Medical Physiology, 3rd Edition


Books and Reviews

Alpini G, McGill JM, Larusso NF. The pathobiology of biliary epithelia. Hepatology. 2002;35:1256–1268.

Anderson CM, Stahl A. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:516–528.

Ballatori N, Li N, Fang F, et al. OST alpha-OST beta: A key membrane transporter of bile acids and conjugated steroids. Front Biosci. 2009;14:2829–2844.

Chiang JY. Bile acids: Regulation of synthesis. J Lipid Res. 2009;50(10):1955–1966.

Claro da Silva T, Polli JE, Swaan PW. The solute carrier family 10 (SLC10): Beyond bile acid transport. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:252–269.

Davit-Spraul A, Gonzales E, Baussan C, Jacquemin E. The spectrum of liver diseases related to ABCB4 gene mutations: Pathophysiology and clinical aspects. Semin Liver Dis. 2010;30(2):134–146 [Epub April 26, 2010].

Ferrier B, Conjard A, Martin M, Baverel G. Glutamine synthesis is heterogeneous and differentially regulated along the rabbit renal proximal tubule. Biochem J. 1999;337:543–550.

Firrincieli D, Zuniga S, Poupon R, Housset C, Chignard N. Role of nuclear receptors in the biliary epithelium. Dig Dis. 2011;29(1):52–57.

Hagenbuch B, Stieger B. The SLCO (former SLC21) superfamily of transporters. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:396–412.

Kanai Y, Clémençon B, Simonin A, et al. The SLC1 high-affinity glutamate and neutral amino acid transporter family. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:108–120.

Kim H, Wu X, Lee J. SLC31 (CTR) family of copper transporters in health and disease. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:561–570.

Kipp H, Arias IM. Trafficking of canalicular ABC transporters in hepatocytes. Annu Rev Physiol. 2002;64:595–608.

Koepsell H. The SLC22 family with transporters of organic cations, anions and zwitterions. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:413–435.

Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B. Molecular and functional characterization of an organic anion transporting polypeptide cloned from human liver. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:1274–1282.

Kullak-Ublick GA, Stieger B, Meier PJ. Enterohepatic bile salt transporters in normal physiology and liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:322–342.

Palacin M, Estevez R, Bertran J, Zorzano A. Molecular biology of mammalian plasma membrane amino acid transporters. Physiol Rev. 1998;78:969–1054.

Rhainds D, Brissette L. The role of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in lipid trafficking. Defining the rules for lipid traders. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:39–77.

Sato R. Sterol metabolism and SREBP activation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;15;501(2):177–181.

Slot AJ, Molinski SV, Cole SP. Mammalian multidrug-resistance proteins (MRPs). Essays Biochem. 2011;50(1):179–207.

Small DM. Role of ABC transporters in secretion of cholesterol from liver into bile. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4–6.

Stieger B. The role of the sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) in physiology and pathophysiology of bile formation. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2011;201:205–259.

Svoboda M, Riha J, Wlcek K, et al. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): Regulation of expression and function. Curr Drug Metab. 2011;2(2):139–153.

Tao TY, Gitlin JD. Hepatic copper metabolism: Insights from genetic disease. Hepatology. 2003;37:1241–1247.

Theurl M, Theurl I, Hochegger K, et al. Kupffer cells modulate iron homeostasis in mice via regulation of hepcidin expression. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86(7):825–835.

Wang JF, Chou KC. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 and drug metabolism. Curr Drug Metab. 2010;11(4):342–346.

Xiao C, Lewis GF. Regulation of chylomicron production in humans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821(5):736–746 [Epub October 6, 2011].

Zhao C, Dahlman-Wright K. Liver X receptor in cholesterol metabolism. J Endocrinol. 2010;204(3):233–240.

Journal Articles

Bull LN, van Eijk MJT, Pawlikowska L. A gene encoding a P-type ATPase mutated in two forms of hereditary cholestasis. Nat Genet. 1998;18:219–224.

Chan LM, Lowes S, Hirst BH. The ABCs of drug transport in intestine and liver: Efflux proteins limiting drug absorption and bioavailability. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004;21:25–51.

Doege H, Baillie RA, Ortegon AM, et al. Targeted deletion of FATP5 reveals multiple functions in liver metabolism: Alterations in hepatic lipid homeostasis. Gastroenterology. 2006;130(4):1245–1258.

Gibbons GF. Regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis: Co-operation or competition? Prog Lipid Res. 2003;42:479–497.

Groen A, Romero MR, Kunne C, et al. Complementary functions of the flippase ATP8B1 and the floppase ABCB4 in maintaining canalicular membrane integrity. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(5):1927–1937 [e1-4].

Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ. Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization and functional characterization of a human liver Na+/bile acid cotransporter. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:1326–1331.

Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ. Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP/SLC21 family: Phylogenetic classification as OATP/SLCO superfamily, new nomenclature and molecular/functional properties. Pflugers Arch. 2004;447:653–665.

Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ. The superfamily of organic anion transporting polypeptides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1609:1–18.

Havel RJ, Hamilton RL. Hepatic catabolism of remnant lipoproteins: Where the action is. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:213–215.

Jonker JW, Schinkel AH. Pharmacological and physiological functions of the polyspecific organic cation transporters: OCT1, 2, and 3 (SLC22A1-3). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;308:2–9.

Oude Elferink RPJ, Meijer DKF, Kuipers F, et al. Hepatobiliary secretion of organic compounds: Molecular mechanisms of membrane transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1241:215–268.

Roach PJ. Glycogen and its metabolism. Curr Mol Med. 2002;2:101–120.

Roden M, Bernroider E. Hepatic glucose metabolism in humans—its role in health and disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;17:365–383.

Stanford KI, Bishop JR, Foley EM, et al. Syndecan-1 is the primary heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediating hepatic clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119(11):3236–3245.

van de Steeg E, Stránecký V, Hartmannová H, Nosková L, et al. Complete OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 deficiency causes human Rotor syndrome by interrupting conjugated bilirubin reuptake into the liver. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(2):519–528.

Wu AL, Coulter S, Liddle C, et al. FGF19 regulates cell proliferation, glucose and bile acid metabolism via FGFR4-dependent and independent pathways. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e17868.




Length (m)



Area of apical plasma membrane (m2)









Crypts or glands






Nutrient absorption



Active Na+ absorption



Active K+ secretion