Medical Physiology, 3rd Edition


Books and Reviews

Ackland JF, Schwartz NB, Mayo KE, Dodson RE. Nonsteroidal signals originating in the gonads. Physiol Rev. 1992;72:731–787.

Akingbemi BT. Estrogen regulation of testicular function. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;27:51–64.

Andersson K-E, Wagner G. Physiology of penile erection. Physiol Rev. 1995;75:191–236.

de Kretser D. Molecular Biology of Reproductive Systems: Molecular Biology of the Male Reproductive System. Academic Press: London; 1993.

Giuliano F. Neurophysiology of erection and ejaculation. J Sex Med. 2011;4(Suppl):310–315.

Hecht NB. Molecular mechanisms of male germ cell differentiation. Bioessays. 1998;20:555–561.

Mather JP, Moore A, Li RH. Activins, inhibins, and follistatins: Further thoughts on a growing family of regulators. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1997;215:209–222.

Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Saunders: Philadelphia; 2011.

Skinner MK. Cell-cell interaction in the testis. Endocrinol Rev. 1991;12:45–77.

Walters KA, Simanainen U, Handelsman DJ. Molecular insights into androgen actions in male and female reproductive function from androgen receptor knockout models. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16(5):543–558.

Journal Articles

Carter AJ, Ballard SA, Naylor AM. Effect of the selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in the anesthetized dog. J Urol. 1998;160:242–246.

Jones TM, Fang VS, Landau RL, Rosenfield R. Direct inhibition of Leydig cell function by estradiol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978;47:1368–1373.

Koraitim M, Schafer W, Melchior H, Lutzeyer W. Dynamic activity of bladder neck and external sphincter in ejaculation. Urology. 1977;10:130–132.

Ludwig DG. The effect of androgen on spermatogenesis. Endocrinology. 1950;46:453–481.

Ricci G, Perticarari S, Fragonas E, et al. Apoptosis in human sperm: Its correlation with semen quality and the presence of leukocytes. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2665–2672.

Sofikitis N, Giotitsas N, Tsounapi P, et al. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;109(3–5):323–330.





Upper motor neuron



Significantly impaired

Lower motor neuron



Less impaired