Gerhard Giebisch, Erich E. Windhager, Peter S. Aronson
The kidneys serve three essential functions. First, they act as filters, removing metabolic products and toxins from the blood and excreting them through the urine. Second, they regulate the body's fluid status, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance. Third, the kidneys produce or activate hormones that are involved in erythrogenesis, Ca2+ metabolism, and the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow.