Atlas of pathophysiology, 2 Edition

Glossary

Acanthosis nigrans

Darkening of the skin on the neck or under the arms

Acidemia

Abnormal acidity, or low pH, of the blood

Acidosis

Condition caused by accumulation of acid or depletion of the alkaline reserve in the blood and body tissues

Acinus

Any of the smallest lobules of a gland

Acromegaly

Abnormal enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland

Acropachy

Soft tissue swelling accompanied by underlying bone changes where new bone formation occurs

Acyanotic

Not characterized by or accompanied by cyanosis

Adenomyosis

Invasion of the muscular wall of the uterus by glandular tissue

Afterload

The force opposing ventricular contraction

Agranulocyte

Leukocyte (white blood cell) not containing granules or grains; includes lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells

Akinesia

Absence or loss of power of voluntary movement

Alkalemia

Abnormal alkalinity, or high pH, of the blood

Alkalosis

Abnormal condition of body fluids resulting from accumulation of base or from loss of acid without comparable loss of base

Allele

One of two or more different genes that occupy a corresponding position (locus) on matched chromosomes; allows for different forms of the same inherited characteristic

Alopecia

Hair loss

Amyloidosis

Disorder of unknown cause, in which insoluble protein fibers become deposited in tissues and organs, impairing their function

Anaphase

Third stage of division of the nucleus in meiosis or mitosis

Anaplasia

Loss of differentiation of cells; a characteristic of tumor cells

Aneurysm

Sac formed by localized vasodilation of the wall of an artery or vein

Angioedema

Localized edematous reaction of the dermis or subcutaneous or submucosal tissues

Angiography

Radiographic examination of vessels of the body

Anion

Ion carrying a negative charge

Anisocytosis

Presence of erythrocytes with abnormal variations in size

Ankylosis

Immobility and consolidation of a joint, often in an abnormal position; caused by disease, trauma, or surgical procedure

Anorexia

Lack of or loss of appetite for food

Anovulation

Absence of ovulation

Anoxia

Absence of oxygen in the tissues

Antibody

Immunoglobulin molecule that reacts only with the specific antigen that induced its formation in the lymph system

Antigen

Foreign substance, such as a bacteria or toxin, that induces antibody formation

Anuria

Complete cessation of urine formation by the kidney

Areflexia

Absence of reflexes

Arnold-Chiari syndrome

Congenital anomaly in which the cerebellum and medulla protrude through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal

Arousal

State of being ready to respond to sensory stimulation

Arteriosclerosis

Group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls

Arthralgia

Pain in a joint

Arthrodesis

Surgical fusion of a joint

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

Aspiration

Inhalation of mucus or vomitus into the respiratory tract; suctioning of fluid or gas from a body cavity

Asterixis

Motor disturbance marked by intermittent lapses of assumed posture; also known as liver flap

Atelectasis

Collapsed or airless state of the lung; may involve all or part of the lung

Atopy

Clinical hypersensitivity or allergy with a hereditary predisposition

Atrophy

Decrease in size or wasting away of a cell, tissue, organ, or body part

Autoimmune disorder

Disorder in which the body launches an immunologic response against itself

Autoinoculation

Inoculation with microorganisms from one's own body

Autosome

Any of the 22 pairs of chromosomes not concerned with determination of gender

Azotemia

Excess nitrogenous waste products in the blood

Babinski's reflex

Reflex action of the toes, normal during infancy, elicited by rubbing a firm substance on the sole of the foot, which results in dorsiflexion (upward bending) of the great toe and fanning of the smaller toes; after infancy, normal response is downward bending of all toes on the foot

Bacteria

One-celled microorganisms that have no true nucleus and reproduce by cell division

Bactericidal

Destructive to bacteria

Bacteriostatic

Preventing bacteria from multiplying or growing

Bacteriuria

Bacteria in the urine

Balanoposthitis

Inflammation of the glans penis and prepuce

Barotrauma

Injury caused by pressure

Benign

Not malignant or recurrent; favorable for recovery

Biopsy

Examination, usually microscopic, of tissue removed from the living body

P.421

Blepharospasm

Spasm of the orbicular muscle of the eyelid that completely closes eyelids

Bone

Hard, rigid form of connective tissue constituting most of the skeleton

Bone marrow

Soft organic material filling the cavities of bones

Bradykinin

Nonpeptide kinin formed from a plasma protein; a powerful vasodilator that increases capillary permeability, constricts smooth muscle, and stimulates pain receptors

Bronchiectasis

Chronic dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles with secondary infection, usually of the lower lung lobes

Bronchiolitis

Inflammation of the bronchioles

Bruch's membrane

Support structure on the inner side of the choroid

Brudzinski's sign

In meningitis, bending the patient's neck usually produces flexion of the knee and hip

Bulla

Space filled with air or fluid

Bursa

Fluid-filled sac or cavity in connective tissue near a joint; acts as a cushion

Cachexia

State of marked ill health and malnutrition

Carcinogen

Any substance that causes cancer

Carcinoma

Malignant growth made of epithelial cells; tends to infiltrate surrounding tissues and metastasize

Cardiac output

Volume of blood ejected by the heart per minute

Carphology

Involuntary picking at the bedclothes; seen in states of great exhaustion and grave fevers

Cartilage

Dense connective tissue consisting of fibers embedded in a strong, gel-like substance; supports, cushions, and shapes body structures

Cation

Ion carrying a positive charge

Cell-mediated immunity

Immune response that involves effector T lymphocytes and not the production of humoral antibody

Cercaria

Final, free-swimming stage of a trematode larva

Chemonucleolysis

Injection of the enzyme chymopapain (a chemolytic agent) into a herniated intervertebral disk

Chemotaxis

Response of leukocytes to products formed in immunologic reactions, wherein leukocytes are attracted to and accumulate at the site of the reaction

Cholangioma

Tumor of the bile ducts

Cholangitis

Inflammation of a bile duct

Cholecystectomy

Excision of the gallbladder

Choledochostomy

Creation of an opening into the common bile duct for drainage

Cholestasis

Stopped or decreased bile flow

Cholesteatoma

Cystlike mass filled with desquamating debris frequently including cholesterol, which occurs most commonly in the middle ear and mastoid region

Chondrocalcinosis

Deposition of calcium salts in the cartilage of joints

Chorea

Rapid, jerky involuntary movements

Choriocapillaries

Capillary layer of the choroid

Choroid

Thin membrane that covers the eyeball and supplies blood to the retina

Chromatin

The substance of the chromosomes, composed of deoxyribonucleic acid and basic proteins

Chvostek's sign

Spasm of the hyperirritable facial nerve induced by tapping the facial nerve in the region of the parotid gland

Claudication

Pain in the calves caused by reduced blood flow to the legs

Cognition

Process by which a person becomes aware of objects; includes all aspects of perception, thought, and memory

Commissurotomy

Surgical separation of adherent, thickened leaflets of the mitral valve

Complement system

Major mediator of inflammatory response; a functionally related system of 20 proteins circulating as inactive molecules

Congenital

Present at birth

Constipation

Condition in which feces in the bowel are too hard to pass easily

Cor pulmonale

Right ventricular hypertrophy with right-sided heart failure caused by pulmonary hypertension

Corrigan's pulse

Jerky pulse with full expansion and sudden collapse

Cremasteric reflex

Stimulation of the skin on the inner thigh retracts the testis on the same side

Crepitus

Crackling sound in the joints, skin, or lungs

Curettage

Scraping or collecting tissue from the wall of a body cavity

Cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by reduced hemoglobin in the blood

Cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder

Cytokines

Nonantibody proteins, secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some nonleukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators

Cytology

The study of cells, their origin, structure, function, and pathology

Cytotoxic

Destructive to cells

Debridement

Removal of all foreign material and diseased and devitalized tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed

Decortication

Surgical removal of the thick coating over an organ, such as lung or kidney

Demyelination

Destruction of a nerve's myelin sheath; prevents normal conduction

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Complication of diabetes mellitus that results from by-products of fat metabolism (ketones) when glucose isn't available for a fuel source in the body

Diaphoresis

Perspiration, especially profuse perspiration

Diarrhea

Frequent evacuation of watery stools caused by rapid movement of intestinal contents; results in poor absorption of water, nutritive elements, and electrolytes

Differentiation

Process of cells maturing into specific types

Diffusion

Spontaneous movement of molecules or other particles in a solution

Diplegia

Paralysis of like parts on either side of the body

Diploid

Cell with a full set of genetic material; a human diploid cell has 46 chromosomes

Diplopia

Double vision

Disjunction

Separation of chromosomes during cell division

P.422

Divarication

Separation into two parts or branches; bifurcation

Diverticula

Pockets of tissue that push out from the colon walls

Dominant gene

Gene that produces an effect in an organism regardless of the state of the corresponding allele

Dressler's syndrome

Pericarditis that develops weeks to several months after myocardial infarction or open heart surgery

Dysarthria

Imperfect articulation of speech caused by disturbances of muscular control

Dyscrasia

Condition related to a disease, usually referring to an imbalance of component elements

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

Dysplasia

Alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells

Dyspnea

Labored or difficult breathing

Dysthymia

Depression

Dysuria

Painful or difficult urination

Eclampsia

Potentially life-threatening disorder of pregnancy characterized by seizures, hypertension, generalized edema, and proteinuria

Ejection fraction

Measure of ventricular contractility

Embolism

Sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or a blood clot

Empyema

Accumulation of pus in a body cavity

Endocrine

Pertaining to internal hormone secretion by glands

Endogenous

Occurring inside the body

Endolymph

Fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the ear

Endotoxin

Toxin associated with the outer membranes of certain gram-negative bacteria

Epistaxis

Hemorrhage from the nose, usually caused by rupture of small vessels

Erythema marginatum

Nonpruritic, macular, transient rash on the trunk or inner aspects of the upper arms or thighs, that gives rise to red lesions with blanched centers

Erythrocyte

Red blood cell; carries oxygen to the tissues and removes carbon dioxide from them

Erythropoiesis

Production of red blood cells or erythrocytes

Estrogen

Female sex hormone

Exacerbation

Increase in the severity of a disease or any of its symptoms

Exanthem

Rash or skin eruption

Exocrine

External or outward secretion of a gland

Exogenous

Occurring outside the body

Exotoxin

Potent toxin formed and excreted by a bacterial cell, and found in the surrounding medium

Extracellular fluid

Fluid in the spaces outside the cells

Fetor hepaticus

Musty, sweetish breath characteristic of hepatic disease

Fubernaculum

Fibromuscular band that connects the testes to the scrotal floor

Fulguration

Destruction of tissue by high-frequency electricity

Fungate

Funguslike growth; growing rapidly like a fungus

Fungus

Nonphotosynthetic microorganism that reproduces asexually by cell division

Furunculosis

Occurrence of furuncles serially over weeks or months

Gait ataxia

Unsteady, uncoordinated walk, with a wide base and the feet turned out, coming down first on the heel and then on the toes with a double tap

Gap junctions

Channels through which ions and other small molecules pass

Gastrectomy

Excision of the stomach or a portion of it

Gastrostomy

Creation of an opening into the stomach for the purpose of administering food or fluids

Genome

Total of all genetic information included in a set of unreplicated chromosomes

Gibson murmur

Continuous murmur heard throughout systole and diastole in older children and adults caused by shunting of blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery

Gland

Organ composed of specialized cells that produce a secretion used in some other body part

Glomerulopathy

Any disease of the renal glomeruli

Glomerulosclerosis

Glomerular disease characterized by hardening of focal and segmental areas of the glomerulus

Glomerulus

Network of twisted capillaries in the nephron, the basic unit of the kidney; brings blood and waste products carried by blood to the nephron

Glucagon

Hormone released during the fasting state that increases blood glucose concentration

Gluconeogenesis

Formation of glucose from molecules that aren't carbohydrates, such as amino acids and glycerol

Glycogenolysis

Splitting of glycogen in the liver, yielding glucose

Glycosuria

Presence of glucose in the urine

Goblet cells

Mucus-secreting cells of the epithelial lining of the small intestine and respiratory passages

Granulocyte

Any cell containing granules, especially a granular leukocyte (white blood cell)

Granuloma

Any small nodular aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells or a similar collection of modified macrophages resembling endothelial cells, usually surrounded by lymphocytes, often with multinucleated giant cells

Hamartoma

Benign tumorlike nodule composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues normally present in the affected part

Haploid

Having half the normal number of chromosomes

Heberden's nodules

Small, hard nodules on the distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers in osteoarthritis

Hematemesis

Vomiting of blood

Hematoma

Localized collection of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue

Hematopoiesis

Production of red blood cells in the bone marrow

Hematuria

Blood in the urine

Hemochromatosis

Disorder of iron metabolism with excess deposition of iron in the tissues, bronze skin pigmentation, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus

Hemoglobin

Protein in erythrocytes that transports oxygen

Hemolysis

Red blood cell destruction

Hemostasis

Complex process whereby platelets, plasma, and coagulation factors interact to control bleeding

Hepatojugular reflux

Distention of the jugular vein induced by manual pressure over the liver

P.423

Hepatoma

Any tumor of the liver

Heterozygous

Genes having different alleles at the same site (locus)

Hirsutism

Abnormal hairiness

Histamine

An amine found in all body tissues that induces capillary dilation, which increases capillary permeability, lowers blood pressure, and causes contraction of most smooth muscle tissue, increased gastric acid secretion, and increased heart rate; also a mediator of immediate hypersensitivity

Homeostasis

Dynamic, steady state of internal balance in the body

Homologous genes

Gene pairs sharing a corresponding structure and position

Homozygous

Genes that have identical alleles for a given trait

Hormone

Chemical substance produced in the body that has a specific regulatory effect on the activity of specific cells or organs

Humoral immunity

Form of immunity in which B lymphocytes and plasma cells produce antibodies to foreign agents (antigens) and stimulate T lymphocytes to attack them (cellular immunity)

Hyperplasia

Excessive growth of normal cells that causes an increase in the volume of a tissue or organ

Hyperpnea

Increase in depth of breathing, which may be accompanied by an increased respiratory rate

Hyperreflexia

Exaggeration of reflexes

Hypertonic

Having an osmotic pressure greater than that of the solution with which it's compared

Hypertrichosis

Excessive hair growth

Hypertrophy

Increase in volume of tissue or organ caused by enlargement of existing cells

Hypervolemia

Abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid in the body

Hypoplasia

Incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue

Hypotonia

Abnormally low tonicity or strength

Hypotonic

Having an osmotic pressure lower than that of the solution with which it's compared

Hypovolemia

Abnormally low volume of circulating fluid in the body

Hypoxia

Reduction of oxygen in body tissues to below normal levels

Idiopathic

Occurring without known cause

Ileal conduit

Use of a segment of the ileum for the diversion of urinary flow from the ureters

Ileus

Failure of appropriate forward movement of bowel contents

Immunodeficiency

Disorder caused by inadequate immune response; caused by hypoactivity or decreased numbers of lymphoid cells

Immunoglobulin

Serum protein synthesized by lymphocytes and plasma cells that has known antibody activity

Intention tremor

Tremor occurring when one attempts voluntary movement

Interphase

Interval between two successive cell divisions

Interstitial fluid

Fluid between cells in tissues

Intertrigo

Erythematous skin eruption in such areas as the creases of the neck, folds of the groin and axillae, and beneath pendulous breasts

Intracellular fluid

Fluid inside each cell

Intrapleural

Within the pleura

Ion

Atom or group of atoms having a positive or negative electric charge

Ischemia

Decreased blood supply to a body organ or tissue

Isotonic

Solution having the same tonicity as another solution with which it's compared

Jaundice

Yellow discoloration of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions caused by hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments

Joint

Intersection of two or more bones; most provide motion and flexibility

Karyotype

Chromosomal arrangement of the cell nucleus

Kernig's sign

Sign of meningitis in which a patient in supine position can easily and completely extend the leg; patient in sitting position or lying with the thigh flexed upon the abdomen can't completely extend leg

Ketones

By-products of fat metabolism when glucose isn't available

Ketonuria

Excess of ketones in the urine

Koilonchyia

Abnormally thin nails that are concave from side to side, with the edges turned up

Korotkoff sound

Sound heard during auscultation of blood pressure

Kupffer's cells

Large, phagocytic cells lining the walls of the hepatic sinusoids

Kussmaul's respirations

Dyspnea characterized by increased rate and depth of respirations, panting, and labored respiration; seen in metabolic acidosis

Kussmaul's sign

Increased jugular vein distention on inspiration; caused by restricted right-sided filling

Kyphoscoliosis

Forward and lateral curvature of the spine

Lasègue's sign

In sciatica, pain in the back and leg elicited by passive raising of the heel from the bed with the knee straight

Leukapheresis

Selective removal of leukocytes from withdrawn blood, which is then retransfused into the donor

Leukocyte

White blood cell that protects the body against microorganisms causing disease

Leukocytosis

Increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood; generally caused by infection

Leukopenia

Reduction in the number of leukocytes in the blood

Leukotrienes

Group of compounds derived from unsaturated fatty acids; extremely potent mediators of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and inflammation

Lichenification

Thickening and hardening of the skin

Ligament

Band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilage, provides stability, strengthens joints, and limits or facilitates movement

Locus

Location on a chromosome

Lymph node

Structure that filters the lymphatic fluid that drains from body tissue and is later returned to the plasma

Lymphadenitis

Inflammation of one or more lymph nodes

Lymphedema

Chronic swelling of a body part from accumulation of interstitial fluid secondary to obstruction or surgical removal of lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes

P.424

Lymphocytes

Leukocytes produced by lymphoid tissue that participate in immunity

Lysozyme

Enzyme that can kill microorganisms or microbes

Macroglossia

Excessive size of the tongue

Macrophages

Highly phagocytic cells that are stimulated by inflammation

Malignant

Condition that becomes progressively worse and results in death

Megakaryocyte

Platelet precursor; the giant cell of bone marrow

Megaloureter

Congenital ureteral dilation without demonstrable cause

Meiosis

Process of cell division by which reproductive cells are formed

Menorrhagia

Heavy or prolonged menses

Merozoite

Stage in the life cycle of the malaria parasite

Mesorchium

Fold in the tissue between the testis and epididymis

Metabolic acidosis

Acidosis resulting from accumulation of keto acids in the blood at the expense of bicarbonate

Metabolic alkalosis

Disturbance in which the acid-base status shifts toward the alkaline because of uncompensated loss of acids, ingestion or retention of excess base, or potassium depletion

Metaphase

Stage of cell division in which the chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids, are arranged in the equatorial plane of the spindle

Metaplasia

Change in adult cells to a form abnormal for that tissue

Metastasis

Transfer of disease via pathogenic microorganisms or cells from one organ or body part to another not directly associated with it

Metrorrhagia

Episodes of vaginal bleeding between menses

Microembolus

Embolus of microscopic size

Micturition

Urination

Mitosis

Ordinary process of cell division in which each chromosome with all its genes reproduces itself exactly

Monocyte

Mononuclear, phagocytic leukocyte

Monoplegia

Paralysis of a single part

Monosomy

Presence of one chromosome less than the normal number

Morbidity

Condition of having a disease

Morphea

Condition in which connective tissue replaces skin and sometimes subcutaneous tissues

Mortality

Ratio of the total number of deaths to the total population

Mucolytic

Agent that acts by destroying mucus

Muscle

Bundle of long slender cells, or fibers, that has the power to contract and produce movement

Mutation

Permanent change in genetic material

Myalgia

Muscle pain

Myectomy

Excision of a muscle

Myelomatous cells

Increased number of immature plasma cells

Myolysis

Degeneration of muscle tissue

Myomectomy

Removal of tumors in the uterine muscle

Myotomy

Cutting or dissection of a muscle

Myxedema

Condition resulting from advanced hypothyroidism or defiency of thyroxine

Nausea

Unpleasant sensation with the tendency to vomit

Necrosis

Cell or tissue death

Neoplasm

Abnormal growth in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive

Nephrolithiasis

Condition marked by the presence of renal calculi

Nephron

Structural and functional unit of the kidney that forms urine

Neuritis

Inflammation of a nerve

Neurolysis

Freeing of nerve fibers by cutting the nerve sheath longitudinally

Neuron

Highly specialized conductor cell that receives and transmits electrochemical nerve impulses

Neutropenia

Neutrophil deficiency in the blood

Neutrophil

Granular leukocyte

Nevus

Circumscribed, stable malformation of the skin and oral mucosa

Nondisjunction

Failure of chromosomes to separate properly during cell division; causes an unequal distribution of chromosomes between the two resulting cells

Nystagmus

Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball

Obstipation

Intractable constipation

Oculogyric crises

Eyelids are fixed upward with involuntary tonic movements

Oligomenorrhea

Abnormally infrequent menses

Oliguria

Diminished urine secretion

Omentum

Fold of the peritoneum between the stomach and adjacent abdominal organs

Onychia

Inflammation of the nail bed

Onycholysis

Distal nail separated from the bed

Oophoritis

Inflammation of the ovary

Opisthotonos

Spasm in which the head and heels arch backward and the body bows forward

Opportunistic infection

Infection striking people with altered, weakened immune systems; caused by microorganism that doesn't ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain conditions

Opthalmoplegia

Ocular paralysis

Optic neuritis

Inflammation of the optic nerve

Orchiectomy

Excision of a testis

Orchiopexy

Surgical fixation of an undescended testis in the scrotum

Organelle

Structure in the cytoplasm that performs a specific function

Orthopnea

Ability to breathe easily only in the upright position

Orthostatic hypotension

Fall in blood pressure that occurs upon standing or when standing motionless in a fixed position

Osmolality

Concentration of a solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent

Osmolarity

Concentration of a solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution

Osseous

Of the nature or quality of bone

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells

Osteoclasts

Giant, multinuclear cells that reabsorb material from previously formed bones, tear down old or excess bone structure, and allow osteoblasts to rebuild new bone

Osteotomy

Surgical division and realignment of bone

Ostium primium

Opening in the lower portion of the membrane dividing the embryonic heart into right and left sides

P.425

Pancarditis

Concurrent myocarditis, pericarditis, and endocarditis

Pancytopenia

Abnormal depression of all the cellular elements of blood

Panmyelosis

Proliferation of all the elements of the bone marrow

Papilledema

Inflammation and edema of the optic nerve; associated with increased intracranial pressure

Paracentesis

Surgical puncture of a cavity for the aspiration of fluid

Parametritis

Inflammation of the parametrium

Paresthesia

Abnormal burning or prickling sensation

Paronchyia

Inflammation of the folds of tissue around the fingernail

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Respiratory distress related to posture (reclining at night) usually associated with heart failure and pulmonary edema

Pericardectomy

Surgical creation of an opening to remove accumulated fluid from the pericardial sac

Pericardiocentesis

Needle aspiration of the pericardial cavity

Perilymph

Fluid in the space separating the membranous and osseus labyrinths of the ear

Periosteum

Specialized connective tissue covering all bones and possessing bone-forming potential

Perseveration

Abnormally persistent replies to questions

Petechiae

Minute, round purplish red spots caused by intradermal or submucosal hemorrhage

Phagocyte

Cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign materials

Phagocytosis

Engulfing of microorganisms, other cells, and foreign material by a phagocyte

Phlebectomy

Removing a varicose vein through small incisions in the skin

Phlebography

Radiographic examination of a vein

Photoplethysmography

Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area

Pilosebaceous

Pertaining to the hair follicles and sebaceous glands

Plasmapheresis

Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood and retransfusion of the formed elements into the donor

Plethora

Edema and blood vessel distention

Polycythemia

Increase in the total red cell mass of the blood

Polydipsia

Excessive thirst

Polygenic traits

Determined by several different genes

Polymenorrhea

Menstrual cycle of less than eighteen days

Polyphagia

Excessive ingestion of food

Polyuria

Excessive excretion of urine

Preload

Volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole

Presbycusis

Progressive, symmetrical, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, usually of high frequency tones, caused by loss of hair cells in the organ of Corti

Pretibial edema

Nonpitting edema of the anterior surface of the legs, dermopathy

Prognathism

Projection of the jaw

Prophase

First stage of cell replication in meiosis or mitosis

Prostaglandins

Group of fatty acids that stimulate contractility of the uterine and other smooth muscle and have the ability to lower blood pressure, regulate acid secretion in the stomach, regulate body temperature and platelet aggregation, and control inflammation and vascular permeability

Protease inhibitor

Drug that binds to and blocks the action of the human immunodeficiency virus protease enzyme

Proteinuria

Excess of serum proteins in the urine

Pruritus

Itching

Ptosis

Paralytic drooping of the upper eyelid

Pulsus biferiens

Peripheral pulse with a characteristic double impulse

Pulsus paradoxus

Drop in systemic blood pressure that's greater than 15 mm Hg and coincides with inspiration

Pyloroplasty

Plastic surgery of the pylorus to create larger communication between the stomach and duodenum

Pyrosis

Heartburn

Pyuria

Pus in urine

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four limbs

Quincke's sign

Alternate blanching and flushing of the skin

Rcessive gene

Gene that doesn't express itself in the presence of its dominant allele

Red blood cell

Erythrocyte

Remission

Abatement of a disease's symptoms

Remyelination

Healing of demyelinated nerves

Renin

Enzyme produced by the kidneys in response to an actual decline in extracellular fluid volume

Resistance

Opposition to airflow in the lung tissue, chest wall, or airways; opposition to blood flow in the circulatory system

Respiratory acidosis

Acidosis resulting from impaired ventilation and retention of carbon dioxide

Respiratory alkalosis

Alkalosis caused by excessive excretion of carbon dioxide through the lungs

Romberg's sign

Tendency of a patient to sway while standing still with feet close together and eyes closed

Rubella syndrome

Exposure of a nonimmune mother to rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy

Salpingitis

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes

Sclerodactyly

Scleroderma of the fingers and toes

Sebum

Oily secretion of the sebaceous glands

Sepsis

Pathologic state resulting from microorganisms or their poisonous products in the bloodstream

Serositis

Inflammation of a serous membrane

Serotonin

Hormone and neurotransmitter that inhibits gastric acid secretion, stimulates smooth muscle, and produces vasoconstriction

Shunt

Passage or anastomosis between two natural channels

Specific gravity

Weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal amount of water

Status asthmaticus

Particularly severe episode of asthma

Steatorrhea

Excess fat in the feces caused by a malabsorption syndrome

P.426

Stenosis

Constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice

Stratum corneum epidermidis

Dead top layer of skin

Stroke volume

Amount of blood pumped out of the heart in a single contraction

Subcutaneous emphysema

Crackling beneath the skin on palpation

Subluxation

Incomplete or partial dislocation

Surfactant

Mixture of phospholipids that reduces the surface tension of pulmonary fluids and contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissue

Sympathectomy

Excision or interruption of some portion of the sympathetic nervous pathway

Synovectomy

Removal of destructive, proliferating synovium, usually, in the wrists, knees, and fingers

Synovial fluid

Viscous, lubricating substance secreted by the synovial membrane, which lines the cavity between the bones of free-moving joints

Telophase

Last of the four stages of mitosis or of the two divisions of meiosis

Tendon

Fibrous cord of connective tissue that attaches the muscle to bone or cartilage and enables bones to move when skeletal muscles contract

Tenotomy

Surgical cutting of the tendon

Teratogens

Agents or factors that can harm the developing fetus by causing congenital structural or functional defects

Thoracentesis

Surgical puncture and drainage of the thoracic cavity

Thrombocytopenia

Decreased number of platelets in circulating blood

Thrombocytosis

Excessive number of platelets in circulating blood

Thrombus

Blood clot

Thymoma

Tumor on the thymus gland

Tinea cruris

Fungal infection of the groin

Tinel's sign

Tingling over the median nerve on light percussion

Tophi

Accumulations of urate salts; occur throughout the body in gout

Torticollis

Abnormal contraction of the cervical muscles, producing torsion of the neck

Transcription

Synthesis of ribonucleic acid using a deoxyribonucleic acid template

Transient ischemic attack

Brief episode of neurologic deficit resulting from cerebral ischemia

Translocation

Alteration of a chromosome by attachment of a fragment to another chromosome or a different portion of the same chromosome

Trisomy

Presence of an extra chromosome

Trousseau's sign

Carpal spasm

Truss

Elastic, canvas, or metallic device for retaining a reduced hernia within the abdominal cavity

Vagotomy

Surgical interruption of the impulses carried by the vagus nerve or nerves

Vasculitis

Inflammation of a vessel

Ventriculatrial shunt

Drains fluid from the brain's lateral ventricle into the right atrium of the heart, where the fluid enters the venous circulation

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Transports excess fluid from the lateral ventricle into the peritoneal cavity

Virus

Microscopic, infectious parasite that contains genetic material and needs a host to replicate

Vitiligo

Absence of pigmentation

Wilms' tumor

Rapidly developing malignant mixed tumor of the kidneys, made up of embryonal elements; occurs mainly in children before age five

X-linked

Inheritance pattern in which single gene disorders are passed through sex chromosomes

Xanthoma

A papule, nodule, or plaque in the skin caused by lipid deposits


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