Medical Physiology, 3rd Edition

Glossary

AP-1 Activator protein 1, a heterodimer of, for example, c-Fos and c-Jun, that is a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).

AR Androgen receptor.

ATF-2 Activating transcription factor 2, a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).

bHLH Basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors.

Brg1 Brahma-related gene 1, central motor component of SWI/SNF.

bZIP Basic zipper family of transcription factors.

CAR Constitutive androstane receptor.

CARM1 Coactivator and methyltransferase that methylates histones.

cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

CBPCREB-binding protein, 245 kDa, a coactivator.

C/EBPβ CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β, a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).

c-FosTranscription factor.

c-JunTranscription factor.

c-MycTranscription factor (see Table 4-1).

CREcAMP response element, a DNA sequence.

CREBCRE-binding protein, 43 kDa.

CTCFCCCTC-binding factor, a protein that binds insulator elements.

CTDC-terminal domain of the largest subunit of Pol II.

DNADeoxyribonucleic acid.

E boxSequence of six nucleotides (CANNTG, where N is any nucleotide) recognized by transcription factors MyoD and myogenin.

EGFEpidermal growth factor.

Egr-1Transcription factor (activator) that binds through zinc fingers to the same DNA site as WT-1 (repressor).

EKLFErythroid Kruppel-like factor (a transcription factor).

Elk-1Transcription factor.

EREstrogen receptor.

FGFFibroblast growth factor.

FXRBile acid receptor.

GAL4Yeast transcription factor that activates certain genes when yeast grows in galactose-containing media.

GASInterferon-γ activation site.

GATA-1Transcription factor.

GFAPGlial fibrillary acidic protein.

GRGlucocorticoid receptor.

GREGlucocorticoid response element.

HATHistone acetyltransferase.

HDACHistone deacetylase.

HIF-1α, HIF-1β Hypoxia-inducible factors.

HMTHistone methyltransferase.

HNF-1, HNF-3, HNF-4Transcription factors.

HP1Heterochromatin protein 1.

hsp9090-kDa heat shock protein, a molecular chaperone.

HTHHelix-turn-helix family of transcription factors.

IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ Interferons α, β, and γ.

IκB Inhibitor of κB.

IGF-1, IGF-2Insulin-related growth factors 1 and 2.

Inr“Initiator,” a promoter sequence in both TATA-containing and TATA-less genes.

IREIron response element.

ISREInterferon-stimulated response element.

JAK1, JAK2Janus kinases 1 and 2, protein tyrosine kinases.

LCRLocus control region, a site distant from the structural genes.

MAPK or MAP kinaseMitogen-activated protein kinase; also known as ERK-1, ERK-2 for extracellular signal–regulated kinase.

MBD1Methyl-CpG–binding protein 1.

MeCP2Binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides on DNA.

miRNA microRNA.

mRNAMessenger RNA.

MRMineralocorticoid receptor.

MyoDbHLH-type transcription factor.

N-CoRCorepressor of transcription; also known as SMRT.

NF-1Nuclear factor 1, a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).

NF-E2Nuclear factor E2, a heterodimeric protein complex composed of p45 and small Maf family proteins considered crucial for the proper differentiation of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes in vivo.

NF-κBNuclear factor κB, a transcription factor and protein complex responsible for regulating the immune response to infection.

NF-YNuclear factor Y, a ubiquitous multisubunit CCAAT-binding protein composed of three subunits: NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC.

NGFNerve growth factor.

NRENegative regulatory element.

Oct-1Ubiquitous DNA-binding protein that recognizes a DNA sequence called the octamer motif (see Table 4-1).

P boxSequence of six amino acids at the C terminus of a zinc finger.

p62TCFTernary complex factor, a transcription factor.

PDGFPlatelet-derived growth factor.

PEPCKPhosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis.

Pit-1HTH-type pituitary-specific transcription factor.

PML promyelocytic leukemia protein.

Pol IIRNA polymerase II, the polymerase that transcribes DNA to mRNA.

PPARPeroxisome proliferator–activated (i.e., lipid) receptor.

PRProgesterone receptor.

Pre-mRNAPrecursor mRNA, primary transcript of DNA, unprocessed.

P-TEFbPositive transcription elongation factor b, a kinase that phosphorylates the CTD of Pol II.

RARRetinoic acid receptor, which binds all-trans retinoic acid.

RARERetinoic acid response element.

RasLow-molecular-weight GTP-binding protein.

RIPRegulated intramembraneous proteolysis.

RISCRNA-induced silencing complex.

RITSRNA-induced transcriptional silencing.

RNARibonucleic acid.

RNAiRNA interference.

RNAPIIAlternative designation for RNA polymerase II (Pol II).

rRNA ribosomal RNA.

RTKReceptor tyrosine kinase.

RXRRetinoid X receptor, which, unlike RAR, binds 9-cis-retinoic acid.

Sin3A, Sin3BCorepressors.

siRNASmall interfering RNA.

snRNASmall nuclear RNA.

snRNPComplex of proteins and snRNA.

Sp1Stimulating protein 1, a transcription factor.

SRCSteroid receptor coactivator.

SREBPSterol regulatory element–binding protein.

SRFSerum response factor, a transcription factor.

STATSignal transducer and activator of transcription.

SUMOSmall ubiquitin-like modifier.

SWI/SNFMultiprotein complexes initially identified in yeast as “switching mating type/sucrose nonfermenting.”

SXRSteroid and xenobiotic receptor.

TAFTBP-associated factor.

TATA boxCommon gene promoter sequence.

TBPTATA-binding protein.

TFIIATranscription factor IIA.

TFIIBTranscription factor IIB.

TFIIDTranscription factor IID.

TFIIETranscription factor IIE.

TFIIFTranscription factor IIF.

TFIIHTranscription factor IIH.

THRAP1Thyroid hormone receptor–associated protein 1.

TRThyroid hormone receptor.

TRAP220Component of Mediator.

tRNATransfer RNA.

Tyk2Protein tyrosine kinase related to JAK.

UTRUntranslated region of mRNA.

VDRVitamin D receptor.

VEGFVascular endothelial growth factor.

VHLProtein that targets HIF-1α for proteasomal degradation.

VP16Viral protein from herpes simplex virus, a transcription factor.

WT-1Wilms tumor protein, a transcriptional repressor that binds through zinc fingers to the same DNA site as Egr-1 (activator).