoietin, erythropoiesis

exo-

outside

exocytosis, exophthalmos

extra-

outside

extracellular, extrapyramidal

-fferent

carry

afferent, efferent

gast-

stomach

gastric, gastrin, gastritis, gastrointestinal

-gen-

origin/production

gene, genome, genetic, antigen, pathogen, allergen

-globin

protein

myoglobin, haemoglobin

haem-

blood

haemostasis, haemorrhage, haemolytic

hetero-

different

heterozygous

homo-

the same, steady

homozygous, homologous

-hydr-

water

dehydration, hydrostatic, hydrocephalus

hepat-

liver

hepatic, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, hepatocyte

hyper-

excess/above

hypertension, hypertrophy, hypercapnia

hypo-

below/under

hypoglycaemia, hypotension, hypovolaemia

intra-

within

intracellular, intracranial, intraocular

-ism

condition

hyperthyroidism, dwarfism, rheumatism

-itis

inflammation

appendicitis, hepatitis, cystitis, gastritis

lact-

milk

lactation, lactic, lacteal

lymph-

lymph tissue

lymphocyte, lymphatic, lymphoedema

lyso-/-lysis

breaking down

lysosome, glycolysis, lysozyme

-mega-

large

megaloblast, acromegaly, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly

micro-

small

microbe, microtubules, microvilli

myo-

muscle

myocardium, myoglobin, myopathy, myosin

neo-

new

neoplasm, gluconeogenesis, neonate

nephro-

kidney

nephron, nephrotic, nephroblastoma, nephrosis

neuro-

nerve

neurone, neuralgia, neuropathy

-oid

resembling

myeloid, sesamoid, sigmoid

olig-

small

oliguria

-ology

study of

cardiology, neurology, physiology

-oma

tumour

carcinoma, melanoma, fibroma

-ophth-

eye

xerophthalmia, ophthalmic, exophthalmos

-ory

referring to

secretory, sensory, auditory, gustatory

os-, osteo-

bone

osteocyte, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis

-path-

disease

pathogenesis, neuropathy, nephropathy

-penia

deficiency of

leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

phag(o)-

eating

phagocyte, phagocytic

-plasm

substance

cytoplasm, neoplasm

pneumo-

lung/air

pneumothorax, pneumonia, pneumotoxic

poly-

many

polypeptide, polyuria, polycythaemia

-rrhagia

excessive flow

menorrhagia

-rrhoea

discharge

dysmenorrhoea, diarrhoea, rhinorrhoea

-scler

hard

arteriosclerosis

sub-

under

subphrenic, subarachnoid, sublingual

tachy-

excessively fast

tachycardia

thrombo-

clot

thrombocyte, thrombosis, thrombin, thrombus

-tox-

poison

toxin, cytotoxic, hepatotoxic

tri-

three

tripeptide, trisaccharide

-uria

urine

anuria, polyuria, haematuria, nocturia

vas, vaso-

vessel

vasoconstriction, vas deferens, vascular