Medical Physiology, 3rd Edition


Books and Reviews

Capuco AV, Akers RM. The origin and evolution of lactation. J Biol.2009;8(4):37.

Elder K, Dale B. In Vitro Fertilization. Cambridge University Press.: Cambridge, UK; 2000.

Fuchs A-R. Physiology and endocrinology of lactation. Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone: New York; 1996:137–157.

Lamberts SWJ, Macleod RM. Regulation of prolactin secretion at the level of the lactotroph. Physiol Rev. 1990;70:279–318.

Mesiano S. The endocrinology of human pregnancy and fetal-placental neuroendocrine development. Strauss JF III, Barbieri RB. Yen and Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Saunders.: Philadelphia; 2009.

Moore TR, Reiter RC, Rebar RW, Baker VV. Gynecology and Obstetrics: A Longitudinal Approach. Churchill Livingstone: New York; 1993.

Petraglia F, Imperatore A, Challis JRG. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in pregnancy and parturition. Endocr Rev. 2010;31:783–816.

Ramsey EM, Eonner MW. Placental Vasculature and Circulation. WB Saunders: Philadelphia; 1980.

Stulc J. Placental transfer of inorganic ions and water. Physiol Rev. 1997;77:805–836.

Vonderhaar BK, Ziska SE. Hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression. Annu Rev Physiol. 1989;51:641–652.

Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 9th ed. WB Saunders: Philadelphia; 1998.

Yen SSC, Jaffe RB. Reproductive Endocrinology. WB Saunders: Philadelphia; 1986.

Young IR, Renfree MB, Mesiano S, et al. The Comparative Physiology of Parturition in Mammals. Norris C, Lopez A. Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates. Academic Press: San Diego; 2010.

Journal Articles

Fuch AR, Fuchs F, Husslein P, et al. Oxytocin receptors and human parturition: A dual role for oxytocin in the initiation of labor. Science. 1982;215:1396–1398.

Goebelsmann U, Jaffe RB. Oestriol metabolism in pregnant women. Acta Endocrinol. 1971;66:679–693.

Kao LC, Tulac S, Lobo S, et al. Global gene profiling in human endometrium during the window of implantation. Endocrinology. 2002;143(6):2119–2138.

Kuwabara Y, Takeda S, Mizuno M, Sakamoto S. Oxytocin levels in maternal and fetal plasma, amniotic fluid, and neonatal plasma and urine. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1987;241:13–23.

Liggins GC. Initiation of parturition. Br Med Bull. 1979;35:145–150.

McMaster MT, Librach CL, Zhou Y, et al. Human placental HLA-G expression is restricted to differentiated cytotrophoblasts. J Immunol.1995;154(8):3771–3778.

Merlino AA, Welsh TN, Tan H, et al. Nuclear progesterone receptors in the human pregnancy myometrium: Evidence that parturition involves functional progesterone withdrawal mediated by increased expression of PR-A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2007;92(5):1927–1933.

Perez A, Vela P, Masnick GS, Potter RG. First ovulation after childbirth: The effect of breast feeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972;114:1041–1047.

Rehman KS, Yin S, Mayhew BA, et al. Human myometrial adaptation to pregnancy: cDNA microarray gene expression profiling of myometrium from non-pregnant and pregnant women. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:681–700.

Tabibzadeh S, Babaknia A. The signals and molecular pathways involved in implantation, a symbiotic interaction between blastocyst and endometrium involving adhesion and tissue invasion. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:1579–1602.

Wigglesworth JS. Vascular organization of the human placenta. Nature. 1967;216:1120–1121.

Wilkening RB, Meschia G. Fetal oxygen uptake, oxygenation, and acid-base balance as a function of uterine blood flow. Am J Physiol. 1983;244:H749–H755.





Upper motor neuron



Significantly impaired

Lower motor neuron



Less impaired