Emile L. Boulpaep
In the preceding chapters, we examined cardiovascular regulation at several different levels. Powerful systemic mechanisms operate over both the short term and the long term to control mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. Operating independently of these are local mechanisms of control that regulate blood flow at the microcirculatory level. In addition, individual organs have their own unique tools for managing specific circulatory requirements. In this chapter, we put it all together and learn how the cardiovascular system integrates the complex systemic, local, and individualized regulatory mechanisms in response to the demands of everyday life.