AP-1 Activator protein 1, a heterodimer of, for example, c-Fos and c-Jun, that is a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).
AR Androgen receptor.
ATF-2 Activating transcription factor 2, a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).
bHLH Basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors.
Brg1 Brahma-related gene 1, central motor component of SWI/SNF.
bZIP Basic zipper family of transcription factors.
CAR Constitutive androstane receptor.
CARM1 Coactivator and methyltransferase that methylates histones.
cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
CBP CREB-binding protein, 245 kDa, a coactivator.
C/EBPβ CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β, a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).
c-Fos Transcription factor.
c-Jun Transcription factor.
c-Myc Transcription factor (see Table 4-1).
CRE cAMP response element, a DNA sequence.
CREB CRE-binding protein, 43 kDa.
CTCF CCCTC-binding factor, a protein that binds insulator elements.
CTD C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of Pol II.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid.
E box Sequence of six nucleotides (CANNTG, where N is any nucleotide) recognized by transcription factors MyoD and myogenin.
EGF Epidermal growth factor.
Egr-1 Transcription factor (activator) that binds through zinc fingers to the same DNA site as WT-1 (repressor).
EKLF Erythroid Kruppel-like factor (a transcription factor).
Elk-1 Transcription factor.
ER Estrogen receptor.
FGF Fibroblast growth factor.
FXR Bile acid receptor.
GAL4 Yeast transcription factor that activates certain genes when yeast grows in galactose-containing media.
GAS Interferon-γ activation site.
GATA-1 Transcription factor.
GFAP Glial fibrillary acidic protein.
GR Glucocorticoid receptor.
GRE Glucocorticoid response element.
HAT Histone acetyltransferase.
HDAC Histone deacetylase.
HIF-1α, HIF-1β Hypoxia-inducible factors.
HMT Histone methyltransferase.
HNF-1, HNF-3, HNF-4 Transcription factors.
HP1 Heterochromatin protein 1.
hsp90 90-kDa heat shock protein, a molecular chaperone.
HTH Helix-turn-helix family of transcription factors.
IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ Interferons α, β, and γ.
IκB Inhibitor of κB.
IGF-1, IGF-2 Insulin-related growth factors 1 and 2.
Inr “Initiator,” a promoter sequence in both TATA-containing and TATA-less genes.
IRE Iron response element.
ISRE Interferon-stimulated response element.
JAK1, JAK2 Janus kinases 1 and 2, protein tyrosine kinases.
LCR Locus control region, a site distant from the structural genes.
MAPK or MAP kinase Mitogen-activated protein kinase; also known as ERK-1, ERK-2 for extracellular signal–regulated kinase.
MBD1 Methyl-CpG–binding protein 1.
MeCP2 Binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides on DNA.
mRNA Messenger RNA.
MR Mineralocorticoid receptor.
MyoD bHLH-type transcription factor.
N-CoR Corepressor of transcription; also known as SMRT.
NF-1 Nuclear factor 1, a transcription factor (see Table 4-1).
NF-E2 Nuclear factor E2, a heterodimeric protein complex composed of p45 and small Maf family proteins considered crucial for the proper differentiation of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes in vivo.
NF-κB Nuclear factor κB, a transcription factor and protein complex responsible for regulating the immune response to infection.
NF-Y Nuclear factor Y, a ubiquitous multisubunit CCAAT-binding protein composed of three subunits: NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC.
NGF Nerve growth factor.
NRE Negative regulatory element.
Oct-1 Ubiquitous DNA-binding protein that recognizes a DNA sequence called the octamer motif (see Table 4-1).
P box Sequence of six amino acids at the C terminus of a zinc finger.
p62TCF Ternary complex factor, a transcription factor.
PDGF Platelet-derived growth factor.
PEPCK Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis.
Pit-1 HTH-type pituitary-specific transcription factor.
PML promyelocytic leukemia protein.
Pol II RNA polymerase II, the polymerase that transcribes DNA to mRNA.
PPAR Peroxisome proliferator–activated (i.e., lipid) receptor.
PR Progesterone receptor.
Pre-mRNA Precursor mRNA, primary transcript of DNA, unprocessed.
P-TEFb Positive transcription elongation factor b, a kinase that phosphorylates the CTD of Pol II.
RAR Retinoic acid receptor, which binds all-trans retinoic acid.
RARE Retinoic acid response element.
Ras Low-molecular-weight GTP-binding protein.
RIP Regulated intramembraneous proteolysis.
RISC RNA-induced silencing complex.
RITS RNA-induced transcriptional silencing.
RNA Ribonucleic acid.
RNAi RNA interference.
RNAPII Alternative designation for RNA polymerase II (Pol II).
rRNA ribosomal RNA.
RTK Receptor tyrosine kinase.
RXR Retinoid X receptor, which, unlike RAR, binds 9-cis-retinoic acid.
Sin3A, Sin3B Corepressors.
siRNA Small interfering RNA.
snRNA Small nuclear RNA.
snRNP Complex of proteins and snRNA.
Sp1 Stimulating protein 1, a transcription factor.
SRC Steroid receptor coactivator.
SREBP Sterol regulatory element–binding protein.
SRF Serum response factor, a transcription factor.
STAT Signal transducer and activator of transcription.
SUMO Small ubiquitin-like modifier.
SWI/SNF Multiprotein complexes initially identified in yeast as “switching mating type/sucrose nonfermenting.”
SXR Steroid and xenobiotic receptor.
TAF TBP-associated factor.
TATA box Common gene promoter sequence.
TBP TATA-binding protein.
TFIIA Transcription factor IIA.
TFIIB Transcription factor IIB.
TFIID Transcription factor IID.
TFIIE Transcription factor IIE.
TFIIF Transcription factor IIF.
TFIIH Transcription factor IIH.
THRAP1 Thyroid hormone receptor–associated protein 1.
TR Thyroid hormone receptor.
TRAP220 Component of Mediator.
tRNA Transfer RNA.
Tyk2 Protein tyrosine kinase related to JAK.
UTR Untranslated region of mRNA.
VDR Vitamin D receptor.
VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor.
VHL Protein that targets HIF-1α for proteasomal degradation.
VP16 Viral protein from herpes simplex virus, a transcription factor.
WT-1 Wilms tumor protein, a transcriptional repressor that binds through zinc fingers to the same DNA site as Egr-1 (activator).